Folarin Kolawole

Folarin Kolawole
Columbia University | CU · Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences

MS, PhD

About

66
Publications
15,825
Reads
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367
Citations
Introduction
Structural geologist, investigating crustal deformation by integrating field observation, geophysics, & geomechanics. My current interests are in 1) strain accommodation during early-stage continental extension [Natural Lab.: East African & Rio Grande Rifts], and 2) the structural styles and reactivation mechanics of basement-rooted faults associated with natural & induced seismicity [Natural Lab.: Central & Eastern U.S., Western & Southern Africa].
Additional affiliations
November 2021 - June 2022
Lamont - Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University
Position
  • Research Associate
August 2020 - May 2022
BP
Position
  • Upstream Geologist
August 2017 - August 2020
University of Oklahoma
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
August 2017 - May 2020
University of Oklahoma
Field of study
  • Geophysics
August 2015 - July 2017
September 2003 - August 2008

Publications

Publications (66)
Article
Full-text available
We integrated temporal aeromagnetic data and recent earthquake data to address the long-standing question on the role of pre-existing Precambrian structures in modulating strain accommodation and subsequent ruptures leading to seismic events within the East African Rift System (EARS). We used aeromagnetic data to elucidate the relationship between...
Article
Full-text available
Recent widespread seismicity in Oklahoma is attributed to the reactivation of pre-existing, critically stressed and seismically unstable faults due to decades of wastewater injection. However, the structure and properties of the reactivated faults remain concealed by the sedimentary cover. Here, we explore the major ingredients needed to induce ear...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about rift kinematics and strain distribution during the earliest phase of extension due to the deep burial of the pre-rift and earliest rift structures beneath younger, rift-related deposits. Yet, this exact phase of basin development ultimately sets the stage for the location of continental plate divergence and breakup. Here, we i...
Article
We integrate new high-resolution aeromagnetic data with seismic reflection data, well logs, satellite remote sensing, and field observations to provide a regional view of buried and exposed structures in the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen and to assess their potential for future seismicity. Trends ranging from NW−SE to ∼E−W, peaking at 330° ± 4.5° and...
Article
We investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of strain accommodation during multiphase rift evolution in the Shire Rift Zone (SRZ), East Africa. The NW-trending SRZ records a transition from magma-rich rifting phases (Permian-Early Jurassic: Rift-Phase 1 (RP1), and Late Jurassic-Cretaceous: Rift-Phase 2 (RP2)) to a magma-poor phase in the Cenozoic (o...
Article
Tectonic and paleo‐environmental reconstructions of rift evolution typically rely on the interpretation of sedimentary sequences, but this is rarely possible in early‐stage rifts where sediment volumes are low. To overcome this challenge, we use geomorphology to investigate landscape evolution and the role of different forcing mechanisms during bas...
Article
Full-text available
One of the fundamental problems in continental rift segmentation and propagation is how strain is accommodated along large rift-bounding faults (border faults) since the segmentation of propagating border faults control the expression of rift zones, syn-rift depo-centers, and long-term basin evolution. In the Southern Malawi Rift, where previous st...
Preprint
Full-text available
A rift is a nascent plate boundary where the continental lithosphere is extended and possibly broken. In this review, we focus on fundamental rift processes and how they evolve through time. We aim at providing a modular overview of the driving forces, resisting factors, and weakening processes as well as how their interaction generates the large v...
Preprint
We investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of strain accommodation during multiphase rift evolution in the Shire Rift Zone (SRZ), East Africa. The NW-trending SRZ records a transition from magma-rich rifting phases (Permian-Early Jurassic: Rift-Phase 1 (RP1), and Late Jurassic-Cretaceous: Rift-Phase 2 (RP2)) to a magma-poor phase in the Cenozoic (o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Active fault data are commonly used in seismic hazard assessments, but there are challenges in deriving the slip rate, geometry, and frequency of earthquakes along active faults. Herein, we present the open-access geospatial Malawi Seismogenic Source Database (MSSD), which describes the seismogenic properties of faults that have formed during East...
Article
Full-text available
On September 5-7, 2018, a series of tremors were reported in Nigeria's capital city, Abuja. These events followed a growing list of tremors felt in the stable intraplate region, where earthquakes are not expected. Here, we review available seismological, geological, and geodetic data that may shed light on the origin of these tremors. First, we inv...
Article
Although much is known about the interaction of faulting and sedimentation within the basins of active segmented continental rift systems, little is known about these processes within the interaction zones of varying geometries that separate the young interacting segments. We address this problem by exploring the non‐volcanic rift interaction zones...
Article
Due to a decade of wastewater injection-triggered seismicity, the crystalline basement of northern Oklahoma has become the subject of intensive research, almost all of which has relied upon remote sensing or analog models and materials due to a near total absence of outcrops. This study reports relevant characteristics of material in drill cores fr...
Preprint
Full-text available
On September 5-7, 2018, a series of tremors were reported in Nigeria's capital city, Abuja. These events followed a growing list of tremors felt in the stable intra-plate region, where earthquakes are not expected. Here, we review available seismological, geological, and geodetic data that may shed light on the origin of these tremors. First, we in...
Preprint
We present the Malawi Active Fault Database (MAFD), a geospatial database of 114 active fault traces in Malawi, and in neighboring Tanzania and Mozambique. The MAFD has been developed from a multidisciplinary dataset: high resolution digital elevation models, field observations, aeromagnetic and gravity data, and seismic reflection surveys from off...
Preprint
Full-text available
Little is known about rift kinematics and strain distribution during the earliest phase of extension due to the deep burial of the pre-rift and earliest rift structures beneath younger, rift-related deposits. Yet, this exact phase of basin development ultimately sets the stage for the location of continental plate divergence and breakup. Here, we i...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Oil and gas operations in sedimentary basins have revealed the occurrence of significant temperature anomalies at depth, raising the possibility of major geothermal resource potential in the sedimentary sequences. The efficient development of such a resource may require enhancement by hydraulic stimulation. However, effective stimulation r...
Preprint
Although much is known about the interaction of faulting and sedimentation within the basins of active segmented continental rift systems, little is known about these processes within the interaction zones of varying geometries that separate the young interacting segments. We address this problem in the humid, magma-poor juvenile western branch of...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial increase in the occurrence of injection-induced seismicity across Central and Eastern United States in the past decade, has highlighted a need for novel approaches to geophysical subsurface imaging of potentially seismogenic faults. Active clusters of seismicity illuminate linear fault segments within the sedimentary cover and crystalli...
Article
Patterns of recent seismogenic fault reactivation in the granitic basement of north-central Oklahoma necessitates an understanding of the structural characteristics of the inherited basement-rooted faults. One area is the Nemaha Uplift and Fault Zone (NFZ) in north-central Oklahoma. We have analyzed the top-basement and intrabasement structures in...
Preprint
Structures rooted in the crystalline basement frequently control the deformation of the host bedrock and the overlying sedimentary sequences. Here, we elucidate the structure of the c. 2‐km deep Precambrian granitic basement in the Anadarko Shelf, Oklahoma, and how the propagation of basement faults deformed the sedimentary cover. Although the basi...
Article
There remains a limited understanding of the controls of pre‐existing structures on the architecture of deep‐water progradational sequences. In the Northern Taranaki Basin (NTB), New Zealand, Pliocene post‐extensional sedimentary sequences overlie Miocene back‐arc volcaniclastic units. We utilize seismic reflection datasets to investigate the relat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Oil and gas operations in sedimentary basins have revealed significant temperatures at depth, raising the possibility of major geothermal resource potential in the sedimentary sequences. The efficient development of such a resource may require enhancement by hydraulic stimulation. However, effective stimulation relies on an initial assessment of in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The 3 April 2017 Moiyabana intra-plate earthquake in central Botswana occurred in a region that, until then, had been assumed to be seismically quiet. Its location away from the East African Rift system in a Proterozoic mobile belt between Archean Cratons has raised questions on the triggering mechanism and sparked various studies investigating the...
Article
Structures rooted in the crystalline basement frequently control the deformation of the host bedrock and the overlying sedimentary sequences. Here, we elucidate the structure of the ~ 2 km‐deep Precambrian granitic basement in the Anadarko Shelf, Oklahoma, and how the propagation of basement faults deformed the sedimentary cover. Although the basin...
Article
Full-text available
Fault location and geometry are critical considerations in the reactivation of pre‐existing faults. Here, we combine relocated earthquake catalogs and focal mechanisms to delineate seismogenic faults in Oklahoma and southern Kansas and analyze their stress state. We first identify and map seismogenic faults based on earthquake clustering. We then o...
Article
Full-text available
Our understanding of how magma‐poor rifts accommodate strain remains limited largely due to sparse geophysical observations from these rift systems. To better understand the magma‐poor rifting processes, we investigate the lithospheric structure of the Malawi Rift, a segment of the magma‐poor Western Branch of the East African Rift System. We analy...
Article
Full-text available
The Rukwa and North Malawi Rift Segments (RNMRS) both define a major rift-oblique segment of the East African Rift System (EARS) and are often regarded as discrete rifts due to the presence of the uplifted Mbozi block between them. Here, we investigate the influence of basement fabrics on the coupling and linkage of border faults across an inter-ri...
Article
https://explorer.aapg.org/story/articleid/52148/the-intra-basement-reflectors-in-the-stack-area-of-oklahoma
Article
We explore the role of Coulomb stress transfer in the fault reactivation in Woodward, Oklahoma – a wastewater injection area. We address this issue by first defining fault segments from earthquake spatiotemporal clustering, then parameterizing the geometries of each segment by combining seismicity and focal mechanisms. Finally, we calculate Coulomb...
Preprint
The Rukwa Rift and North Malawi Rift Segments (RNMRS) both define a major rift-oblique segment of the East African Rift System (EARS), and although the two young rifts show colinear approaching geometries, they are often regarded as discrete rifts due to the presence of the intervening Mbozi Block uplift located in-between. This problem has been co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Our understanding of how magma poor rifts accommodate strain remains limited largely due to sparse geophysical data from these rift systems. In order to understand the rifting processes of magma poor rifts, we investigate the lithospheric structure of the Malawi Rift, which is part of the East African Rift System. We analyzed satellite gravity data...
Article
Full-text available
Fault interpretation is an important step in seismic structural interpretation and has a bearing on the quantitative interpretation that may eventually be carried out. This requires the meaningful recognition of the faults within the proper geological context of the area. In Oklahoma, we see wrench faulting with strike-slip faults and other associa...
Article
Full-text available
Seismic events of varying magnitudes have been associated with ruptures along unknown or incompletely-mapped buried faults. The 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake caused a surface rupture length of 14–18 km along a single W-dipping fault (St. Mary Fault) on the hanging wall of the North Basin of the Malawi Rift. Prior to this earthquake, there...
Preprint
Key Points:1. Filtered aeromagnetic data elucidates the relationship between earthquake surface ruptures and buried faults along the North Basin hinge-zone, Malawi Rift.2. Fault segments align with basement shear zone fabric.3. Strain accommodation in the North Basin hinge zone is modulated by reactivation of the underlying Precambrian shear zone f...
Research
In this episode we talk with Folarin Kolawole from the University of Oklahoma about his research into how the reactivation of faults can lead to earthquakes in places where they’ve never before occurred in recorded history. He co-authored the article “Aeromagnetic, gravity, and Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar analyses reveal t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Unknown buried faults have been known to host some of the most devastating seismic events in historical time. Often the damage zones of these earthquakes are associated with surface ruptures of the causative fault and liquefaction-induced surface deformations. Here, we use aeromagnetic data to highlight the importance of integrating electrical and...
Conference Paper
In Central Oklahoma, the recent earthquakes of Mw > 5, occurred along unknown faults, and most of the seismicity is localized within the crystalline basement. To better characterize the seismicity in Oklahoma, we explore the basement structure with emphasis on intra-basement faults by utilizing aeromagnetic and gravity data, with complementary fiel...
Article
Full-text available
On April 3, 2017, a Mw 6.5 earthquake struck Moiyabana, Botswana nucleating at >20 km focal depth within the Paleoproterozoic Limpopo-Shashe orogenic belt separating the Archean Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal cratons. We investigate the lithospheric structures associated with this earthquake using high resolution aeromagnetic and gravity data integrated wit...
Presentation
Full-text available
Augmented reality (AR) is the direct addition of virtual information through an interface to a real-world environment. In practice, through a mobile device such as a tablet or smartphone, information can be projected onto a target- for example, an image on a poster. Mobile devices are widely distributed today such that augmented reality is easily a...
Article
Full-text available
The Mw 5.8 Pawnee, Oklahoma, earthquake on 3 September 2016 produced the largest moment release associated with induced seismicity in the southcentral United States. The earthquake ruptured a previously unknown west‐northwest–east‐southeast‐trending left‐lateral strike‐slip fault, named the Sooner Lake fault (SLF). Unlike the previous earthquakes i...
Article
Full-text available
The Idanre Hills comprise many elongate, steep-sided, and dome-shaped porphyritic granite inselbergs with an average elevation of about 3,000m asl. The area is part of the many batholiths and stocks which intruded preexisting metasediments during the Pan African Orogeny (550 +/- 50 Ma). Apart from the existence of massive rock outcrops, field studi...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the regional tectonic fabric of the basement underlying Akure area and their hydrological implications for the Akure metropolis, using satellite remote sensing data and secondary geophysical information. Structural geological information was extracted from a Landsat ETM+ image covering Akure area. Since the study area is densely built-up...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation of the length and orientation of the lineaments within Idanre area indicated that the dominant trend is ENE-WSW (80°- 90°) - oblique to the long-axis of the batholith; while another is at NNWSSE (170°-180°) and NNE-SSW (0°-10°) - parallel to the long-axis of the batholith. The ENE-WSW fractures represent those that developed due to shrin...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation of the length and orientation of the lineaments within Idanre area indicated that the dominant trend is ENE-WSW (80°–90°), oblique to the long-axis of the batholith; while another is at NNW-SSE (170°-180°) and NNE-SSW (0°-10°) - parallel to the long-axis of the batholith. The ENE-WSW fractures represent those that developed due to shrink...
Article
Full-text available
Spheroidal weathering of granites in Akure-Ado axis have resulted in the formation of talus caves as well as smooth rock boulders which are dramatically arranged, thereby giving the formation an overall aesthetic value to the observer. Unique talus boulders exist in Akure inselbergs, southern margin of the Ikere-Ado batholith. This paper looks at t...
Article
The Ifewara-Zungeru megastructure is an over 550-km long NNE-SSW trending fault stretching from the south just east of Ijebu Ode, through Ifewara and Okemesi to the southwestern edge of the River Niger around Lafiagi. It reappears beneath the sediments of the Nupe Basin and extends northeastwards for over 300 km, through Zungeru to Kalangai. Detail...

Projects

Projects (7)
Project
Curstal structure
Project
The series is motivated by the high likelihood that normal conferences won't go back to business-as-usual very soon. So we see this webinar as an opportunity to keep the exchange of ideas going within the scientific community surrounding rifts and rifted margins. Each seminar session will be organised as a one-hour Zoom Meeting with 3 short talks (10-12 min) belonging to one scientific topic. There will be 3-5 minutes of public discussion after each talk. The seminar will take place on Monday 16:00 CET every two weeks with the same format but on a different topic. Recorded presentations are available here: https://www.youtube.com/c/RiftandRiftedMarginsOnlineSeminar Live meeting attendance links and session schedules are distributed through a dedicated webinar mailing list. To receive updates, simply subscribe at https://www.listserv.dfn.de/sympa/subscribe/riftwebinar .
Project
To investigate the structure and mechanical weaknesses of pre-existing intra-basement and basement-rooted intra-sedimentary faults in areas of: 1. Natural intraplate seismicity [Western and Southern Africa; SW Oklahoma] 2. Anthropogenically-induced seismicity [Natural Laboratory: Central & Eastern US]