Florence Gaunet

Florence Gaunet
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · Laboratoire de psychologie cognitive

PhD

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69
Publications
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2,681
Citations

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Dogs synchronise their behaviour with those of their owners when confronted with an unfamiliar situation and interactions with their owners have been shown to decrease the dog’s stress levels in some instances. However, whether owners may help manage dog anxiety during veterinary consultations remains unclear. In Part I, we compared the behaviour o...
Article
Veterinary practices can be stressful places for dogs. Decreasing stress during veterinary consultations is therefore a major concern, since animal welfare matters both for owners and veterinarians. Stress can be expressed through behaviour modifications; monitoring canine behaviour is thus one way to assess stress levels. We also know that the own...
Article
Despite ongoing research, many aspects of dogs’ vocal communication are not yet fully understood, including how they convey information about items. The aim of the present exploratory study was to determine whether dogs vocalize differently toward their owner and food in an unsolvable task where food is inaccessible and to characterize the acoustic...
Chapter
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La ville de Concepción (Chili) présente l'originalité d'avoir en son sein des chiens en liberté. Nous avons analysé les modalités de présence des chiens de cette ville avec une méthodologie qualitative de sciences sociales (prise de notes des observations et interrogation des citoyens). Un premier résultat est qu'un tiers de l'ensemble des chiens d...
Article
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Stray dogs are a common sight in cities all over the world, especially in Latin America, but research on their behavior is scarce. Studying their very considerable presence in Concepción (Chile) provided a unique opportunity to learn more about the extent of the sociality and territoriality patterns of the dog species. Interestingly, a wide range o...
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Guide dogs are working dogs that follow the verbal instructions of owners with severe visual impairments, leading them through the environment and toward goals such as a subway entrance ("Find the subway" instruction). During this process, guide dogs incidentally familiarize themselves with their environment. As such, they provide a unique animal m...
Article
When taken for walks, pet dogs synchronize their walking with that of their owners. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether shelter dogs do the same with their caregivers. We documented the behavior of 30 shelter dogs when they were taken outside in their regular walking area by their principal caregivers. The caregivers were instructed to b...
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Humans show greater affiliation with people who are behaviorally synchronized with them but little is known about the impact of synchronization at an interspecific level. We, therefore, explored whether the synchronization of humans with dogs affects dogs’ human preferences. Pet dogs were exposed to two unfamiliar persons: one synchronized her walk...
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Reading the attentional state of an audience is crucial for effective intentional communication. This study investigates how individual learning experience affects subsequent ability to tailor gestural communication to audience visual attention. Olive baboons were atypically trained to request food with gestures by a human standing in profile, whil...
Article
Behavioral synchronization is evolutionary adaptive, fostering social cohesion. In humans, affiliation between partners is associated with a high level of behavioral synchronization; people show increased affiliation towards people who synchronize with them. Surprisingly, until recently, little was known about these phenomena at an interspecific le...
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Affiliation between interacting partners is associated with a high level of behavioural synchronization in many species. Pet dogs are known to share strong affiliative bonds with their owners and to synchronize their behaviour with them when moving freely indoors. Surprisingly, outdoor dog–human interspecific synchronization has seldom been investi...
Article
The ability to remember past events in all of their dimensions (what? where? when? i.e. autobiographic/episodic memory) is highly adaptive. Conversely, individuals who do not have such ability are less likely to benefit from recognizing situations similar to previous ones, e.g. to avoid being defeated several times. We will present the different ty...
Article
Dogs' behavioural synchronization with humans is a new field of research in canine cognitive science. It has important societal implications, as dogs' propensity to mimic their owners' movements and reactions can be used as a tool to manage pets in public areas and ensure that they react appropriately when meeting third parties (humans or other dog...
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Behavioural synchronization is widespread among living beings, including humans. Pairs of humans synchronize their behaviour in various situations, such as walking together. Affiliation between dyadic partners is known to promote behavioral synchronization. Surprisingly, however, interspecific synchronization has recived little scientific investiga...
Article
When confronted with an unfamiliar object or person, privately owned pet dogs engage in social referencing, synchronizing their reaction with that of their owners. The question of whether shelter dogs do so when confronted with a stranger has not yet been studied. We tested the reactions of 30 shelter dogs with their principal caregiver when confro...
Article
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Dogs discriminate human direction of attention cues, such as body, gaze, head and eye orientation, in several circumstances. Eye contact particularly seems to provide information on human readiness to communicate; when there is such an ostensive cue, dogs tend to follow human communicative gestures more often. However, little is known about how suc...
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Language's intentional nature has been highlighted as a crucial feature distinguishing it from other communication systems. Specifically, language is often thought to depend on highly structured intentional action and mutual mindreading by a communicator and recipient. Whilst similar abilities in animals can shed light on the evolution of intention...
Article
Dogs are known to be skilled at using human social signals such as pointing at a target, gaze, visual direction of attention, and facial emotional cues. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed to explain these abilities: the domestication hypothesis and the “Two Stage” hypothesis. One way to test the Two Stage hypothesis is to comp...
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Synchronized behaviours are found in various species, among all taxa of live beings. Being synchronized with other individuals is defined by doing the same thing, at the same time and at the same place as others. It is observed within intraspecific groups and dyads. We aim to provide a synthetic overview of what is behavioural synchronization and f...
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When confronted with an unfamiliar object, dogs, Canis familiaris, engage in social referencing, i.e. synchronizing their reaction with that of their owner. The question of whether, like infants, they do so when confronted with an unfamiliar person, has not yet been studied. We tested the reactions of 72 pet dogs (36 shepherds and 36 molossoids) th...
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The ability of dogs to use human communicative signals has been exhaustively studied. However, few studies have focused on the production of communicative signals by dogs. The current study investigated if dogs are able to communicate by using directional signals towards some desirable object in the environment and also if they show an apparent int...
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Gaze behaviour, notably the alternation of gaze between distal objects and social partners that accompanies primates' gestural communication is considered a standard indicator of intentionality. However, the developmental precursors of gaze behaviour in primates' communication are not well understood. Here, we capitalized on the training in gesture...
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Tensions are generated by the inevitable presence of dogs accompanying humans in cities. Built-up outdoor areas, spaces that are "in between" the home and dog parks, are widely frequented by dogs and their owners. The present case study, performed in Lyon (France), is the first to provide a description of these dyads in areas that vary according to...
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The study examines whether untrained dogs and infants take their caregiver's visual experience into account when communicating with them. Fifteen adult dogs and 15 one-year-old infants were brought into play with their caregivers with one of their own toys. The caregiver gave the toy to the experimenter, who, in different conditions, placed it eith...
Article
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Although nonhuman primates' gestural communication is often considered to be a likely precursor of human language, the intentional properties in this communicative system have not yet been entirely elucidated. In particular, little is known about the intentional nature of monkeys' gestural signalling and related social understanding. We investigate...
Article
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In apes, four criteria are set to explore referential and intentional communication: (1) successive visual orienting between a partner and distant targets, (2) the presence of apparent attention-getting behaviours, (3) the requirement of an audience to exhibit the behaviours, and (4) the influence of the direction of attention of an observer on the...
Chapter
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When apes are not fully understood by humans, they persist with attempts to communicate, elaborating their behaviours to better convey their meaning. Such abilities have never been investigated in dogs. The present study aimed to clarify any effect of the visual attentional state of the owner on dogs' (Canis familiaris) social-communicative signals...
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Cette etude examine si l' inference d' une localisation spatiale d' un point dans la modalite haptique manuelle est influencee par l' experience visuelle, la nature des trajets effectues pour l' atteindre et le delai entre la phase d?exploration et la reponse. Des adultes aveugles, precoces et tardifs, ont parcouru avec leur index les deux premiere...
Article
Early and late blind adults explored two legs of a triangular path with their index finger and responded by returning to the origin by the shortest route back. The geometrical properties of the stimulus paths (two lengths x two angles) and the delay between the encoding and response phases (0 or 8 secondes) were varied. Results showed the occurrenc...
Article
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The study raises the question of whether guide dogs and pet dogs are expected to differ in response to cues of referential communication given by their owners; especially since guide dogs grow up among sighted humans, and while living with their blind owners, they still have interactions with several sighted people. Guide dogs and pet dogs were req...
Article
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Although there are some indications that dogs (Canis familiaris) use the eyes of humans as a cue during human-dog interactions, the exact conditions under which this holds true are unclear. Analysing whether the interactive modalities of guide dogs and pet dogs differ when they interact with their blind, and sighted owners, respectively, is one way...
Conference Paper
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The long-term objective of our project is to discover the fun- damental principles underlying the collaborative production, sharing, and management of route information by travelers with visual impairments. The specific research hypothesis is two-fold: 1) people with varied levels of vision loss and ori- entation and mobility (O&M) skills will be a...
Chapter
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The two-fold aim of this chapter is to present the design process of an interface for a mobile navigational aid for blind pedestrians and a set of rules for producing route descriptions for these users, as well as the methodology used to develop them, rooted in a user- and activity-centered approach. We first present the state of the art of wearabl...
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The study investigated pointing at memorized targets in reachable space in congenitally blind (CB) and blindfolded sighted (BS) children (6, 8, 10 and 12 years; ten children in each group). The target locations were presented on a sagittal plane by passive positioning of the left index finger. A go signal for matching the target location with the r...
Article
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The haptic estimation of spatial location in adults, 7 and 10-year-old children was examined with a path completion task in which blindfolded sighted had to explore with their right index the two legs of a triangular path and had to return without guidance back to the origin by the shortest route. The effects of hand movements and memorization duri...
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English In this article we defend the idea that etho-ethnology and ethno-ethology should be combined into a new science at the interface between human and animal sciences. This new field would study the hybrid communities comprised of humans and animals sharing meaning, interests and affects, and would try to account for the complexity of interspec...
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Automatic wayfinding verbal aids for blind pedestrians in simple and structured urban areas are claimed to rely on specific database features and guidance functions (i.e., instructions and spatial information provided at specific places). This paper reports an experiment in which these requirements for such areas, and for complex and unstructured u...
Article
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Congenitally blind, late-blind, and blindfolded-sighted participants performed a pointing task at proximal memorised proprioceptive targets. The locations to be memorised were presented on a sagittal plane by passively positioning the left index finger. A 'go' signal for matching the target location with the right index finger was given 0 or 8 s af...
Article
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We propose functional specifications for a localized verbal wayfinding aid for blind pedestrians, in simple and structured urban areas. A user-centered design approach, that is, the analyses of route descriptions produced by blind pedestrians, allowed first to evidence verbal guidance rules and then to elaborate route descriptions of unfamiliar pat...
Article
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This paper addresses a new concept of visuotactile human-machine interface for a certain representation of the peripersonnal space, especially useful for visually impaired and blind people navigation. The proposed space representation have been successfully implemented on a tactile device and validated via series of experiments involving naive blin...
Article
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In this study, we investigated the metric properties of spatial representations built from the verbal description of a spatial layout in early blind, late blind, and transiently visually deprived sighted participants. We adapted the verbal descriptions designed by Denis and Zimmer [1]. Participants had to mentally compare distances separating pairs...
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Actes des Journées d'étude en Psychologie ergonomique, Nantes, IRCCyN, France, 29-30 Octobre 2001. http://www-sop.inria.fr/acacia/gtpe/Actes-epique-2001-article-gaunet.pdf
Article
We investigated the importance of active, passive and snapshot exploration on spatial memory in a virtual city. The exploration consisted in traveling along a series of streets. 'Active exploration' was performed by giving directions to the subject who controlled his displacement with a joystick. During 'passive' exploration, the travel was imposed...
Article
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Recent innovations in microcomputer and display technology have resulted in sophisticated route guidance systems that help drivers in selecting and maintaining routes. However, the efficacy of these systems still depends on the drivers' cognitive characteristics. These characteristics imply constraints on what kind of information drivers need and h...
Article
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We investigated the importance of retinal and body inclination in the recognition of spatial environment. The paradigm involved the recognition, in body upright and tilted conditions, of tilted images -intervals of 15 degrees from 0 degrees to 90 degrees leftward and rightward respective to head coordinates - of known spatial layouts encountered wh...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of unilateral vestibular neurotomy on humans ability to perform navigation tasks. These tasks provided self-motion feedback by way of either locomotor activity only (nonvisual navigation or "locomotor task") or visual motion cues only (visually simulated navigation or "visual task"). After ex...
Article
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In two experiments, subjects traveled through virtual mazes, encountering target ob- jects along the way. Their task was to indicate the direction to these target objects from a terminal location in the maze (from which the objects could no longer be seen). Subjects controlled their motion through the mazes using three locomotion modes. In the Walk...
Article
The present study was aimed at analysing the effects of a lack of visual experience in human subjects on the detection and identification of a spatial change brought about to a configuration of objects displayed in manipulatory space. Exploratory patterns and performance levels were recorded. Learning effects were observed in different types of cha...
Article
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Some researchers of studies of the incidence of early visual experience on spatial abilities have demonstrated profound spatial deficits in early blind participants, whereas others have not found evidence of deleterious effects of early visual deprivation. The aims of this article are to (a) consider the theoretical background of these studies, (b)...
Article
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Five subjects who had been blind from an early age and five age-matched blindfolded sighted subjects were engaged in a spatial memory task. Locations to be memorized were presented on a sagittal plane by passive positioning of the left index finger. A go signal for matching the target location with the right index finger was provided 0 or 8 s after...
Article
The present study was aimed at analysing the effect of the lack of visual experience in the human subject in detecting the rearrangement of objects after a free exploration in the locomotor space. Exploratory patterns and performance levels were recorded. Distance processing was affected by early blindness. The early-blind group's patterns of explo...
Article
Research on human spatial cognition is usually based on static measures of spatial behavior and laboratory simulations such as slide or film projections are often unrealistic. The use of Virtual Environments (VEs) has some promise as an experimental tool for studying human spatial cognition. It is possible to make continuous measurements during nav...

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