Florent Rivals

Florent Rivals
Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social | IPHES

Ph.D. Prehistory

About

265
Publications
77,288
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Introduction
I have a primary research interest in evolutionary paleoecology and the ecological context of human evolution. I use the changes in diet over thousands of years analyzed through tooth microwear and mesowear to reconstruct ancient environments, to track shifts related to climatic changes, and to understand Neanderthal behavioral strategies in different ecological settings.
Additional affiliations
December 2010 - present
Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Master Erasmus Mundus in Quaternary and Prehistory: Course on Human paleoecology
February 2007 - January 2012
Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social
Position
  • ICREA Researcher
November 2006 - January 2007
British School at Athens
British School at Athens
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 1999 - November 2002
Université de Perpignan
Field of study
  • Prehistory
September 1998 - June 1999
Université de Perpignan
Field of study
  • Quaternary geology, Human Paleontology and Prehistory
September 1997 - June 1998
Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
Field of study
  • Biology of populations and ecosystems

Publications

Publications (265)
Book
Full-text available
Cover, List of Contents, Contributors, Foreword, and Preface -- https://www.elsevier.com/books/updating-neanderthals/romagnoli/978-0-12-821428-2
Chapter
Dietary traits of individuals and populations of both Neanderthals and animals, are essential for the reconstruction of biotic interactions among species. These kinds of dynamic relationships with other living species in a shared environment can be seen as a major influence in evolution and ecology, and the timing and type of interaction could have...
Article
Full-text available
The behaviour and mobility of hominins are dependent on the availability of biotic and abiotic resources, which, in temperate ecosystems, are strongly related to seasonality. The objective of this study is to establish evidence of seasonality and duration of occupation(s) of specific archaeological contexts at late Lower Palaeolithic Qesem Cave bas...
Article
Full-text available
The Final Natufian level Ib from Eynan/Ain Mallaha provided a large and diversified assemblage of ungulates used here to study the seasonality of game procurement. The objective of this study was to evaluate the advantage of combining two methods, dental eruption and wear, and tooth microwear. Tooth microwear results allowed us to confirm the seaso...
Article
Extinct hyenas of the genus Crocuta were typical representatives of the Late Pleistocene mammoth fauna of Eurasia. The geographical distribution of these animals was vast, stretching from the British Isles to the Pacific coast. In this paper, we studied the tooth microwear of Crocuta spelaea from the Prolom 2 grotto in Crimea and the Bukhtarminskay...
Book
Full-text available
Updating Neanderthals: Understanding Behavioural Complexity in the Late Middle Palaeolithic provides the most up-to-date and comprehensive knowledge of Neanderthals who lived throughout the European and Asian continents. Focusing on the last phase of Neanderthal settlements and behaviours in Europe, the Levant and across Asian regions, the book syn...
Chapter
In the last decades, methodological advancements in the natural and exact sciences have increasingly been used to study the past. In this chapter, we review how such developments can be applied to address questions regarding Neanderthal identification, phylogeny, chronology, mobility, climate, and diet. These examples illustrate how prehistoric stu...
Chapter
This chapter aims is to briefly review the history of research on Neanderthals and to show how we have reached the current behavioural approach, including the complex scenario we have today. The main scientific debates that have marked Neanderthal studies since the discovery of skeletal remains at Feldhofer Cave in 1856 and the theoretical and meth...
Conference Paper
Dental microwear is a common and well-established proxy that shows a high temporal resolution in characterising the ungulate diet on a short time scale linked to the time of death. It is often the case that a high number of specimens from fossil assemblages are excluded from analyses due to structural or superficial damage, which can drastically re...
Article
Full-text available
Dental mesowear is a widely used tool in archaeology and palaeontology for the reconstruction of the overall diet of mammals. This method is based on the characterisation of the height and relief of dental cusps, as they vary according to diet. The use of this method on domestic ungulates presents limitations because (1) currently, very few referen...
Article
Full-text available
The northeastern region of Iberia constitutes a natural pass-area for arriving populations into the peninsula and becomes a key area to understand Neanderthal resilience to changing environmental conditions experienced during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3; 60–30 ka). Short-term but repeated occupations by Neanderthal groups occurred in Teixoneres C...
Article
Full-text available
Extinct cave bears inhabited a large part of Eurasia in a wide diversity of habitats during the Pleistocene. This study investigates via tooth wear analysis the feeding habits of 66 individuals belonging to three genetically different species located in the Urals and eastern Europe: Ursus rossicus from Kizel cave, U. kanivetz from Secrets cave, and...
Article
Full-text available
The present study's primary goal is to apply analyses of stable isotopes and tooth micro-and mesowear to the question of dietary change among a mid-Holocene population of small brocket deer (Cervidae: Mazama) in response to anthropogenic alteration of the natural insular vegetation for approximately 450 calendar years (6060-5620 cal yr BP). The bro...
Presentation
Postdepositional damage to fossil remains are of great interest if considering the possible distortion they could produce in the archaeological and paleontological record. These damages are particularly relevant for the dietary reconstructions based on dental microwear which was formed during the lifetime of an animal. The taphonomic processes have...
Article
Full-text available
Herbivore teeth are a valuable source of information for inferring the hunting season of past hunter-gatherers, the spatial–temporal organization of their activities, their socio-economic organization, and their adaptation to the seasonal fluctuation of the resources. Numberless of studies have been conducted on Neanderthals across Eurasia, but onl...
Article
Full-text available
In the last few decades, bioarchaeological studies have grown exponentially on the Balearic Islands. In general, animal husbandry based on domestic triad and a Mediterranean macchia landscape is well-attested during the prehistory of this archipelago. Despite providing meaningful data about dietary patterns and livestock practices, dental microwear...
Article
Full-text available
The Aïn Beni Mathar – Guefaït (ABM-GFT) region in Eastern Morocco is the object of anarchaeological, palaeontological, geological and geochronological research project, led by an interna-tional team since 2006. The research in this former fluvio-lacustrine basin, roughly 2000 km2, hasrevealed a significant number of Pleistocene and Holocene sites....
Article
Full-text available
The submerged site of Ohalo II was occupied during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), between 23,500–22,500 cal BP, bridging the Upper Paleolithic/Epipaleolithic transition in the southern Levant. The site is known for the excellent preservation of its brush huts and botanical remains. This study examines the behavior of its past inhabitants through a...
Article
The control of animal feeding was fundamental during the first stages of domestication and husbandry. Studies on the diets of domestic mammals from the Neolithic period onwards are essential to understand early livestock practices and animal productive and reproductive strategies. Among the existing methods, microwear has been the one least applied...
Chapter
Els grups humans del Paleolític mitjà no es poden entendre sense tenir en compte el medi en el qual es desenvolupaven. Des d'aquest punt de vista, les coves del Toll (Toll i Teixoneres) són un bon indret per analitzar les relacions dels humans d'aquest període amb les entitats biològiques del territori circumdant. Aquest treball intenta aportar llu...
Article
Full-text available
Dental microwear analysis is a proxy for analysing the diet in extinct and extant vertebrates, especially mammals. The limits of these approaches are still rather poorly known, especially in terms of taphonomic impacts. Indeed, several physical or chemical phenomena may have altered the microscopic features linked to the diet and compromised their...
Article
Excavated from 2009 to 2019 by the Tübingen-Armenian Paleolithic Project, Aghitu-3 Cave is the only stratified Upper Paleolithic site in Armenia. Sedimentary deposits range from 39,000 to 24,000 calibrated years before present (ka cal BP). The main Paleolithic occupations occurred during the accumulation of Archaeological Horizon (AH) VI between 36...
Method
Video describing the protocol to prepare molds and casts of animal teeth for microwear analysis
Article
Sheep predominate the Early Neolithic faunal assemblages in the Iberian Peninsula. Their exploitation for meat and milk production made them key to the economy of these early farming societies. Management of sheep breeding season and feeding in the context of the local environment were decisive in obtaining these livestock products. This work focus...
Article
Full-text available
Level 4.1 from the Abri du Maras (Ardèche, France) is chronologically attributed to the beginning of MIS 3 and is one example of late Neanderthal occupations in the southeast of France. Previous work on the faunal and lithic remains suggests that this level records short-term hunting episodes of reindeer associated with fragmented lithic reduction...
Article
Full-text available
Teixoneres Cave (Moià, Barcelona, Spain) is a reference site for Middle Palaeolithic studies of the Iberian Peninsula. The cave preserves an extensive stratigraphic sequence made up of eight units, which is presented in depth in this work. The main goal of this study is to undertake an initial spatial examination of Unit III, formed during Marine I...
Article
Full-text available
Teixoneres Cave (Moià, Barcelona, Spain) is a reference site for Middle Palaeolithic studies of the Iberian Peninsula. The cave preserves an extensive stratigraphic sequence made up of eight units, which is presented in depth in this work. The main goal of this study is to undertake an initial spatial examination of Unit III, formed during Marine I...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Here we respond to Dantas et al.‘s reply to de Oliveira et al. (2020) regarding a disagreement over the paleodiet of Xenorhinotherium bahiense and whether it was a grazer (our view) or a browser/mixed feeder (Dantas et al.). We refer again to the points made by de Oliveira et al. (2020) in order to refute the arguments of Dantas et al.
Article
Equifinality constitutes a challenge when interpreting agency in archaeological sites. The fact that a specific type of damage frequently cannot be linked to a single actor, behavior, or ecological context, handicaps correct interpretations of site formation processes. Actualistic studies have been used to address this type of problem by creating m...
Chapter
Our understanding of the emergence and dispersal of the earliest tool-making hominins has been revolutionised in the last decade, with sites in eastern Africa and China pushing records of both events several hundred thousand years earlier than previously thought. In recent years, climate and environmental factors have been considered by many as pri...
Article
Corrigendum Corrigendum to "Neanderthal faunal exploitation and settlement dynamics at the Abri du Maras, level 5 (South-eastern France)" [Quat. Sci. Rev. 243 (2020) 106472]
Article
Full-text available
The Crimean Peninsula has a rich archaeological record characterised by numerous multi-layered sites from the Middle Palaeolithic and by a number of important sites representing the transition from the Middle to the Upper Palaeolithic. Absolute dates place the region as one of the last Neanderthal refuges in Europe. Combining dental meso-and microw...
Article
The late Pleistocene site of Irgiz 1 (Saratov Region, Russia) has yielded an accumulation of giant rhinoceros (Elasmotherium sibiricum) within the deposits of an oxbow lake. Irgiz 1 is one of the few sites in the world with a significant amount of elasmothere individuals of different age groups. Tooth mesowear and microwear are used to characterize...
Article
Neanderthals are widely known to be a resilient human species that successfully faced constant and strong environmental fluctuations modifying the landscapes they inhabited and the availability of their potential resources. It has been traditionally assumed that environmental features could strongly affect human behaviour due to the stretch relatio...
Article
Over the past two decades, taphonomic and zooarchaeological studies have focused on Neanderthal settlement patterns and subsistence strategies. The south-eastern margins of the Massif Central constitute one of the regions with the most abundant archaeological evidence of Neanderthal occupations in France. The faunal record of level 5 of Abri du Mar...
Article
The white tailed-deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann 1780) is one of the largest mammals in Holocene America. It was a primary resource for pre-Columbian communities in the wooded savannas of Panama for several millennia. The oldest remains yet found refer to the Late Preceramic period (6000-4500 cal yr BP), when people were already farming (i....
Article
The aim of this study is to understand the feeding habits of the cave bear, Ursus spelaeus by investigating the dental microwear patterns of 106 molars from six Late Pleistocene caves in Catalonia (Spain): Ermitons Cave, Arbreda Cave, Mollet Cave, Llenes Cave, Toll Cave, and Teixoneres Cave. Dental microwear patterns of U. spelaeus were compared wi...
Article
Diet is closely connected to the habitat exploited by ungulates and is one of the main links between them and the surrounding environment. When climatic fluctuations modified the vegetal coverture and habitat, ungulates' dietary behaviours and ecological niches could have been impacted severely. During the Middle Palaeolithic, the Mediterranean pen...
Article
A palynological study of the archaeological layers from the Neanderthal site of Teixoneres Cave, located in Northeastern Spain, is presented. Vegetation dynamics for the MIS 7-MIS 2 period are described, revealing the long-term resilience of mixed oak-pine forests throughout cold phases and a high diversity of woody taxa, including conifers, mesoph...
Article
Palynological investigations of Toll Cave, a carnivore and archaeological cave site in northeastern Spain, are presented. The inferred vegetation reveals the long-term permanence of mixed pine-oak forests through a long period of environmental changes within the interval MIS 4 to MIS 1, and probably before. A relatively high diversity of woody taxa...
Article
A remarkable musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) assemblage was recovered at Cowshead Cave (Picos de Europa Mountains, NW Spain). This find is of special paleobiogeographic relevance since it involves the first occurrence of this species in NW Iberia and extends the boundary of its Eurasian distribution range to the SW. Fossils correspond to at least two in...
Conference Paper
Carnivores show a great variability as taphonomic agents, because of their own behaviour and physical characteristics. The identifi cation and characterisation of the accumulator agents is required to understand the relationships and diff erences between human and carnivore activities in archaeological sites. Thus, studies based on actualistic and...
Article
Full-text available
Among other large mammals, the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is a species widely documented during the Late Glacial in Northern Europe. It is present at many archeological sites and has the potential to provide information about environmental conditions through analysis of the paleodiet. Among other techniques, tooth wear analyses allow for the infe...
Article
Like human groups, carnivores are able to act on the same faunal accumulation and generate important bone assemblages with their prey remains. In addition, both predators can share the same habitable areas and alternate their occupations, producing the well-known palimpsest at archaeological sites. As a discipline, taphonomy helps us understand the...
Article
The extinction of the Quaternary megafauna stands out among the evolutionary history of Cenozoic mammals. In South America, nearly 80% of the megamammals went extinct, including the native un-gulates Macrauchenia patachonica and Xenorhinotherium bahiense. Little is known about the causes of the macraucheniids' extinction and their paleobiology. Her...
Article
The Plio-Pleistocene fossil rhinoceroses of Eurasia are relatively well known, although their taxonomy and phylogeny are still debated. The fossil rhinoceros material collected at the Bethlehem site during the first half of the 20th century is revised and re-described. Based on morphological comparison of the Bethlehem material with the latest Mioc...
Article
Hunter-gatherers have a nomadic lifestyle and move frequently on the landscape based on the seasonal distribution of resources. During these displacements, carrying capacities are limited, and the composition of the transported gear is generally planned ahead of the activity to perform. During the Pleistocene, prehistoric hunter-gatherers faced sim...
Chapter
Short-term human occupations could occur in very distinct places and be related to very different behaviours. The low number of items left by the human groups in these sites, usually, generates discrete assemblages, which often are difficult to disentangle. In the European Middle Palaeolithic, short-term human occupations in caves and rock-shelters...
Article
Mobility strategies of Neanderthal groups are studied through the characterization and analysis of archaeological sites and traditionally compared to the types of settlements present-day hunter-gatherer groups, based on their mobility strategies. The faunal record of level P of Abric Romaní is a unique source of information for analysing the foragi...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the taxonomy and paleodiet of the bear population that inhabited the emblematic palaeoanthropological Early Pleistocene (1.8 Ma) site of Dmanisi (Georgia), based on a dual approach combining morphometrics and microwear of upper and lower teeth. Given that the teeth of Ursus etruscus Cuvier, 1823 from Dmanisi show considerable size vari...
Chapter
In this work we present a dental microwear analysis on sheep and goats from two sites of the Empordà region (north-eastern of the Iberian Peninsula) : the Greek comptoir of Empúries and the Iberian town of Ullastret. This study revealed a high intake of graminaceous plants in both sites and in the two chronological phases studied. This pattern is c...
Article
Full-text available
We propose for the first time the use of the combination of two high-resolution techniques, dental wear (meso- and microwear) and dental cementum analyses, to gain a better understanding of Neanderthal subsistence strategies and occupational patterns. Dental wear analysis provides information not only on ungulate palaeodiet and palaeoenvironments b...
Article
Microwear data were analysed to study dietary traits in Elephantidae, Mammutidae, and Gomphother-iidae from Plio-Pleistocene localities from Europe and North America and included the following taxa: Palaeoloxodon antiquus, Mammuthus rumanus, M. meridionalis, M. trogontherii, M. primigenius, M. columbi, Mammut americanum, and Anancus arvernensis. Ma...
Article
Prehistoric human groups organize their subsistence strategies according to environmental parameters and socio-cultural variables. Functional analysis of artefacts allows researchers to recognize different activities and the characteristics of their utilization and to formulate hypotheses about the duration and the way that sites were occupied. Bon...
Article
Early sites along the Dead Sea Transform (southern Levant), among them the Erq el Ahmar Elephant Site, are key points in understanding hominin and mammal migration out of Africa and into Eurasia. The late Prof. Tchernov had begun an intensive campaign to expose the faunal remains at the site, but unfortunately was unable to conclude his study. Base...