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Florian Schmiedek

Florian Schmiedek
DIPF | Leibniz Institute for Research and Information in Education

About

170
Publications
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6,748
Citations

Publications

Publications (170)
Article
Objective: Breathing exercises have been proposed as an effective intervention to improve subjective well-being and manage anxiety symptoms. As they are comparatively easy to learn and to implement, breathing exercises may be particularly beneficial for children. Although breathing exercises are ultimately supposed to provide salutary effects in i...
Preprint
Self-regulation was found to be positively associated with school performance. Interrelations between self-regulation, working memory (WM), and achievement goals, in particular mastery goals, have been established, as well as associations with academic outcomes. It stands to reason that self-regulation, WM, achievement goals and academic success ar...
Article
Full-text available
Resilience describes successful adaptation in the face of adversity, commonly inferred from trajectories of well‐being following major life events. Alternatively, resilience was conceptualized as a psychological trait, facilitating adaptation through stable individual characteristics. Both perspectives may relate to individual differences in how st...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive performance is both heritable and sensitive to environmental inputs and sustained practice over time. However, it is currently unclear how genetic effects on cognitive performance change over the course of learning. We examine how polygenic scores (PGS) created from genome-wide association studies of educational attainment and cognitive p...
Article
Full-text available
Various theoretical accounts suggest that within-person effects relating to everyday experiences (assessed, e.g., via experience sampling studies or daily diary studies) are a central element for understanding between-person differences in future outcomes. In this regard, it is often assumed that the within-person effect of a time-varying predictor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Intensive longitudinal studies typically examine phenomena that vary across time, individuals, contexts, and other boundary conditions. This poses challenges to the conceptualization and identification of replicability and generalizability, which refer to the invariance of research findings across samples and contexts as crucial criteria for trustw...
Article
The learning process is affected by manifold individual and contextual influences, among them motivation and emotion. Rather than being stable over time and the same under all circumstances, academic motivation and emotions vary and change in complex and dynamic ways. Understanding such processes requires research approaches that capture students'...
Article
Objectives: Childhood maltreatment affects 20-30% of the German population and is an important risk factor for physical and mental diseases in adult life. This study reports first results of the distribution of childhood maltreatment in the population-based mega cohort German National Cohort (NAKO) and estimates associations with affective symptom...
Article
Achievement goals have been linked to achievement in various educational settings. The present work explored day-to-day variations in achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, performance-avoidance) and their associations with daily experiences of academic success and failure. Ambulatory assessment data from 108 students in Grade 5 were col...
Article
Objectives: To describe the cognitive test battery of the German National Cohort (NAKO), a population-based mega cohort of 205,000 randomly selected participants, and to examine associations with demographic variables and selected psychiatric and neurological conditions. Methods: Initial data from 96,401 participants providing data on the cognit...
Article
Objectives. Evaluate the block-adaptive number series task of reasoning, as a time-efficient proxy of general cognitive ability in the Level-2 sample of the German National Cohort (NAKO), a population-based mega cohort.Methods. The number series task consisted of two blocks of three items each, administered as part of the touchscreen-based assessme...
Article
Study Objectives: Sleep duration affects various aspects of cognitive performance, such as working-memory and learning, among children and adults. However, it remains open, whether similar or even stronger associations exist in old and very old age when changes in sleep and cognitive decrements are common. Methods: Using repeated daily-life assess...
Article
Most psychological interventions have to be administered repeatedly to be effective, but what is the optimal frequency? The answer will depend on how quickly the effects build up and wear off between intervention prompts. We investigated these temporal dynamics in a popular self-regulation intervention: implementation intentions. We combined a nove...
Article
To slow down the spread of the COVID-19 virus, schools around the world were closed in early 2020, transferring children's scholastic activities to the homes and imposing a massive burden on parents and school-age children. Using data of a 21-day diary study conducted between March and April 2020 in Germany, this work examined whether (a) distance...
Article
Full-text available
Personalized education—the systematic adaptation of instruction to individual learners—has been a long-striven goal. We review research on personalized education that has been conducted in the laboratory, in the classroom, and in digital learning environments. Across all learning environments, we find that personalization is most successful when re...
Article
Full-text available
High sleep quality has been associated with beneficial outcomes across the life span. Intensive longitudinal studies suggest that these beneficial effects can also be observed on a day-to-day level. However, the dynamic interplay between subjective sleep quality and affective well-being in children's daily life has only rarely been investigated. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Recent theoretical accounts on the causes of trait change emphasize the potential relevance of states. In the same vein, reactions to daily stress have been shown to prospectively predict change in well-being, speaking for the proposition that state dynamics can be a precursor to long-term change in more stable individual-differences characteristic...
Article
Full-text available
Rumination and worry are common forms of perseverative cognition in children. Research has started to target perseverative cognitions in the everyday life of children, however, valid measurement instruments reliably capturing rumination and worry in children's daily life are still missing. We conducted two ambulatory assessment studies validating s...
Article
Objectives: How susceptible older adults’ affect is to fluctuations in health (i.e., health sensitivity) indicates how well they adapt to everyday health challenges. Theory and evidence are inconsistent as to whether older adults are more or less health sensitive than younger adults. The role of health burden as correlate and outcome of health sens...
Article
Objectives: This study investigated how COVID-19-related media exposure during the COVID-19 crisis was related to same-day and next-day COVID-19-related worries. Design: A 21-day diary study was conducted between late March and late April 2020 in Germany. Main outcome measures: Hypotheses were tested in a sample of 561 participants (Mage = 42....
Article
Full-text available
As a means to counter the SARS-CoV‑2 pandemic, schools were closed throughout Germany between mid-March and end of April 2020. Schooling was translocated to the students' homes where students were supposed to work on learning tasks provided by their teachers. Students' self-regulation and attributes of the learning tasks may be assumed to have play...
Preprint
Full-text available
Various theoretical accounts suggest that within-person effects relating to everyday experiences (assessed, e.g., via experience sampling studies or daily diary studies) are a central element for understanding between-person differences in future outcomes. In this regard, it is often assumed that the within-person effect of a time-varying predictor...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Although meaning‐making and specifically autobiographical reasoning are expected to relate to well‐being, findings tend to be mixed. Attempts at meaning making do not always lead to meaning made. We aimed to disentangle these complex relationships and also explore the role of level of education. Method Ninety participants (mean age 36.73...
Article
Full-text available
Anticipatory stress can prospectively and negatively influence diverse outcomes, including cognitive performance and emotional well-being. It has been suggested that perseverative cognitions (e.g., worry, rumination) during the anticipation period constitute a key mechanism driving these effects. The present study investigated the temporal dynamics...
Article
Full-text available
The association between academic self-concept and achievement is assumed to be reciprocal. Although a large amount of research has been interpreted as demonstrating a bidirectional association, these results are typically based on variants of the classical cross-lagged panel model and often include only one achievement indicator in the models. Resu...
Preprint
Full-text available
High sleep quality has been associated with beneficial outcomes across the lifespan. Intensive longitudinal studies suggest that these beneficial effects can also be observed on a day-to-day level. However, the dynamic interplay between subjective sleep quality and affective well-being in children’s daily life has only rarely been investigated. The...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of daily parental autonomy support on changes in child behavior, family environment, and parental well‐being across 3 weeks during the COVID‐19 pandemic in Germany. Day‐to‐day associations among autonomy‐supportive parenting, parental need fulfillment, and child well‐being were also assessed. Parents (longitudinal N...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has shown a positive association between education and well-being. Much of this research has focused on the cognitive component of well-being (i.e., life satisfaction) as outcome. On the other hand, the affective component, that is, how often and intensively people experience positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in their ever...
Chapter
Cognitive training research faces a number of methodological challenges. Some of these are general to evaluation studies of behavioral interventions, like selection effects that confound the comparison of treatment and control groups with preexisting differences in participants’ characteristics. Some challenges are also specific to cognitive traini...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most psychological interventions have to be administered repeatedly to be effective, but what is the optimal frequency? The answer will depend on how quickly the effects build up and wear off between intervention sessions. We investigated these temporal dynamics in a popular self-regulation intervention – implementation intentions. We combined a no...
Article
Sociometer theory proposes that a person’s self-esteem is a permanent monitor of perceived social inclusion and exclusion in a given situation. Despite this within-person perspective, respective research in children’s everyday lives is lacking. In three intensive longitudinal studies, we examined whether children’s self-esteem was associated with s...
Preprint
Full-text available
The association between academic self-concept and achievement is assumed to be reciprocal. Although a large amount of research has been interpreted as demonstrating a bidirectional association, these results are typically based on variants of the classical cross-lagged panel model and often include only one achievement indicator in the models. Resu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Digital phenotyping promises to unobtrusively obtaining a continuous and objective input of symptomatology from patients’ daily lives. The prime example are bipolar disorders, as smartphone parameters directly reflect bipolar symptomatology. Empirical studies, however, have yielded inconsistent findings. We believe that three main short...
Preprint
Full-text available
To slow down the spread of the COVID-19 virus, schools around the world were closed in early 2020, transferring children’s scholastic activities to the homes and imposing a massive burden on parents and school-aged children. Using data of a 21-day diary study conducted between March and April 2020 in Germany, this work examined whether homeschoolin...
Preprint
Achievement goals have been linked to achievement in various educational settings. The present work explored day-to-day variations in achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance-approach, performance-avoidance) and their associations with intrinsic motivation in school and daily experiences of success and failure. Ambulatory assessment data...
Article
Objective When confronted with major threats, people often experience decline in well‐being. The central purpose of this study was to identify mechanisms underlying change of well‐being in times of threat, using the example of the COVID‐19 pandemic, with a focus on appraisals of the pandemic and affective states, stress, as well as mindfulness in d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rumination and worry are common forms of perseverative cognitions in children. Research has started to target perseverative cognitions in the everyday life of children, however, valid measurement instruments reliably capturing rumination and worry in children’s daily life are still missing. We conducted two ambulatory assessment studies validating...
Preprint
Full-text available
Secondary school transition represents a challenging life event. This study examines108 children in Germany during the first 12 weeks of adapting to the new school. Daily satisfaction and frustration of the basic need for relatedness were examined aspredictors of subjective well-/ill-being and adjustment/psychopathology. Subjectivewell-/ill-being w...
Preprint
Full-text available
As a means to counter the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, schools were closed throughout Germany between mid-March and end of April 2020. Schooling was translocated to the students’ homes and students were supposed to work on learning tasks provided by their teachers. Students’ self-regulation and attributes of the learning tasks may be assumed to have played...
Article
The transition from primary to secondary school represents a challenging life event. This study examined 108 children (age M = 10.11 years, SD = 0.44) in Germany during the first 12 weeks at a new school. Daily satisfaction and frustration of the basic need for relatedness were examined as predictors of subjective well-being versus ill-being and ad...
Preprint
Intro: When confronted with major threats such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people often experience (temporary) decline in well-being. The central purpose of this study was to identify mechanisms underlying stability and change of well-being in times of threat like the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined change in mental health symptoms and its relationshi...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study investigated the within- and across-day associations between Corona-related media exposure and Corona-related worries during the COVID-19 crisis in late March to April 2020 in Germany. In a 21-day online diary study based on a convenience sample of parents of school-aged children (N = 561; Mage = 42.79, SDage = 6.12), same-day analyses r...
Article
Intensive longitudinal designs (e.g., experience sampling methods, daily diary studies, or ambulatory assessments) continue to gain importance in psychological aging research. Empirical research using these designs has greatly facilitated our understanding of short-term within-person processes and has started to approach the question how these proc...
Article
Full-text available
Over a century of research on between-person differences has resulted in the consensus that human cognitive abilities are hierarchically organized, with a general factor, termed general intelligence or “ g ,” uppermost. Surprisingly, it is unknown whether this body of evidence is informative about how cognition is structured within individuals. Usi...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study examined effects of daily parental autonomy support on changes in child behavior, family environment, and parental well-being across three weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. Day-to-day associations among autonomy-supportive parenting, need fulfillment, and child well-being were also assessed. Parents (longitudinal N=469; Mage...
Article
Full-text available
Satisfaction and frustration of the basic psychological need for relatedness have been postulated to play a vital role for affective well-being. Yet, this prediction has not been thoroughly tested in schoolchildren’s everyday lives. In this work, we examined the association between relatedness satisfaction and frustration at school on daily and ave...
Preprint
Sociometer theory proposes that a person’s self-esteem is a permanent monitor of perceived social inclusion and exclusion in a given situation. Despite this within-person perspective, respective research in children’s everyday lives is lacking. In three intensive longitudinal studies, we examined whether children’s self-esteem was associated with s...
Preprint
Satisfaction and frustration of the basic psychological need for relatedness have been postulated to play a vital role for affective well-being. Yet, this prediction has not been thoroughly tested in school children’s everyday lives. In this work, we examined the association between relatedness satisfaction and frustration at school on daily and av...
Article
Full-text available
Imageability and emotionality ratings for 2592 German nouns (3–10 letters, one to three phonological syllables) were obtained from younger adults (21–31 years) and older adults (70–86 years). Valid ratings were obtained on average from 20 younger and 23 older adults per word for imageability, and from 18 younger and 19 older adults per word for emo...
Article
Foreign language learning in older age has been proposed as a promising avenue for combatting age-related cognitive decline. We tested this hypothesis in a randomized controlled study in a sample of 160 healthy older participants (aged 65-75 years) who were randomized to 11 weeks of either language learning or relaxation training. Participants in t...
Article
Full-text available
Properties of psychological variables at the mean or variance level can differ between persons and within persons across multiple time points. For example, cross-sectional findings between persons of different ages do not necessarily reflect the development of a single person over time. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the differen...
Article
Full-text available
Older adults show relatively minor age-related decline in memory for single items, while their memory for associations is markedly reduced. Inter-individual differences in memory function in older adults are substantial but the neurobiological underpinnings of such differences are not well understood. In particular, the relative importance of inter...
Chapter
This chapter is based on a theoretical framework for the study of adult cognitive plasticity and on empirical findings from the COGITO Study. The design and analyses of the study include key features for producing and detecting transfer effects at the level of cognitive abilities. Among the features are: (a) an intensity and dosage of training that...
Article
Full-text available
The association between academic self-concept and achievement is assumed to be reciprocal. Typically, the association is analyzed by variants of the classical cross-lagged panel model. Results with more recently developed methodological approaches, for example, the random intercept cross-lagged panel model, its continuous-time implementation, and t...
Article
Full-text available
The within-person encouragement design introduced here combines methodological approaches from three research traditions: (a) the analysis of within-person couplings using multilevel models, (b) the experimental manipulation of a treatment variable at the within-person level, and (c) the use of random encouragements as instrumental variables to ind...
Article
Full-text available
Two intensive longitudinal studies examining the association between children's feeling of relatedness to peers at school and their affective well‐being were performed. In Study 1, 110 third and fourth graders reported on their positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) 4 times daily and on their peer relatedness once a day over 4 weeks. Multile...
Article
The number of intensive longitudinal studies that investigate affective experiences at the withinperson rather than the between-person level is rapidly increasing. This paradigmatic shift comes with new challenges, such as questions revolving around how to measure within-person affect variation or more fundamental questions about the reliability an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over a century of research on between-person differences has resulted in the consensus that human cognitive abilities are hierarchically organized, with a general factor, termed general intelligence or “ g ,” uppermost. Surprisingly, it is unknown whether this body of evidence is informative about how cognition is structured within individuals. Usi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over a century of research on between-person differences has resulted in the consensus that human cognitive abilities are hierarchically organized, with a general factor, termed general intelligence or “ g ,” uppermost. Surprisingly, it is unknown whether this body of evidence is informative about how cognition is structured within individuals. Usi...
Article
Full-text available
In the last years, there has been a shift from traditional measurements of affective well-being to approaches such as the day reconstruction method (DRM). While the traditional approaches often assess trait level differences in well-being, the DRM allows examining affective dynamics in everyday contexts. The latter may ultimately explain why some p...
Article
Friendships and their different qualities have been shown to be important for adolescents' socio-emotional development and psychological adjustment. In empirical research on such friendship qualities, the Network of Relationship Inventory - Relationship Quality Version (NRI-RQV) is a widely used questionnaire. Here, we conduct an extensive validati...
Article
Full-text available
Elementary schoolchildren’s working memory performance (WMP) fluctuates from moment to moment and day to day, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, affective states were investigated as predictors of these fluctuations. Interindividual differences in the intraindividual affect–WMP associations were expected, a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Foreign language learning in older age has been proposed as a promising avenue for combatting age-related cognitive decline. We tested this hypothesis in a randomized controlled study in a sample of 160 healthy older participants (aged 65-75 years) who were randomized to 11 weeks of either language learning or relaxation training. Participants in t...
Article
We examined adult age differences in day-to-day adjustments in speed-accuracy tradeoffs (SAT) on a figural comparison task. Data came from the COGITO study, with over 100 younger and 100 older adults, assessed for over 100 days. Participants were given explicit feedback about their completion time and accuracy each day after task completion. We app...
Article
Full-text available
With the growing popularity of intensive longitudinal research, the modeling techniques and software options for such data are also expanding rapidly. Here we use dynamic multilevel modeling, as it is incorporated in the new dynamic structural equation modeling (DSEM) toolbox in Mplus, to analyze the affective data from the COGITO study. These data...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive modeling studies in adults have established that visual working memory (WM) capacity depends on the representational precision, as well as its variability from moment to moment. By contrast, visuospatial WM performance in children has been typically indexed by response accuracy—a binary measure that provides less information about precisi...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated associations between parenting stress in parents and self-reported stress in children with children's diurnal cortisol secretion and whether these associations are moderated by known stress-regulating capacities, namely child cognitive control. Salivary cortisol concentrations were assessed from awakening to evening on two w...
Data
Variable key and description of raw data text file S1 Data. (TXT)
Data
Anonymized raw data text file of variables of interest. (TXT)
Chapter
Lifespan cognitive development is shaped by biological processes of maturation and senescence and their interplay with experience-dependent processes of learning. The development of basic information-processing functions (i.e., the mechanics of cognition) is characterized by normative growth in childhood and adolescence and more or less pronounced...