Fiorenza Micheli

Fiorenza Micheli
Stanford University | SU · Department of Biology

PhD

About

649
Publications
879,777
Reads
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54,635
Citations
Introduction
I am a marine ecologist and conservation biologist based at Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, California, USA.
Additional affiliations
January 2001 - present
Stanford University
Position
  • Professor
September 1996 - January 1999
University of California, Santa Barbara
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 1990 - August 1995
Education
August 1990 - August 1995
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Field of study
  • Marine Sciences

Publications

Publications (649)
Article
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To promote the resilience and sustainability of coastal social-ecological systems (SES), it is necessary to implement adaptive and participatory management schemes. Successful examples of adaptation to the rapid change in coastal SES exist, but the question of whether these cases may be scalable to other regions and contexts remains. To this end, t...
Article
Echinoderms often play key roles in structuring marine ecosystems. The bat star Patiria miniata is an abundant echinoderm in the kelp forests of the northeastern Pacific coast whose trophic ecology has been understudied. Understanding the trophic role of P. miniata is important given the recent declines of many sea star populations due to wasting d...
Article
Upwelling provides high amounts of nutrients that support primary production in coastal habitats, including giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera forests. Growth and recruitment of kelp forests are controlled by environmental conditions, including temperature, nutrient availability, and storms, as well as biotic interactions. However, our understanding o...
Article
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As part of a project focused on the coastal fisheries of Isla Natividad, an island on the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, we conducted a 2‐1/2 year study of flows at two sites within the island's kelp forests. At one site (Punta Prieta), currents are tidal, whereas at the other site (Morro Prieto), currents are weaker and may be more stro...
Article
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The ocean is facing multiple pressures from human activities, including the effects of climate change. Science has a prominent role in identifying problems and communicating these to society. However, scientists are also increasingly taking an active role in developing solutions, including strategies for adapting to and mitigating climate change, i...
Article
Anthropogenic stressors are predicted to alter biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide. However, scaling up from species to ecosystem responses poses a challenge, as species and functional groups can exhibit different capacities to adapt, acclimate, and compensate under changing environments. We used a naturally acidified seagrass ecosyste...
Article
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Blue foods play a central role in food and nutrition security for billions of people and are a cornerstone of the livelihoods, economies, and cultures of many coastal and riparian communities. Blue foods are extraordinarily diverse, are often rich in essential micronutrients and fatty acids, and can often be produced in ways that are more environme...
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Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a key tool for achieving goals for biodiversity conservation and human well-being, including improving climate resilience and equitable access to nature. At a national level, they are central components in the U.S. commitment to conserve at least 30% of U.S. waters by 2030. By definition, the primary goal of an MPA...
Article
Fisheries are often characterized by high heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of habitat quality, as well as fishing effort. However, in several fisheries, the objective of achieving a sustainable yield is addressed by limiting Total Allowable Catch (TAC), set as a fraction of the overall population, regardless of the population's spatial dis...
Article
Conservation strategies, such as the establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), aim to safeguard biodiversity and to promote resilience of ecosystems by increasing their capacity to maintain key functions and processes following disturbance. However, the extent to which ecosystems in MPAs exhibit resilience remains debated. To address this que...
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Though parasites are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems, predicting the abundance of parasites present within marine ecosystems has proven challenging due to the unknown effects of multiple interacting environmental gradients and stressors. Furthermore, parasites often are considered as a uniform group within ecosystems despite their significant diver...
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Local, regional and global targets have been set to halt marine biodiversity loss. Europe has set its own policy targets to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of marine ecosystems by implementing the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) across member states. We combined an extensive dataset across five Mediterranean ecoregions including...
Article
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Resilience of food systems is key to ensuring food security through crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic presents an unprecedented shock that reveals varying levels of resilience of increasingly interconnected food systems across the globe. We contribute to the ongoing debate about whether increased connectivity reduces or enhances resilience in the conte...
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In the last decades, many marine invertebrates have experienced dramatic declines throughout many coastal marine ecosystems worldwide due to overfishing, disease outbreaks, and climate vulnerability. Despite extensive conservation and restoration effort, evidence of successful population recovery is rare. In this work, we document mass mortality ev...
Article
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Over the past 4 decades there has been a growing concern for the conservation status of elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). In 2002, the first elasmobranch species were added to Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Less than 20 yr later, there were 39 species on Appendix II and 5 o...
Preprint
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Climate-smart conservation addresses the vulnerability of biodiversity to climate change impacts but may require transboundary considerations. Here, we adapt and refine 16 biophysical guidelines for climate-smart marine reserves for the transboundary California Bight ecoregion. We link several climate-adaptation strategies (e.g., maintaining connec...
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Marine conservation design and fisheries management are increasingly integrating biophysical, socio-economic and governance considerations. Integrative approaches are adopted to achieve more effective, equitable, inclusive, and robust marine policies and practices. This paper describes a participatory process to co-produce biophysical, socio-econom...
Article
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Ecosystems face both local hazards, such as over-exploitation, and global hazards, such as climate change. Since the impact of local hazards attenuates with distance from humans, local extinction risk should decrease with remoteness, making faraway areas safe havens for biodiversity. However, isolation and reduced anthropogenic disturbance may incr...
Article
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Marine conservation design and fisheries management are increasingly integrating biophysical, socio-economic and governance considerations. Integrative approaches are adopted to achieve more effective, equitable, inclusive, and robust marine policies and practices. This paper describes a participatory process to co-produce biophysical, socio-econom...
Article
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The dataset presented in this article contains information about marine Area-Based Management Tools (ABMTs) used to assess their contribution to the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. Following the scope of the analysis, ABMTs were identified by scrutinizing international and regional legal sources related to ocean management in the...
Preprint
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Ecological Risk Assessment is a formal process widely applied to terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems to evaluate the likelihood of adverse ecological effects occurring as a result of exposure to natural or anthropogenic stressors. For many species, data is sparse and semi-quantitative methodologies provide valuable insight for ecosystem...
Article
Global stressors are increasingly altering ecosystem resistance, resilience, and functioning by reorganizing vital species interactions. However, our predictive understanding of these changes is hindered by failures to consider species-specific functional roles and stress responses within communities. Stressor-driven loss or reduced performance of...
Article
Area-Based Management Tools (ABMTs) are spatial instruments for conservation and managing different forms of ocean use. A multitude of ABMTs exists in marine areas within and beyond national jurisdiction, ranging from tools for the regulation of specific human activities (e.g. fisheries, shipping, or mining) to cross-sectoral tools (e.g. such as ma...
Article
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Global change is striking harder and faster in the Mediterranean Sea than elsewhere, where high levels of human pressure and proneness to climate change interact in modifying the structure and disrupting regulative mechanisms of marine ecosystems. Rocky reefs are particularly exposed to such environmental changes with ongoing trends of degradation...
Article
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Aquatic foods from marine and freshwater systems are critical to the nutrition, health, livelihoods, economies and cultures of billions of people worldwide, but climate-related hazards may compromise their ability to provide these benefits. Here, we estimate national-level aquatic food system climate risk using an integrative food systems approach...
Article
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Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture (SSFA) provide livelihoods for over 100 million people and sustenance for ~1 billion people, particularly in the Global South. Aquatic foods are distributed through diverse supply chains, with the potential to be highly adaptable to stresses and shocks, but face a growing range of threats and adaptive challenge...
Article
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Kelp forests are globally important and highly productive ecosystems, yet their persistence and protection in the face of climate change and human activity are poorly known. Here, we present a 35-year time series of high-resolution satellite imagery that maps the distribution and persistence of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forests along ten de...
Article
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Declining oxygen is one of the most drastic changes in the ocean, and this trend is expected to worsen under future climate change scenarios. Spatial variability in dissolved oxygen dynamics and hypoxia exposures can drive differences in vulnerabilities of coastal ecosystems and resources, but documentation of variability at regional scales is rare...
Article
The productivity susceptibility analysis (PSA) is a widely used method to rapidly assess species risk to fishing activities in data‐poor fisheries. A step in ecological risk assessments and used in data‐poor assessment for sustainable fisheries certification programmes (e.g. MSC) and recommendation lists (e.g. Seafood Watch), the PSA is semi‐quanti...
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A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s00442-021-04886-y
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The increasing consideration of gender balance in conservation science and practice has been reflected in the setting of global commitments. Yet, women remain under-represented in science and conservation decision-making. We compiled and analyzed data on the representation of women in hiring, publishing, funding, and leadership positions in Europea...
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A bstract A search is presented for a Higgs boson that is produced via vector boson fusion and that decays to an undetected particle and an isolated photon. The search is performed by the CMS collaboration at the LHC, using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 130 fb − 1 , recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV in 2016–201...
Article
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A bstract Measurements of the fiducial inclusive and differential production cross sections of the Higgs boson in proton-proton collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV are performed using events where the Higgs boson decays into a pair of W bosons that subsequently decay into a final state with an electron, a muon, and a pair of neutrinos. The anal...
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A bstract Events containing one or more top quarks produced with additional prompt leptons are used to search for new physics within the framework of an effective field theory (EFT). The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 41.5 fb − 1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV at the LHC, collected by the CMS experi...
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A bstract Results are reported from a search for the lepton flavor violating decay τ → 3 μ in proton-proton collisions at $$ \sqrt{\mathrm{s}} $$ s = 13 TeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 33.2 fb − 1 recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016. The search exploits τ leptons produced in both W boson and heavy-flavo...
Article
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A bstract Evidence for Higgs boson decay to a pair of muons is presented. This result combines searches in four exclusive categories targeting the production of the Higgs boson via gluon fusion, via vector boson fusion, in association with a vector boson, and in association with a top quark-antiquark pair. The analysis is performed using proton-pro...
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Red tide causes significant damage to marine resources such as aquaculture and fisheries in coastal regions. Such red tide events occur globally, across latitudes and ocean ecoregions. Satellite observations can be an effective tool for tracking and investigating red tides and have great potential for informing strategies to minimize their impacts...
Article
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Unraveling the processes that drive diversity patterns remains a central challenge for ecology, and an increased understanding is especially urgent to address and mitigate escalating diversity loss. Studies have primarily focused on singular taxonomic groups, but recent research has begun evaluating spatial diversity patterns across multiple taxono...
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A search is presented for supersymmetric partners of the top quark (top squarks) in final states with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons), jets identified as originating from bquarks, and missing transverse momentum. The search uses data from proton-proton collisions at s=13TeV collected with the CMS detector, corresponding to an in...
Article
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A search for dark matter particles is performed using events with a Z boson candidate and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis is based on proton–proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 13Te, collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016–2018, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137fb-1. The search uses the deca...
Article
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In recent decades, global abalone aquaculture has significantly increased, while wild abalone fishery landings have decreased drastically, shifting production from fishing to farming. In California (USA) and Baja California (Mexico), overfishing and climate change- linked diseases are thought to be responsible for mass mortalities and significant d...
Preprint
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In most regions, the distribution of marine forests and the efficacy of their protection is unknown. We mapped the persistence of giant kelp forests across ten degrees of latitude in the Northeast Pacific Ocean and found that 7.7% of giant kelp is fully protected, with decreasing percentages from north to south. Sustainability goals should prioriti...
Article
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Oceans provide critical ecosystem services, but are subject to a growing number of external pressures, including overfishing, pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. Current models typically treat stressors on species and ecosystems independently, though in reality, stressors often interact in ways that are not well understood. Here, we...
Article
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A bstract A search for standard model Higgs bosons (H) produced with transverse momentum ( p T ) greater than 450 GeV and decaying to bottom quark-antiquark pairs ( $$ \mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $$ b b ¯ ) is performed using proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV. The data sample co...
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Measurements are presented of the single-diffractive dijet cross section and the diffractive cross section as a function of the proton fractional momentum loss ξ and the four-momentum transfer squared t. Both processes pp → pX and pp → Xp, i.e. with the proton scattering to either side of the interaction point, are measured, where X includes at lea...
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Given the recent trend towards establishing very large marine protected areas (MPAs) and the high potential of these to contribute to global conservation targets, we review outcomes of the last decade of marine conservation research in the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT), one of the largest MPAs in the world. The BIOT MPA consists of the atol...
Article
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A bstract The ratios of the production cross sections between the excited ϒ(2S) and ϒ(3S) mesons and the ϒ(1S) ground state, detected via their decay into two muons, are studied as a function of the number of charged particles in the event. The data are from proton-proton collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated lumino...
Article
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A bstract Decays of the 125 GeV Higgs boson into a Z boson and a ρ ⁰ (770) or ϕ(1020) meson are searched for using proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV. The analysed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb − 1 . Events are selected in which the Z boson decays into a...
Article
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Marine remote sensing provides comprehensive characterizations of the ocean surface across space and time. However, cloud cover is a significant challenge in marine satellite monitoring. Researchers have proposed various algorithms to fill data gaps "below the clouds", but a comparison of algorithm performance across several geographic regions has...
Article
Large marine protected areas (MPAs) of unprecedented size have recently been established across the global oceans, yet their ability to meet conservation objectives is debated. Key areas of debate include uncertainty over nations' abilities to enforce fishing bans across vast, remote regions and the intensity of human impacts before and after MPA i...
Article
Marine noise pollution (MNP) can cause a multitude of impacts on many organisms, but information is often scattered and general outcomes difficult to assess. We have reviewed the literature on MNP impacts on Mediterranean fish and invertebrates. Both chronic and acute MNP produced by various human activities - e.g. maritime traffic, pile driving, a...
Article
High pCO2 habitats and their populations provide an unparalleled opportunity to assess how species may survive under future ocean acidification conditions, and help to reveal the traits that confer tolerance. Here we utilize a unique CO2 vent system to study the effects of exposure to elevated pCO2 on trait‐shifts observed throughout natural popula...
Article
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The changing global climate is having profound effects on coastal marine ecosystems around the world. Structure, functioning, and resilience, however, can vary geographically, depending on species composition, local oceanographic forcing, and other pressures from human activities and use. Understanding ecological responses to environmental change a...
Article
Marine organisms and ecosystems face multiple, temporally variable stressors in a rapidly changing world. Realistic experiments that incorporate these aspects of physiological stress are important for advancing our ability to understand, predict, and manage their ecological impacts. However, the experimental systems needed to conduct such experimen...
Article
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A bstract A search for new physics in events with two highly Lorentz-boosted Z bosons and large missing transverse momentum is presented. The analyzed proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb − 1 , were recorded at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. The search utilizes the subst...