Fernando García

Fernando García
University of Valencia | UV · Department of Methodology of the Behavioural Sciences

PhD

About

106
Publications
202,754
Reads
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4,975
Citations
Citations since 2016
20 Research Items
3192 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Introduction
Fernando García, PhD, is Full Professor of Psychological Methods and Design of Research Studies in the Department of Methodology of the Behavioral Sciences at the University of Valencia, where he pursues a research agenda on methodology themes—robust statistics, power analysis, and confidence intervals—and measurement techniques of self-esteem and family socialization. He also has conducted research examining the cross-cultural validity of the four-typology model of parenting.
Additional affiliations
January 2006 - December 2011
Universitat de València

Publications

Publications (106)
Article
Full-text available
Although parental socialization has an influence on child development, current research is questioning which combination of parental strictness and warmth acts as protective or risk factors, especially during adolescence when the child is more vulnerable. The sample was 2125 participants, 58.7% female, divided into four age groups: adolescents (28....
Article
Full-text available
The present study analyzes the relationship between parental socialization practices, acceptance/involvement, and strictness/imposition, and different indicators of adolescent adjustment, taking into account the role of family self-esteem. A sample of 848 Spanish adolescents (54.70% females) ranging in age from 14 to 18 years old (M = 16.11, SD = 1...
Article
Full-text available
Recent emergent research is seriously questioning whether parental strictness contributes to children's psychosocial adjustment in all cultural contexts. We examined cross-generational differences in parental practices characterized by warmth and practices characterized by strictness, as well as the relationship between parenting styles (authoritat...
Article
Los objetivos: analizar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala breve de ansiedad ante la evaluación académica y comprobar si hay diferencias entre los alumnos que cursan una materia del área de metodología o de otras áreas. La muestra está formada por 404 alumnos de Psicología (M = 21.03 años, DT = 5.45). El 56.4% reciben formación en metodolo...
Article
Full-text available
Although self-esteem has traditionally been considered as an important correlate of psychosocial adjustment, some empirical studies have found a positive relationship between some domains of self-esteem and drug use among adolescents. The present study analyzes self-esteem and other adjustment personal indicators as protective or risk factors for s...
Article
Full-text available
Classical studies have found that parental warmth combined with parental strictness is the best parental strategy to promote children’s psychosocial development. Nevertheless, a growing set of emergent studies has questioned the benefits of parental strictness. The present study examined parental socialization and its short- and long-term impact on...
Article
Full-text available
Current emergent studies are seriously questioning if parental strictness contributes to adolescent adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between authoritative (warmth and strictness), authoritarian (strictness without warmth), indulgent (warmth without strictness), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting styles...
Article
Full-text available
Emergent research seriously questions the use of parental strictness as the best parenting strategy in all cultural contexts. Moreover, previous research on environmental socialization offers inconsistent findings about which specific parenting practices would be the most appropriate for environmental socialization. The present paper aims to examin...
Article
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The principle of invariance is a mandatory methodological requirement for the psychological measures, even when items such as self-concept measures frequently present asymmetric heavy-tailed distributions. Few validated self-concept instruments can be applied in Eastern-Western cross-cultural studies. The Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire (AF5...
Article
Full-text available
The present study analyzes the impact of parenting styles on adolescents' self-esteem and internalization of social values in three countries, Spain, Portugal and Brazil. The sample of the study was comprised of 2091 adolescents from Spain (n = 793), Portugal (n = 675), and Brazil (n = 623) from 12-18 years old (52.1% females). The four types of pa...
Article
Objective: We examine parenting styles (characterized by warmth and strictness, i.e., neglectful, indulgent, authoritarian and authoritative) as either a protective or risk factor for adolescence drinking. Design: Two 4 × 2 × 3 multi-factorial MANOVAs. Sample consisted of 996 underage Spanish adolescents, 532 males (53.4%), ranging from 15 to 17 ye...
Article
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We propose a new paradigm with three historical stages for an optimal parenting style (i.e., indulgent parenting style), which extends the traditional paradigm of only two stages (i.e., authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles). The three stages concur, at the same time, in different environments, context, and cultures. We studied the third...
Article
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Recent research that relates parenting with adolescent adjustment has shown the importance of considering the cultural context of the relationship. New results are emerging when considering the classical four-typologies model of parental socialization in some European and South-American countries. Among the instruments used in this emergent researc...
Article
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In this study, the association between parenting styles and short- and long-term socialization outcomes was analyzed using a two-dimensional model of four types of parenting styles. The socialization outcomes analyzed were self-esteem and internalization of social values. Participants were a sample of Spanish adolescents (n = 571) and older adults...
Article
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Self-concept is widely conceptualized as multidimensional (Shavelson et al., 1976). The Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire (AF5, García and Musitu, 2009) assesses five specific dimensions (i.e., academic, social, emotional, family, and physical). It is a psychometrically sound questionnaire, developed, and normed in Spain, which is widely used...
Article
This study analyzes the parenting styles that could act as risk or protective factors for bullying and cyberbullying victimization in Spain, considering the predisposition to aggression of the adolescents. The protective or risk effect of parenting styles for adolescents’ related behavior such as antisocial behavior, school adjustment, and self-est...
Article
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The aim of this study was to analyze the protective or risk factors of parental educational styles for the consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other drugs, considering the interaction of parenting styles with the dangerousness of the neighborhood. Based on the responses of 628 adolescents, 369 females (58.8%) and 259 males (41.2%) between...
Article
Engagement in school and self-concept are two main constructs to explain the school adjustment. To understand how engagement might change during adolescence, we analyzed early and middle adolescents’ engagement in school (cognitive, affective, behavioural, and personal agency) as a function of their level of self-concept. Participants were 685 adol...
Article
Engagement in school and self-concept are two main constructs to explain the school adjustment. To understand how engagement might change during adolescence, we analyzed early and middle adolescents’ engagement in school (cognitive, affective, behavioural, and personal agency) as a function of their level of self-concept. Participants were 685 adol...
Article
The values and attitudes toward education that parents transmit to their children considerably affect their school adjustment. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationships between academic adjustment in Spanish adolescents and parental socialization styles. Participants in the study were 487 adolescents (53.9% females) between 12 and 14 y...
Book
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=54336 https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=54382 Ebook - ISBN: 978-1-63482-536-8 Hardcover - ISBN: 978-1-63482-493-4 Ebook - ISBN: 978-1-63482-536-8 This book presents abundant emergent research works of American, European and Latin American countries...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes current evidence between parenting styles and parenting practices for the Spanish context. As opposed to traditional results obtained in Anglo-Saxon contexts with European-American samples, evidence from emergent research from Spain (a South European country) shows that adolescents from indulgent families (characterized by war...
Article
http://www.ehu.es/ojs/index.php/psicodidactica/article/view/10876 Contributing to the current debate in the literature about the optimal educational parenting style that benefits the best psychosocial adjustment of children, the aim of this study was to analyze which parenting style is related to the best psychological adjustment among Spanish adol...
Chapter
This chapter reviews recent literature analysing relationships between parenting styles and developmental outcomes. As opposed to traditional results obtained with Euro-American samples, evidence from emergent research in South European and Latin American countries indicates that adolescents from indulgent families scored equal or even better than...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores male police officers’ law enforcement preferences across different scenarios of interpersonal violence, involving intimate (partner violence against women) and non-intimate relationships (between- and within-gender). The influence of police officers’ sexist attitudes and empathy on their law enforcement preferences was also an...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study examines whether authoritative parenting style (characterized by warmth and strictness) is more protective against adolescent substances use than authoritarian (strictness but not warmth), indulgent (warmth but not strictness) and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting styles. Emergent research in diverse cultura...
Chapter
Background: Cyberbullying refers to an indirect and covert form of aggression, carried out through the use of new technologies, exhibiting distinct features from those found present in traditional bullying, and has been acquiring its own space of analyses and research; still, it maintains an inevitable proximity with the second, namely, the negativ...
Article
Full-text available
Police attitudes towards partner violence against women (PVAW) can play an important role in their evaluation and responses to this type of violence. The present study aims to examine ambivalent sexism and empathy as determinants of male police officers’ law enforcement attitudes towards PVAW. The study sample was composed by 404 male police office...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Spanish Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire (AF5) is one of the most widely used instruments assessing self-concept with Spanish-speaking samples. It is also one of the few psychometrically sound instruments assessing self-concept from a multidimensional perspective. The availability of the AF5 in both languages (Spanish and Eng...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el estilo de socializacion familiar como un factor de prevencion o riesgo para el consumo de sustancias con una muestra de 673 adolescentes espanoles de 14-17 anos (M = 15,49; DT = 1,06) de los cuales el 51,7% eran mujeres. Todos ellos completaron la Escala de Estilos de Socializacion Parental en Adolescente...
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze the parental socialization styles as a protective or a risk factor for substance use in a sample of 673 Spanish adolescents (51.7% were women) aged 14-17 (M = 15.49, SD = 1.06). All participants completed the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) and a scale of substance use. Additionally, they also completed a...
Article
This study analyzes the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent’s psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem) in the Portuguese culture. The sample was of 517 adolescents, 214 males (41.39%), and aged 11 to 18 years. The Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) was applied to measure parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent an...
Article
Full-text available
En este estudio se analiza la validez del criterio del 80% de potencia estadística para que no se solapen las medias de los intervalos de confianza (IC). Varias simulaciones indican que la potencia mínima para que los límites de dos medias no se solapen, cuando el IC está en el 95%, es de 0,80; pero cuando el IC está en el 99%, es 0,86; y cuando el...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzed perceptions of neighborhood violence of Spanish adolescents (N = 1,015) from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families, and its association with three sets of developmental outcomes (psychological, behavioral, and academic). Tests of main and interactive effects were conducted to answer research questions...
Article
The ESPA29 parental socialization scale allows for the measuring of four parental styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and negligent), considering the parents’ use of different socialization practices considered in this instrument, which are grouped into two factors or two independent dimensions of paternal conduct (acceptance/involvem...
Article
This paper analyses the five-factor structure of the AF5 Self-Concept Questionnaire in dance practitioners and non-practitioners. The responses of 1630 adults (490 dancers and 1.240 non dance practitioners) were analysed using structural equation modelling. The oblique factorial structure, proposed by the author’s scale, resulted in a better fit th...
Article
This paper analyses the five-factor structure of the AF5 Self-Concept Questionnaire in dance practitioners and non-practitioners. The responses of 1630 adults (490 dancers and 1.240 non dance practitioners) were analysed using structural equation modelling. The oblique factorial structure, proposed by the author's scale, resulted in a better fit th...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work is to examine the pentafactorial validity of the AF5 Self-Concept Questionnaire in Spanish and Chilean young adults. From the responses of a total of 4,383 young adults aged 17 to 22 years (1,918 Spanish, 44%, and 2,465 Chilean, 56%) it was analyzed the reliability of the instrument, the compared validity of the 5 oblique facto...
Article
Full-text available
Este estudio analiza la relacion entre el autoconcepto evaluado con una medida multidimensional, el cuestionario Autoconcepto Forma 5 (AF5), y el consumo de sustancias en los adolescentes. A partir de las respuestas de 632 adolescentes (47,5% mujeres), entre 12 y 17 anos (M = 14,88 anos, DT = 1,71 anos), los resultados mostraron relaciones negativa...
Article
Self-concept and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. This study analyses the relationship between a multidimensional measure of self-concept, Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (AF5), and a broad set of adolescents' psychosocial adjustment indicators. From the responses of 1,281 participants (53.7% females) aged 12 to 17 years (M= 14.98 years, S...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyses the relationship between a multidimensional measure of self-concept, Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (AF5), and a broad set of adolescents' psychosocial adjustment indicators. From the responses of 1,281 participants (53.7% females) aged 12 to 17 years ( M = 14.98 years, SD = 1.74 years), results indicated that higher self-con...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered—one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the o...
Article
Full-text available
he objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale (Musitu & García, 2001). This scale allows measuring parental styles - authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and negligent - by means of two independent dimensions of parental conduct extracted from parents' u...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzes the relationship between a multidimensional measure of self-concept, the Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (AF5), and drug use among adolescents. From the responses of 632 participants (47.5% females) aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.88 years, SD = 1.71 years), results showed negative relationships between family, academic and physic...
Article
Full-text available
Se aplicó un programa de innovación educativa para mejorar las actitudes hacia la metodología de los estudiantes de las asignaturas de las ciencias del comportamiento. Los estudiantes utilizaron datos reales para contrastar sus propias hipótesis utilizando diferentes análisis estadísticos, aplicando dos principios metodológicos claves para el contr...
Article
This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful), and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use). The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from fo...
Article
A programme of educational innovation was implemented to improve the attitude toward research methods for psychology students. Students used real data to test their own hypotheses using different statistical methods. Specifically, they implemented two key methodological principles in research methods: sample size and ordinal claims (Frick, 1996). S...
Article
A programme of educational innovation was implemented to improve the attitude toward research methods for psychology students. Students used real data to test their own hypotheses using different statistical methods. Specifically, they implemented two key methodological principles in research methods: sample size and ordinal claims (Frick, 1996). S...
Article
This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful), and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use). The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from fo...
Article
Full-text available
A programme of educational innovation was implemented to improve the attitude toward research methods for psychology students. Students used real data to test their own hypotheses using different statistical methods. Specifically, they implemented two key methodological principles in research methods: sample size and ordinal claims (Frick, 1996). S...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzed the influence of sexism (benevolent and hostile) and empathy on police attitudes towards intervening in partner violence against women (preferences to enforce the law depending on whether the victim is willing to press charges against the offender). The sample was 409 police officers. Results from a 2×2×2 factorial design yielde...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la influencia del sexismo (benevolente y hostil) y la empatía en las actitudes de la policía hacia la intervención en casos de violencia contra la mujer en las relaciones de pareja (preferencia por la intervención en función de que la víctima esté dispuesta o no a denunciar). La muestra está compuesta por 409...
Article
The aim of this research study was to analyse the optimum parental socialisation style in Spain as measured by the children's psychosocial adjustment. A sample of 948 children and teenagers from 10 to 14 years of age, of whom 52% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices Families were classified into one of four classic typol...
Article
This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered-one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the o...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research study was to analyse the optimum parental socialisation style in Spain as measured by the children's psychosocial adjustment. A sample of 948 children and teenagers from 10 to 14 years of age, of whom 52% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. Families were classified into one of four classic typo...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explored public willingness to act when exposed to cases of intimate partner violence against women, by analyzing the influence of perceived severity and personal responsibility on two types of responses: mediating and reporting to the police. Results (N = 419) yielded main effects of personal responsibility for both types of responses....
Article
Full-text available
This investigation includes a differential study (Study 1) and a quasi-experimental research (Study 2). In Study 1, the objective was to establish to what extent students’ rights existed and analyse the differentiation between students’ rights with Portuguese and immigrant mothers, throughout school years. The sample consisted of 537 students with...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to establish which parenting style is associated with optimum youth outcomes among adolescents of Spanish families. A sample of 1,416 teenagers from 12 to 17 years of age, of whom 57.2% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. The teenagers' parents were classified into one of four groups (authorita...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen Para las mujeres víctimas de violencia en las relaciones de pareja, en muchas ocasiones, es la Policía la principal forma de acceso al sistema legal. Para que esto suceda, la actitud de la policía ante la intervención en los casos de violencia contra la mujer pueden jugar un papel determinante, por lo que es importante conocer qué variables...
Article
Full-text available
Design and power analysis: n and confidence intervals of means. In this study, we analyzed the validity of the conventional 80% power. The minimal sample size and power needed to guarantee nonoverlapping (1 - α)% confidence intervals for population means were calculated. Several simulations indicate that the minimal power for two means (m= 2) to ha...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we analyzed the validity of the conventional 80% power. The minimal sample size and power needed to guarantee non-overlapping (1-alpha)% confidence intervals for population means were calculated. Several simulations indicate that the minimal power for two means (m = 2) to have non-overlapping CIs is .80, for (1-alpha) set to 95%. The...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of perceived severity and sense of personal responsibility of police officers on their level of involvement in cases of intimate partner violence against women is analyzed. Three levels of police involvement are considered: low, medium, and high. The sample consists of 143 Spanish police officers. A 2 x 2 x 3 factorial design is condu...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between parenting styles and adolescent outcomes was analyzed in a sample of 1,198 15-18-year-old Brazilians. The adolescents were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful) on the basis of their own ratings of their parents on two dimensions: Acceptance/ Involvement and Strictness/Impositio...
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of research suggests that the authoritative style of parenting is not always necessarily associated with optimum psychological and social outcomes among adolescents. This paper analyzed the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents' psychological adjustment using a two-dimension four-typology model of parenting styles, w...