Fernando Limongi

Fernando Limongi
University of São Paulo | USP · Departamento de Ciências Políticas (Sao Paulo)

PhD

About

58
Publications
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9,599
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Publications

Publications (58)
Preprint
A hidden facet of democratization in the world over the past two centuries has been the increased weight of people’s voice in electing presidents. On the basis of new data on all presidential elections in the world since 1789, we show that they evolved from systems in which the final decision was made by someone other than voters, to systems in whi...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes the expansion of political participation in Brazil between 1945 and 2010. During this time, the country lived under three different political regimes: two democratic (1945–1964, 1985–2010) and one authoritarian (1964–1985). The analysis focuses on electoral participation, showing how social inequality impacted voters’ ability...
Article
The paper addresses the current Brazilian political crisis. It first discusses the return to traditional interpretations that see the combination between a presidential regime and a multiparty system as the main cause of the crisis. The paper criticizes this view and reasserts the more positive view about the Brazilian political system that merged...
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The paper addresses the current Brazilian political crisis. It first discusses the return to traditional interpretations that see the combination between a presidential regime and a multiparty system as the main cause of the crisis. The paper criticizes this view and reasserts the more positive view about the Brazilian political system that merged...
Research
Translation to Portuguese of "What makes democracies endure", by Adam Przeworski, Michael Alvarez, José Antônio Cheibub and Fernando Limongi.
Chapter
Argelina Cheibub Figueiredo and Fernando Limongi show that the political institutions and parliamentary modus operandi ensure the executive’s capacity to act, in spite of a number of—ultimately only theoretical—inadequacies. In the context of the institutional structure established in 1988, the country showed itself capable of overcoming, at least...
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Two distinct puzzles characterize the election of House members to the Brazilian Congress: first, in spite of Open-List Proportional Representation (OLPR) rules that allocate seats in proportion to vote shares, an overwhelming majority of parties prefer to form electoral coalitions and run joint lists of candidates. Second, under OLPR, the formatio...
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Neste artigo mostramos que as mudanças na base de apoio a Lula, que se tornam mais evidentes nas eleições de 2006, são mais bem explicadas por variáveis políticas. Para isso recorremos a uma base de dados original, agregada por seção eleitoral, e estendemos a análise incluindo outros partidos e as eleições que precederam aquele pleito. Por um lado,...
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This article assesses the emergence of competitive elections in Brazil after the fall of the “New State”. The main goal of the text is to demonstrate that the independence of electors – the freedom to vote – is not a necessary condition for the emergence of competitive elections. To this end, it is suggested that the adoption of the secret vote did...
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As eleições ao longo do Império tendem a ser desqualificadas pelos cientistas sociais. A presença indiscriminada e constante de altas doses de manipulação, violência e fraude comprovariam a impossibilidade da implantação do governo representativo no Brasil oitocentista. O texto procura redefinir os termos desse debate discutindo os efeitos da legis...
Article
The field of Latin American politics has undeniably achieved major advances in the last several decades. Nevertheless, one detects a growing intellectual unease and a sense that the excitement engendered by the pathbreaking work and heated debates of previous decades—focusing on authoritarianism, democratization, and market restructuring and relate...
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Murilllo, Schrank, and Luna opened up Pandora’s Box. From time to time, scholars need to be warned about what they are doing. They sounded the alarm, and we who study or live in Latin America should thank them for calling us to reason. They are right to call our attention to our past. We are heirs of Hirschman, O’Donnell, Cardoso, and others. Moreo...
Chapter
Während der ersten Dekade nach Inkrafttreten der brasilianischen Verfassung von 1988 hat sich in der Fachliteratur eine negative Sicht der Funktionalität des brasilianischen politischen Systems etabliert. Die Ursachen hierfür werden vorrangig in den institutionellen Weichenstellungen der verfassungsgebenden Versammlung gesehen. Die Weiterführung de...
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This article discusses the necessary conditions for a democratic government to prevail, with the study Coronelismo: the Municipality and Representative Government in Brazil as the point of departure. The article seeks to identify the book's causal explanations for the emergence of democracy, and more precisely for regimes in which governments lose...
Article
Resumo Until not very long ago, the literature on legislative-executive relations was bifurcated. It had evolved into two separate and independent bodies of work. One branch focused on parliamentary and the other on presidential systems, which were considered to represent two completely independent and alternative forms of government. Today a more...
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As eleições presidenciais têm se resumido a uma disputa entre PT e PSDB. Nenhuma candidatura alternativa foi capaz de ameaçar o controle desses partidos sobre a maioria dos eleitores. A estruturação das eleições presidenciais repercute sobre as disputas pelos governos estaduais, fazendo com que estas obedeçam à mesma clivagem básica. A estratégia d...
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According to a widely held view of Brazilian politics, part of the difficulty Presidents experience in governing the country stems from the fact that national legislators respond to pressures from the States rather than from the national government. Based on the argument, governors use their institutional position not only to influence national deb...
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This article examines the relative importance of regional and national forces in shaping the behavior of Brazilian legislators at the national level. A widely held view is that national legislators respond to state pressures in making decisions, rather than pressures from the national government. Governors not only can influence national debates bu...
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O artigo reconstitui a história eleitoral da cidade de São Paulo discutindo as eleições para prefeito transcorridas entre 1985 e 2004. Os resultados são explicados com base em um modelo que considera a interação entre as estratégias dos partidos e a transformação das preferências dos eleitores. Partidos de direita e de esquerda foram os grandes ven...
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There is no reason to treat the Brazilian political system as singular. Coalitions obey and are governed by party principles. The president, whose institutional power was enhanced by the 1988 Constitution, has a monopoly over legislative initiative, which approximates the Brazilian system to the European parliamentary democracies. Even though it is...
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The article challenges the contention that individual amendments are crucial for a system of exchanging favors with the Administration by members of Congress interested in distributive policies as a way of guaranteeing their reelection. By analyzing funds allocated through Congressional amendments, their distribution in different government program...
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Nada autoriza tratar o sistema político brasileiro como singular. Coalizões obedecem e são regidas pelo princípio partidário. O presidente, que teve seu poder institucional reforçado pela Constituição de 1988, detém monopólio sobre iniciativa legislativa, o que aproxima o sistema brasileiro das democracias parlamentaristas européias. Ainda que estr...
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The article challenges the contention that individual amendments are crucial for a system of exchanging favors with the Administration by members of Congress interested in distributive policies as a way of guaranteeing their reelection. By analyzing funds allocated through Congressional amendments, their distribution in different government program...
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Full-text available
The article challenges the contention that individual amendments are crucial for a system of exchanging favors with the Administration by members of Congress interested in distributive policies as a way of guaranteeing their reelection. By analyzing funds allocated through Congressional amendments, their distribution in different government program...
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Os autores sustentam que fatores econômicos e institucionais são suficientes para gerar uma explicação convincente da dinâmica das democracias sem que seja necessário recorrer à cultura. Concluem que, embora possa haver boas razões para esperar que culturas importem, o material empírico disponível provê pouco apoio para a concepção de que a democra...
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The authors hold that economic and institutional factors are sufficient to generate a convincing explanation of the dynamic of democracies without any resource to culture. Their conclusion is that, while there may be good reasons to expect that culture matters, the available empirical evidence provides little support for the view that democracy req...
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Acknowledgments: We thank Adam Przeworski, Tasos Kalandrakis and, especially, Argelina Cheibub Figueiredo, who has participated in many of the conversations that led to this paper. We also thank the Leitner Program in International Political Economy at Yale University for support for this research and the Fundação de Pesquisa e Amparo à Pesquisa do...
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This article challenges the interpretations concerning participation by Brazilian legislators in the budget process focused on incentives generated by the electoral legislation. We show that the rules and regulations governing the budget process affect the distribution of funds both between branches of government and within the legislative branch i...
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This article challenges the interpretations concerning participation by Brazilian legislators in the budget process focused on incentives generated by the electoral legislation. We show that the rules and regulations governing the budget process affect the distribution of funds both between branches of government and within the legislative branch i...
Book
Is economic development conducive to political democracy? Does democracy foster or hinder material welfare? These two questions are examined by looking at the experience of 135 countries between 1950 and 1990. Descriptive information, statistical analyses, and historical narratives are interwoven to gain an understanding of the dynamic of political...
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The article examines the effects of changes in constitutional and internal legislative regulations on the performance of the House of Representatives in law making. It presents an analysis of the flow of bills in the Lower House and the legal output in the post 1988 Constitution period, showing, on the one hand, the importance of the executive in t...
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Brazilian presidents have had considerable success in getting their agendas approved in the congress, contrary to the conventional wisdom regarding the functioning of the Brazilian multiparty presidential system. They have succeeded by relying on the support of disciplined parties. The agenda powers held by the president and party leaders allow the...
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This article tries to analyses the government of FHC as part of a more general pattern of Executive-Legislative relationship which are featured by a strong concentration of power in the hands of the President and the Party leaders as well. The centralization of the decisions that is noticed in this government has institutional basis, distinguishing...
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Contesta-se a idéia de que a Constituição brasileira de 1988 deixou intocada a base institucional que determina a lógica do funcionamento do sistema político. Assinalam-se mudanças significativas, como o aumento do poder legislativo do presidente da República e os novos mecanismos de controle da ação parlamentar postos à disposição das lideranças p...
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Com base na descoberta da importância dos fatores econômicos na sustentação das democracias os autores constatam, após observar 135 países entre 1950 e 1990, que riqueza, crescimento com inflação moderada, desigualdade em declínio, clima internacional favorável e - na dimensão institucional - parlamentarismo são condições propícias à preservação de...
Article
What makes political regimes rise, endure, and fall? The main question is whether the observed close relation between levels of economic development and the incidence of democratic regimes is due to democracies being more likely to emerge or only more likely to survive in the more developed countries. We answer this question using data concerning 1...
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This study presents a classification of political regimes as democracies and dictatorships for a set of 141 countries between 1950 or the year of independence and 1990. It improves existing classifications by a better grounding in political theory, an exclusive reliance on observables rather than on subjective judgements, an explicit distinction be...
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Journal of Democracy 7.1 (1996) 39-55 If a country, any randomly selected country, is to have a democratic regime next year, what conditions should be present in that country and around the world this year? The answer is: democracy, affluence, growth with moderate inflation, declining inequality, a favorable international climate, and parliamentary...
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La democracia en la esfera política ¿promueve o retarda el crecimiento económico? Los autores inician la discusión sobre esta cuestión con una revisión de los argumentos en pro y en contra de la democracia. A continuación, resumen estudios estadisticos en los cuales el régimen político es considerado como uno de los determinantes del crecimiento, i...
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Arguments that relate regimes to growth focus on property rights, pressures for immediate consumption, and the autonomy of dictators. While everyone seems to agree that secure property rights foster growth, it is controversial whether democracies or dictatorships better secure these rights. The main mechanism by which democracy is thought to hinder...
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RESUMO Nada autoriza tratar o sistema político brasileiro como sin-gular. Coalizões obedecem e são regidas pelo princípio partidário. O presidente, que teve seu poder institucional refor-çado pela Constituição de 1988, detém monopólio sobre iniciativa legislativa, o que aproxima o sistema brasileiro das democracias parlamentaristas européias. Ainda...
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RESUMO As dificuldades enfrentadas pelo governo para aprovar sua proposta de reforma da previdên-cia e os resultados por ele obtidos podem ser explicados pela natureza das medidas propostas e pelas regras de disputa no Congresso Nacional. Essas medidas são "politicamente inviáveis" porque impõem perdas certas e imediatas a grupos de eleitores, em t...
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A Constituição de 1988 garante ao Presidente de República o controle da agenda legislativa. O poder do executivo, portanto, é institucional, garantido pela Carta Constitucional. Os constituintes preservaram as vantagens institucionais com que o regime militar havia dotado o Poder Executivo. Nas áreas de maior interesse, como tributação, orçamentaçã...
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Introdução A constituição da área no Brasil é recente. A definição dos limites e as distinções com as demais áreas não são fáceis de ser estabelecidas. É difícil identificar a característica comum dos trabalhos normalmente associados à área. Seria por demais restritivo afirmar ou limitar a área a trabalhos que se ocupem do Poder Legislativo. No mai...

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