Florent Ginhoux

Florent Ginhoux
Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) | A*Star · Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN)

PhD

About

477
Publications
128,826
Reads
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43,424
Citations
Introduction
Florent Ginhoux is now a Senior Principal Investigator at the Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), A*STAR and an EMBO Young Investigator. His laboratory is focusing on the ontogeny and differentiation of macrophages and dendritic cells in both humans and mice.
Additional affiliations
May 2009 - present
Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)
Position
  • Principal Investigator
July 2008 - May 2009
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2007 - June 2008
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Position
  • Instructor

Publications

Publications (477)
Article
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common malignancies with limited treatments other than surgery. The tumor microenvironment (TME) profiling enables the discovery of potential therapeutic targets. Here, we profile 54,103 cells from tumor and adjacent tissues to characterize cellular composition and elucidate the potential origin and regulat...
Article
Biomarkers guiding the neoadjuvant use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICBs) are needed for patients with localized muscle invasive bladder cancers (MIBC). Profiling tumor and blood samples, we found that follicular helper CD4+ T cells (TFH) are among the best therapeutic targets of pembrolizumab correlating with progression-free survival. TFH wer...
Article
Brain macrophage populations include parenchymal microglia, border-associated macrophages, and recruited monocyte-derived cells; together, they control brain development and homeostasis but are also implicated in aging pathogenesis and neurodegeneration. The phenotypes, localization, and functions of each population in different contexts have yet t...
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SARS-CoV-2, although not being a circulatory virus, spread from the respiratory tract resulting in multiorgan failures and thrombotic complications, the hallmarks of fatal COVID-19. A convergent contributor could be platelets that beyond hemostatic functions can carry infectious viruses. Here, we profiled 52 patients with severe COVID-19 and demons...
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Epileptogenic triggers are multifactorial and not well understood. Here we aimed to address the hypothesis that inappropriate pro-inflammatory mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of refractory epilepsy (non-responsiveness to antiepileptic drugs) in human patients. We used single-cell cellular indexing of transcriptomes and epitopes by sequenc...
Preprint
The salivary glands often become damaged in individuals receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, resulting in xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth. This leads to detrimental effects on their health and quality of life, for which there is no regenerative therapy. Macrophages are the predominant cell type in the salivary glands and are attractive...
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Background Severe COVID-19 is associated with a high circulating level of calprotectin, the S100A8/S100A9 alarmin heterodimer. Baseline calprotectin amount measured in peripheral blood at diagnosis correlates with disease severity. The optimal use of this biomarker along COVID-19 course remains to be delineated. Methods We focused on patients with...
Article
Despite the ubiquitous function of macrophages across the body, the diversity, origin, and function of adrenal gland macrophages remain largely unknown. We define the heterogeneity of adrenal gland immune cells using single-cell RNA sequencing and use genetic models to explore the developmental mechanisms yielding macrophage diversity. We define po...
Preprint
Intrauterine hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUT), potentially curative in congenital haematological disease, is limited by subtherapeutic donor cell chimerism. Microchimerism of maternal immune cells trafficked into IUT recipients may directly influence donor-specific alloresponsiveness. We investigated if maternal dendritic cell (DC) depletio...
Article
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The obesity epidemic has led researchers and clinicians to reconsider the etiology of this disease and precisely decipher its molecular mechanisms. The excessive accumulation of fat by cells, most notably adipocytes, which play a key role in this process, has many repercussions in tissue physiology. Herein, we focus on how macrophages, immune cells...
Article
Mast cells are immune cells of the haematopoietic lineage that are now thought to have multifaceted functions during homeostasis and in various disease states. Furthermore, while mast cells have been known for a long time to contribute to allergic disease in adults, recent studies, mainly in mice, have highlighted their early origins during fetal d...
Article
Although best known for their phagocytic and immunological functions, macrophages have increasingly been recognised as key players in the development, homeostasis and regeneration of their host tissues. Early during development, macrophages infiltrate and colonise all tissues within the body, developing symbiotically with their host tissues and acq...
Article
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells, orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity during infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignancies. Since the discovery of DCs almost 50 years ago, our understanding of their biology in humans has increased substantially. Here, we review both antitumor and tolerogenic DC responses in...
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Recent evidence has revealed that small polypeptides (containing fewer than 100 amino acids) can be translated from noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are usually defined as RNA molecules that do not encode proteins. However, studies on functional products translated from primary transcripts of microRNA (pri-miRNA) are quite limited. Here, we describe...
Article
Circulating Ly6C hi monocytes often undergo cellular death upon exhaustion of their antibacterial effector functions, which limits their capacity for subsequent macrophage differentiation. This shrouds the understanding on how the host replaces the tissue-resident macrophage niche effectively during bacterial invasion to avert infection morbidity....
Article
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system underpinned by partially understood genetic risk factors and environmental triggers and their undefined interactions1,2. Here we investigated the peripheral immune signatures of 61 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for MS to dissect the influence of genetic pre...
Article
The immune system is a complex, dynamic, and plastic ecosystem composed of multiple cell types that constantly sense and interact with their local microenvironment to protect from infection and maintain homeostasis. For over a century, great efforts and ingenuity have been applied to the characterization of immune cells and their microenvironments,...
Article
Ermin is an actin-binding protein found almost exclusively in the central nervous system (CNS) as a component of myelin sheaths. Although Ermin has been predicted to play a role in the formation and stability of myelin sheaths, this has not been directly examined in vivo. Here, we show that Ermin is essential for myelin sheath integrity and normal...
Article
Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of solid cancers, and overall macrophage infiltration correlates with lower patient survival and resistance to therapy. Tumor-associated macrophages, however, are phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous. Specific subsets of tumor-associated macrophage might be endowed with distinct roles on cancer progres...
Article
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During inflammation, Ly6Chi monocytes are rapidly mobilized from the bone marrow (BM) and are recruited into inflamed tissues, where they undergo monocyte-to-phagocyte transition (MTPT). The in vivo developmental trajectories of the MTPT and the contribution of individual cytokines to this process remain unclear. Here, we used a murine model of neu...
Article
Background and aims: Hypoxia is one of the central players in shaping the immune context of the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, the complex interplay between immune cell infiltrates within the hypoxic TME of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be elucidated. Approach and results: We analyzed the immune landscapes of hypoxia-low and...
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Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are critical for lung immune defense and homeostasis. They are orchestrators of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with their number significantly increased and functions altered in COPD. However, it is unclear how AM number and function are controlled in a healthy lung and if changes in AMs without environment...
Article
Single-cell technologies have enabled extensive profiling studies of human and mouse tissues and the identification of an ever-growing number of transcriptional clusters within the dendritic cell (DC) lineage. Here, we discuss the importance of differentiating cell subsets from cell states when annotating DC clusters and propose a revised nomenclat...
Preprint
Sensing of incoming viruses represents one of the pivotal tasks of dendritic cells (DC). Human primary blood DC encompass various subsets that are diverse in their susceptibility and response to HIV-1. The recent identification of Axl+DC, a new blood DC subset, endowed with unique capacities to bind, replicate, and transmit HIV-1 prompted us to eva...
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The third edition of Flow Cytometry Guidelines provides the key aspects to consider when performing flow cytometry experiments and includes comprehensive sections describing phenotypes and functional assays of all major human and murine immune cell subsets. Notably, the Guidelines contain helpful tables highlighting phenotypes and key differences b...
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Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often indicated by lymphopenia and increased myelopoiesis; however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear, especially the alteration of hematopoiesis. It is important to explore to what extent and how hematopoietic stem cells contribute to the impairment of peripheral lymphoid and myeloid compartmen...
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Here, we provide detailed protocols for the isolation of mouse Kupffer cells – the liver-resident macrophages – for phenotypic (e.g., via flow cytometry, mass cytometry, or RNA-sequencing) analyses or for functional experiments involving cell culture. The procedures presented can be adapted for the isolation of other hepatic cell populations. For c...
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The ability to study cellular heterogeneity at single cell resolution is making single-cell sequencing increasingly popular. However, there is no publicly available resource that offers an integrated cell atlas with harmonized metadata that users can integrate new data with. Here, we present DISCO (https://www.immunesinglecell.org/), a database of...
Article
Background: The gain-of-function JAK2 V617F mutant is the most common driver mutation identified in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Additional somatic variants, also found in other malignant hemopathies, are detected in primary myelofibrosis (MF) and supposed to contribute to fibrosis or leukemia development. One of these mutations affects SRS...
Article
Multiple successful vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed to address the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. In the present work, we describe a subunit vaccine based on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein coadministered with CpG adjuvant. To enhance the immunogenicity of our for...
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Modern immunologic research increasingly requires high-dimensional analyses to understand the complex milieu of cell types that comprise the tissue microenvironments of disease. To achieve this, we developed Infinity Flow combining hundreds of overlapping flow cytometry panels using machine learning to enable the simultaneous analysis of the coexpr...
Article
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Current understanding about the roles of microglia versus macrophages in viral encephalitis is limited. We previously showed that the signaling of a single prostaglandin, PGD 2
Article
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Inflammatory skin diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis (PSO) are underpinned by dendritic cell (DC)-mediated T cell responses. Currently, the heterogeneous human cutaneous DC population is incompletely characterized, and its contribution to these diseases remains unclear. Here, we performed index-sorted single-cell flow cytometry...
Article
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Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells are non-recirculating cells that exist throughout the body. Although TRM cells in various organs rely on common transcriptional networks to establish tissue residency, location-specific factors adapt these cells to their tissue of lodgment. Here we analyze TRM cell heterogeneity between organs and find that the...
Article
Microglia are specialized macrophages that reside within the central nervous system and play key roles in brain immunity, development and homeostasis. Recent studies also revealed functions of microglia in neuroprotection and neuroinflammation, leading to the discovery that microglia are involved in several brain pathologies including Alzheimer’s d...
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Breast cancers are complex cellular ecosystems where heterotypic interactions play central roles in disease progression and response to therapy. However, our knowledge of their cellular composition and organization is limited. Here we present a single-cell and spatially resolved transcriptomics analysis of human breast cancers. We developed a singl...
Article
When helper T (TH) cell polarization was initially described three decades ago, the TH cell universe grew dramatically. New subsets were described based on their expression of few specific cytokines. Beyond TH1 and TH2 cells, this led to the coining of various TH17 and regulatory (Treg) cell subsets as well as TH22, TH25, follicular helper (TFH), T...
Article
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Kupffer cells (KCs) are highly abundant, intravascular, liver-resident macrophages known for their scavenger and phagocytic functions. KCs can also present antigens to CD8⁺ T cells and promote either tolerance or effector differentiation, but the mechanisms underlying these discrepant outcomes are poorly understood. Here, we used a mouse model of h...
Article
Tissue macrophages are immune cells whose phenotypes and functions are dictated by origin and niches. However, tissues are complex environments, and macrophage heterogeneity within the same organ has been overlooked so far. Here, we used high-dimensional approaches to characterize macrophage populations in the murine liver. We identified two distin...
Article
Mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) encompass dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages (MoMac), which exhibit antimicrobial, homeostatic, and immunoregulatory functions. We integrated 178,651 MNPs from 13 tissues across 41 datasets to generate a MNP single-cell RNA compendium (MNP-VERSE), a publicly available tool to map MNPs and define conserved gene...
Preprint
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Viral tropism, or the specificity of a particular virus to infect a certain cell type, is crucial in determining virus replication, viral spread, and ultimately host survival. Rabies, one of the deadliest known zoonotic diseases, is still causing 60.000 human deaths annually. Upon central nervous system (CNS) entry, neurotropic rabies virus (RABV)...
Article
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Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the mechanisms underlying virus–host interactions during cancer therapies remain elusive. When comparing nasopharyngeal swabs from cancer and noncancer patients for RT-qPCR cycle thresholds measuring acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-C...
Article
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often develops following chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and responds poorly to immune checkpoint blockade. Here, we examined the antigen specificities of HCC-infiltrating T cells and their relevance to tumor control. Using highly multiplexed peptide-MHC tetramer staining of unexpanded cells from blood, live...
Article
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an inflammatory myeloid neoplasm caused by aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Circulating myeloid cells from patients often carry disease-associated mutations and can be differentiated into langerinhigh LCH-like cells in vitro, but their detailed immune-phenotypic and m...
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Inflammation in the tumor microenvironment has been shown to promote disease progression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC); however, the role of macrophage metabolism in promoting inflammation is unclear. Using an orthotopic mouse model of PDAC, we demonstrate that macrophages from tumor-bearing mice exhibit elevated glycolysis. Macrophage...
Article
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It is increasingly recognized that immune development within mucosal tissues is under the control of environmental factors during early life. However, the cellular mechanisms that underlie such temporally and regionally restrictive governance of these processes are unclear. Here, we uncover an extrathymic pathway of immune development within the co...
Article
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The human fetal immune system begins to develop early during gestation; however, factors responsible for fetal immune-priming remain elusive. We explored potential exposure to microbial agents in utero and their contribution toward activation of memory T cells in fetal tissues. We profiled microbes across fetal organs using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
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An accurate depiction of the convalescent COVID-19 immunome will help delineate the immunological milieu crucial for disease resolution and protection. Using mass cytometry, we characterized the immune architecture in patients recovering from mild COVID-19. We identified a virus-specific immune rheostat composed of an effector T (T eff) cell recall...
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During injury, monocytes are recruited from the circulation to inflamed tissues and differentiate locally into mature macrophages, with prior reports showing that cavity macrophages of the peritoneum and pericardium invade deeply into the respective organs to promote repair. Here we report a dual recombinase-mediated genetic system designed to trac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the mechanisms underlying virus-host interactions during cancer therapies remain elusive. When comparing nasopharyngeal swabs from cancer and non-cancer patients for RT-qPCR cycle thresholds measuring acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-...
Article
Full-text available
Intestinal stromal cells are known to modulate the propagation and differentiation of intestinal stem cells1,2. However, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms by which this diverse stromal cell population maintains tissue homeostasis and repair are poorly understood. Here we describe a subset of intestinal stromal cells, named MAP3K2-regula...
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Acquisition of cell-associated tumor antigens by type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1) is essential to induce and sustain tumor specific CD8⁺ T cells via cross-presentation. Here we show that capture and engulfment of cell associated antigens by tissue resident lung cDC1 is inhibited during progression of mouse lung tumors. Mechanistically, loss of phagocy...
Preprint
Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of solid cancers and overall macrophage infiltration is correlated with lower patient survival and resistance to therapy. However, tumor-associated macrophages are phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous. Specific tumor-associated macrophage subsets might be endowed with antagonistic role on cancer progre...
Article
Full-text available
The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. COVID-19 was first reported in China (December 2019) and is now prevalent across the globe. Entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into mammalian cells requires the binding of viral Spike (S) proteins to the angiot...
Article
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Hepatic inflammation is a key feature of a variety of liver diseases including drug-induced liver injury (DILI), orchestrated by the innate immune response (Kupffer cells, monocytes, neutrophils, dendritic cells) and the adaptive immune system (T cells and natural killer T cells). In contrast to acute DILI, prediction of immune-mediated DILI (im-DI...