Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro

Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul | UFRGS · School of Physical Education

PhD
Professor and researcher at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil.

About

206
Publications
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Citations
Introduction
I currently work at the School of Physical Education, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, where I lead the Aquatic Sports Research Group. I do research mainly swimming and water polo. My currents projects are related to: (i) propelling efficiency and coordenation in the four swimming strokes; (ii) swimming pedagogy; (iii) master swimming, nutrition and performance; (iv) longitudinal changes in swimming performance; (v) paralympic swimming; (vi) rules change in water polo and (vii) motor talent identification in water polo.
Additional affiliations
September 2005 - present
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Position
  • Group Leader
August 2005 - December 2015
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
August 2003 - August 2007
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Field of study
  • Physical Education
March 2000 - April 2002
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Field of study
  • Physical Education
July 1988 - July 1993
Instituto Porto Alegre
Field of study
  • Physical Education

Publications

Publications (206)
Article
The aim of this study was to compare the acute cardiovascular and neuromuscular effects of three time-matched sessions of high intensity training. Eighteen moderately active adults 9 women and 9 men [age: 23±2.9 yr; maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max ): 47.6±4.1 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ] performed three low-volume (~9 min) sessions in randomized order; sp...
Article
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate front crawl technique and performance in children using kinematic variables in a 50-m maximum (T50) test. METHODS: Thirty-five children performed the T50, from which images were obtained of the two 25-m laps (L1 and L2) by 2 synchronized cameras and processed with Kinovea software (Kinovea Org.,...
Article
Full-text available
ue to the growing engagement of youth in water polo practice, we aimed to characterize age-grouped players across anthropometric, general and specific motor abilities and contextual domains. We have also examined the associations of players’ specific skills with their anthropometric and general motor characteristics. One-hundred-and-one male water...
Article
This study aimed (i) to verify if underwater horizontal, vertical and medio-lateral hand displacements (HD), in pull and push phases of the front crawl stroke, can be associated with arm-stroke efficiency (ƞp) and (ii) to compare np and selected kinematic variables between male and female swimmers. Ten male and 10 female swimmers performed an all-o...
Article
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This study aimed to compare the swimming velocities at lactate and glucose thresholds, as well as to analyse their relationships. Eight trained swimmers performed in front crawl a 200m steps intermittent incremental test and a lactate minimum test. Lactate and glucose concentrations were identified at rest, during the intervals and at the end of th...
Article
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Understanding fluctuations and associations between swimming performance-related variables provide strategic insights into a swimmer's preparation program. Through network analysis, we verified the relationships between anthropometrics, maturation, and kinematics changes (Δ) in 25-m breaststroke (BREAST) and butterfly (FLY) swimming performance, be...
Article
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Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the acute responses of oxygen uptake and its kinetics, blood lactate concentration, total metabolic energy and energetic contributions to swimming tests performed at 90%, 92.5% and 95% of the 400 m front crawl test mean speed. Methods Fourteen male swimmers (26.7 ± 5.4 years) performed a 400 m front cra...
Article
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Acute psychological responses to physical activity may help explain long-term adherence to it. Thus, we compared acute psychological responses to different exercise protocols with identical durations. Eighteen moderately active young adults [Mage=23, SD=3 years; MVO2max (maximum oxygen consumption)=42.8, SD=4.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; MBMI (body mass index)...
Article
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Background Water polo is an open-skilled team sport in which agility is important. Objective This study aimed to propose a water polo player classification based on the Functional Test for Agility Performance. Methods A total of 78 male water polo players of different competition levels (7.7% regional, 52.5% national and 39.7% international), yea...
Thesis
Full-text available
A cidade de Salvador (BA) tem uma imensa tradição no Polo Aquático, tendo o seu primeiro clube focado para a prática fundada em 1915. Apesar desta imensa tradição, as equipes da cidade não figuram atualmente no cenário competitivo nacional e buscam retornar a seus bons resultados. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: (I) buscar conhecer a história do...
Article
Full-text available
Lifeguards use, as part of aquatic rescue, the front crawl and up-head front crawl. Studies on energy expenditure and complementary physiological variables obtained during aquatic rescue strategies are rare. The aim of this study was to compare the front-crawl's and up-head front crawl's energetics and performance as carried out by lifeguards. Twen...
Article
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Considering age and experience as possible constraints to the development of aquatic skills, this study sought to analyse the effect of both on the aquatic competence of 368 children aged between 36 and 72 months using the Erbaugh Scale. Children were categorised according to age and previous aquatic experience in swimming lessons. The results of t...
Article
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Objetivou-se identificar e descrever instrumentos referentes à avaliação do comportamento aquático de crianças, por meio de revisão sistemática, e discuti-los à luz do conceito de competência aquática. Realizou-se a busca nas bases SPORTDiscus with Full Text, MEDLINE Complete, EMBASE, Web of Science e PubMed. Foram incluídos artigos, teses e disser...
Article
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Background In competitive swimming, performance is associated with swimming a certain distance in the shortest possible time. Specifically, in an all-out 200-m front crawl test (T200), the intensity and duration of effort represent a challenge for coaches and swimmers to balance swimming speed with the ability to use different energy sources (aerob...
Article
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Abstract: Considering the fundamental techniques of water polo (WP), the aim of this study was to verify the existence of a relationship between the speed of the ball in the throw to the goal (SB) and the height reached in vertical test performed in water (HEB) by WP players. Thirteen WP male players participated (age: 30.4 ± 6.5 years, body mass 8...
Article
Aim: We investigated how Arena Powerskin R-EVO Closed Back (swimsuit) and Arena Carbon Triwetsuit (full-sleeve, wetsuit), both approved by the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) regulations, affect biomechanics and energetics of 3 Elite female open water (OW) swimmers at maximal and 4 submaximal swimming intensities. Methods: Three Elite...
Article
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Abstract: This study aims to propose theoretical and practical guidelines for the construction of a teaching methodologies for Water Polo (PAq). It intends to point out indispensable contents in the initiation to PAq for children (6 to 10 years old) and to present practical activities for the teaching-learning process through a narrative review of...
Article
In a simplified way, the front crawl arm propelling efficiency (ηp) can be estimated using the distance between the shoulder and the hand at the end of the pull phase, the swimming speed (v) and the stroke rate (SR). The aim of this study was to verify the ηp and kinematical parameters along the 200 m front crawl test (T200), to provide comprehensi...
Article
Full-text available
Walking and running are the most common human gaits. Humans walk at low speed and change gait to increase their locomotion speed, minimizing the energy expenditure. Thus, at speeds below walk-run transition speed, the oxygen consumption of walking is lower than that of running, while at higher speeds the relationship is reversed. 1 The energetic co...
Article
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Objective: to verify if three-weeks of training cessation affects 200 m front crawl performance and kinematics in 12 years old and under age-group swimmers controlling for anthropometric changes. Method: Sixteen age-group swimmers (11 girls and 5 boys, age: 10.2 ± 1.2 y) performed a 200 m front crawl test (T200) (time trial) PRE- and POST three-wee...
Article
Background: Agility, vertical jump (VJ), and shot velocity (SV) are associated with water polo (WP) performance. Aims - (i) to identify the performance in agility, VJ and SV; (ii) to verify the correlations between the variables; and (iii) to identify the 90th and 95th percentile of each variable. Methods: Fifty-five male WP players (aged 21.6 ±...
Article
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Introduction: The knowledge about the main statistical methods used in studies of a certain area of knowledge allows to know the predominant methodological design, as well as the main objectives to be tested, and to check if there are limitations in the use of more elaborated and updated methods. Objective: to describe the main statistical methods...
Chapter
El Test Funcional de Rendimiento de la Agilidad es considerado como un test específico para representar una situación que ocurre en el juego de waterpolo. En el que los jugadores deben moverse lo más rápidamente posible dentro de un área de 9 m2 en respuesta a los pases aleatorios realizados por otros jugadores. Para la adecuada realización del tes...
Article
Full-text available
Introdução: O conhecimento acerca dos principais métodos estatísticos utilizados em estudos de uma determinada área do conhecimento permite conhecer o design metodológico predominante, bem como os principais objetivos a serem testados, e verificar se há limitações no uso de métodos mais elaborados e atualizados. Objetivo: descrever os principais mé...
Article
This study aimed to analyse the stability of elite male long-distance swimmers (1500 m), and to identify the main predictors related to the pace. The performance of 16 elite male swimmers (22.59 ± 2.10 years-old) participating in the 1500 m event at the 2016 (London) and 2018 (Glasgow) LEN European Aquatic Championships were analysed. The lap perfo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
O objetivo deste estudo de caso foi relatar os resultados de desempenho comparativo em termos de cinemática, economia, eficiência geral e coordenação em diferentes intensidades de nado com recurso a dois tipos de fatos de competição (fato de banho, SWIMSUIT; e fato isotérmico, WETSUIT) entre a melhor nadadora de águas abertas da Federação Portugues...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Breath-by-breath energy expenditure during open water swimming has not yet been explored in an ecological environment. This study aimed to investigate and compare energetics and kinematics of 5 km swimming, in both swimming pool and open water conditions. Methods Through four independent studies, oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics, heart rate...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: This study aimed (i) to test the inter-rater reliability of swimming teachers, (ii) to test the swimming teacher's discussion effect on inter-rater reliability and (iii) to verify the intra-rater swimming teacher's reliability. Method: Twenty-one learning swimmers (14.1 ± 5.1 years old) performed two 25-m front crawl courses at a comfortable...
Article
Full-text available
O desempenho no polo aquático depende de jogadores com adequadas características antropométricas e com boas capacidades coordenativas e condicionais. Essas características permitem deslocamentos rápidos e intensos, e eficiente organização coletiva de ataque e defesa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a existência de relação entre parâmetros antro...
Article
Full-text available
Effect of training with medicine balls on water polo ball speed The purpose of this study was to verify the effect training in the ball speed after throw to the goal in water polo players. Twenty-three male water polo players randomly divided into experimental (GE, n = 13) and control (GC, n = 10) groups participated. The ball speed was measured in...
Article
Full-text available
Water polo performance depends on players with both adequate anthropometric characteristics and good coordinative and conditional skills. These features enable rapid and intense displacements, as well as an efficient collective organization of attack and defense. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between anthropometric and perf...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: to compare different methods to assess the arm stroke efficiency (? F ), whenswimming front crawl using the arms only on the Measurement of Active Drag System (MADSystem) and in a free-swimming condition, and to identify biophysical adaptations to swimming onthe MAD System and the main biophysical predictors of maximal swimming speed in th...
Article
The aim of the study was to verify the relative contributions of energetic and kinematic parameters to the performance in 400-m front crawl test. Fourteen middle-distance swimmers participated in the study. Oxygen consumption was measured directly and blood samples were collected to assay lactate concentration. Both oxygen consumption and lactate c...
Article
Purpose: Peak and maximal oxygen uptake ( V˙O2peak and V˙O2max, respectively) are used in assessing aerobic power. For swimmers with physical impairments, it is unclear whether the physiological variables obtained in 200-m and Nx200-m tests are similar. The objective of this study is to assess the validity of V˙O2peak as an estimator of V˙O2max and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In paralympic swimming, the biomechanical parameters related to performance are effectively determined according to the potentialities and peculiarities of each athlete. However, a clear integrated approach to these parameters for swimmers with physical disabilities at the speed of maximum oxygen uptake (vV̇O2max) is still practically n...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to compare biomechanical, coordinative and physiological parameters in the front crawl, during interval training series performed in two submaximal intensities until exhaustion. Eleven swimmers, mean age of 21.0 ± 7.3 years, performed two sets of interval training with repetitions of 400 m (40 s of passive rest) at 90% (s9...
Article
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Our aim was to analyze physiological, kinematical and performance changes induced by swimming training in regional age-group athletes. Subjects (15.7 ± 2.2 years old) performed a 4 x 50-m front-crawl test at maximal velocity (10 s rest interval) in weeks 2, 4, 9 and 12 of a 15-week macrocycle. Descriptive statistics were used and the percentage of...
Article
Full-text available
Biomechanical and coordination measurements are useful tools to assess swimming performance. Regarding Paralympic swimming, function and technique make these measurements complex. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of studies on biomechanics, coordination and performance in disabled swimmers following swimming protocols and in...
Article
Full-text available
SWIMMING PEDAGOGY: ANALYSIS OF CLASS ACTIVITIES FOR CHILDREN Abstract Considering the importance of the diversity of aquatic motor experiences for the best relationship between the subject and the environment, the present study aimed to analyze the activities performed in the initiation of children to swimming. Throughout this study, the activities...
Article
Godoy, DF, Cadore, EL, Feitosa, WG, Correia, RdA, and Castro, FAdS. Oxygen uptake of wave surfers and complementary parameters in front crawl and surfing-paddling tests. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the oxygen uptake and complementary parameters (heart rate [HR], blood lactate conce...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), the total metabolic energy expenditure ( E˙tot), and the energy cost (C) measured as the speed of V̇O2max in swimmers with physical impairments. Eleven swimmers performed an Nx200-m front crawl test from a low to all-out speed and data were obtained at maximum aerobic powe...
Article
Full-text available
O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a coordenação do nado borboleta de jovens nadadores em diferentes estágios maturacionais. Vinte e um nadadores entre 10 e 12 anos de idade divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com o estágio de maturação biológica em que se encontravam (EM2 - n=11 e EM3 - n=10) foram avaliados durante 25 m no nado borboleta em máx...
Article
Full-text available
O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito do treinamento da força muscular na velocidade da bola em arremesso a gol realizado por jogadores de polo aquático. Participaram 23 jogadores de polo aquático do sexo masculino divididos aleatoriamente em grupos experimental (GE, n = 13) e controle (GC, n = 10). Foi realizada a mensuração da velocidade...
Article
Full-text available
The assessment of oxygen uptake (V̇O2) kinetics is a valuable non-invasive way to evaluate cardiorespiratory and metabolic response to exercise. The aim of the study was to develop, describe and evaluate an online V̇O2 fitting tool (VO2FITTING) for dynamically editing, processing, filtering and modelling V̇O2 responses to exercise. VO2FITTING was d...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in performance, energetics and kinematics during age-group swimmers off-season inform the prescription of training for the following season. Age-group swimmers (n = 15, age 14.3 ± 0.7 years) of equal maturational stage performed a 400-m front crawl (T400) before and after a four-weeks training cessation period. Performance-related energetic...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to describe the statistical methods used and statistical practice in PhD thesis in sports and exercise sciences, and to examine the time trends of statistical methods prevalence. We analyzed 50 PhD theses supported by a post-graduate program recognized by CAPES and defended between January 2003 and December 2013. Most theses used m...
Article
Full-text available
Zacca, R, Azevedo, R, Ramos, VR, Abraldes, JA, Vilas-Boas, JP, Castro, FAdS, Pyne, DB, and Fernandes, RJ. Biophysical follow-up of age-group swimmers during a traditional three-peak preparation program. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2019—The aim of this study was to quantify changes and contributions of bioenergetic, technique, and anthropome...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar parâmetros biomeânicos, coordenativos e fisiológicos no nado crawl, durante séries de treinamento intervalado realizadas em duas intensidades submáximas até a exaustão. Participaram 11 nadadores, com idade média de 21,0 ± 7,3 anos que realizaram duas séries de treinamento com repetições de 400 m (40 s de...
Article
Full-text available
O desempenho no polo aquático depende de jogadores com adequadas características antropométricas e com boas capacidades coordenativas e condicionais. Essas características permitem deslocamentos rápidos e intensos, e eficiente organização coletiva de ataque e defesa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a existência de relação entre parâmetros antro...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative monographic studies systematically use inferential statistical procedures to test hypotheses. For this purpose, sampling procedures and sample sizes need to be adequate for the proposed procedures. The aim of this study was to identify the sample selection methods, as well as the performance and types of calculation to determine the sa...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to describe the statistical methods used and statistical practice in PhD thesis in sports and exercise sciences, and to examine the time trends of statistical methods prevalence. We analyzed 50 PhD theses supported by a post-graduate program recognized by CAPES and defended between January 2003 and December 2013. Most theses used m...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The objective of this study was to compare blood lactate concentration (LAC), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), tryptophan (TRP), prolactin (PRL), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) plasma concentrations, and TRP/BCAAs ratio along interval training swimming series at 90 and 95% of the mea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Biomecânica dos nados crawl e de aproximação dos guarda-vidas CBMRS Iglesias, Luis da Fontoura; Corrêa, Ricardo de Assis e Castro, Flávio Antônio de S. Introdução: existem poucos estudos área do salvamento aquático. Esta situação reduz as fontes de consulta para as equipes que trabalham na formação do guarda-vidas. Sendo assim, surgiu o interesse e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Custo energético dos nados crawl e de aproximação dos guarda-vidas CBMRS Iglesias, Luis da Fontoura; Corrêa, Ricardo de Assis e Castro, Flávio Antônio de S. Introdução: durante a realização do salvamento aquático o guarda-vidas realiza mudança principal no nado crawl (NC) para permitir constante visualização da vítima. Esta alteração, nadar com a c...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as respostas da frequência média de ciclos de braçadas (FB) e da distância média percorrida por ciclo de braçada (DC) no nado crawl ao longo de série de natação na intensidade de 95% da velocidade média dos 400 m (V400), até a exaustão. Onze nadadores realizaram 400 m em máxima intensidade para determin...
Poster
Full-text available
The Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming (BMS) is a series of international symposia organized every four years. The BMS series started in 1970, in Brussels, by the hands of L. Lewillie and J.P. Clarys, with the first proceedings book published one year later. Since 1970, 12 scientific BMS books have been published (the 13th being the present volu...
Presentation
Full-text available
Kinematics of lifeguard’s front crawl and up-head front crawl to rescue in open-water environment
Presentation
Full-text available
Swimming speed in men’s 100-m freestyle confirms the fairness of the Paralympic Classification System: a meta-analysis
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Longitudinal studies in swimming are characterized by continuous or repeated data (quantitative, qualitative or both) collected over a period of at least two or more logically spaced time points, involving a combination of exposures and outcomes. Typically, longitudinal studies are stronger for examining cause-and-effect relationships than simple c...
Poster
Full-text available
DEXA it is an accurately way to analyze body composition, but not an accessible method in day life. Skinfold thickness are a practice and a cheaper way to access body fat from predictive equations. However, there are several equations available, each one with its characteristics. Regarding swimming master athletes, it was not possible to find, in l...