Fernando Casal Bértoa

Fernando Casal Bértoa
University of Nottingham | Notts

PhD

About

83
Publications
31,005
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921
Citations
Citations since 2017
59 Research Items
786 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
The Institutionalization of European Party Systems: Explaining Party Competition in 48 Democracies (1848-2014) (see: whogoverns.eu)
Additional affiliations
August 2018 - present
University of Nottingham
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
October 2016 - July 2018
University of Nottingham
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
October 2013 - September 2016
University of Nottingham
Position
  • Fellow

Publications

Publications (83)
Chapter
This chapter examines how policy analysis is conducted within political parties in Spain. Firstly, it provides a description of the main characteristics, developments and policy analysis trends in the case of both mainstream and challenger parties, as well as small and regional parties represented in the Spanish Parliament. Subsequently, the chapte...
Article
Like with Haute Couture, in political science there are also fashions. In the 1990s party system change was the flavour of the day, and Peter Mair its uttermost pontiff. The popularity of the topic fadde away with the new century, especially after the 2008 Great Recession made buzzwords like populism and democratic backsliding, among others, more f...
Article
The Oxford Handbook of Portuguese Politics brings together the best scholars in the field offering an unrivalled coverage of the politics (broadly defined) of the country over the past 50 years. The Handbook includes eight sections. First, we look at the ‘Past and Present’ by making an overview of Portuguese political developments since democratiza...
Article
This chapter discusses the legal regulation of political parties in Portugal since the democratic transition in 1974 until the present day. We provide an overview of the legal parameters and changes over time in three key types of laws: the national constitution, party laws, and party finance laws. Our analysis shows that Portugal stands out in a r...
Book
This book represents the first comprehensive study of the evolution of parties and party systems in all nine democratic European states with less than one million inhabitants. As small political units have for long been considered to be most conducive to stable democracy, this volume analyses the actual role of political parties and partisan compet...
Article
Full-text available
An institutionalized party system is often regarded as a precondition for a well-functioning democracy. Recent recesses in democracy and, in particular, in the liberal dimension of democracy in relatively established party systems, however, warrant a fresh look into how party system institutionalization shapes liberal democracy. We use a dataset th...
Article
Focusing on the relationship between the access of political parties to direct public funding and electoral support for anti-political-establishment (e.g. populist, extremist) parties (APEp), this article tries to fill an important gap in the literature. Whereas previous contributions, mostly focused on the United States or established democracies...
Article
Full-text available
Arguably, the most fundamental question one can ask about a party system is whether it is bipolar or not. Based on theoretical conjectures and on tendencies one observed during the 1990s and early 2000s, as well as reflecting the position of the academic community at the time (e.g. [Bale, T. (2003). Cinderella and Her ugly sisters: The mainstream a...
Chapter
Introduction As noted in the introduction to this volume, policy analysis can be understood as ‘a method for structuring information and providing opportunities for the development of alternative choices’ (see Chaqués-Bonafont and Jordana, this volume). While such a definition may be widely accepted, its implications are far from obvious, since, fo...
Article
Comprising 172 years of European history (from 1848 to 2020), the Who governs dataset provides comprehensive and highly detailed information on the partisan composition of European governments, matching these data with information on those aspects of party politics that can either help to understand the dynamics of the governmental arena or are und...
Data
The current database contains information about cabinet composition and party system development in 48 European democratic states. European indicates those countries stretching from the Atlantic to the Urals. Democratic refers to those countries displaying (1) a score of 6 or higher in the Polity IV index, (2) universal suffrage elections (includin...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This comparative study examines how Post-Legislative Scrutiny (PLS) of election campaign finance regulations can help legislators to monitor and evaluate whether the laws they have passed are implemented as intended and have achieved the expected effects. Also, the study explains how PLS can be instrumental in identifying the reasons why the implem...
Article
Electoral stability has been viewed as an essential condition for the healthy functioning of representative democracy. However, there is little agreement in the literature about what shapes the stability of the electorate in general nor much attention paid to that of the Asian electorates in particular. We propose historical legacies, uniquely test...
Article
In this report, we shed light on the institutionalization of political parties in Mongolia. Even though scholars have proposed over ten different dimensions of party institutionalization, most agree that social rootedness and party systemness/routinization are the two main ones. Trying to capture these two dimensions, and measure the current level...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ahead of the European Commission’s drafting of legislative proposals to reform European political parties, this addendum, by European Democracy Consulting and REPRESENT, supplements their OSCE/ODIHR report with another 9 recommendations and goes more in-depth for certain sections of the report. Link: https://eudemocracy.eu/49-recommendations-europe...
Article
Full-text available
Polarization is not new in Europe. Looking at electoral support for radical political forces after the Second World War, one can observe how polarization has been on the rise since the 1960s. Still, it is in the 1990s, with the thaw of European party systems and the subsequent emergence of (populist) radical parties, that the percentage of votes fo...
Chapter
The fourth chapter presents the profile and the condensed history of the 21 historical party systems that ceased to be democratic. Here we discuss the dynamics of the changes, and relate them to the ideological configurations and alliance structures. We show that the changes in closure figures indicate well the transformations of party politics, we...
Chapter
This chapter presents the profile and the condensed history of the 41 currently functioning party systems. Here we discuss the dynamics of the changes, and relate them to the ideological configurations and alliance structures. We show that the changes in closure figures indicate well the transformations of party politics, we link developments in th...
Chapter
After comparing the different indicators (i.e. party institutionalization, fragmentation, polarization, volatility and closure) employed in the book, we show how the Cold War period (1945–1989) was exceptionally stable, especially in contrast to the inter-war and post-Berlin Wall periods. We also show how currently the West looks increasingly like...
Chapter
The fifth chapter identifies the most important common trends across time in closure, contrasting core and periphery countries, various macro-regions of Europe, and different time periods. Dividing the total time span into smaller blocs allows us to control for the age of the party systems, and to see how time-bound the identified configurations ar...
Chapter
The sixth chapter relates the changes in closure and volatility to general political developments, but it mainly concerns itself with opposing the birth year of party systems to their age. Of course, within the group of currently existing systems these two coincide, but if one adds to the pool historical cases, then one can investigate whether thos...
Chapter
The eighth chapter looks into inter-temporal and cross-sectional differences in the effective number of parliamentary parties, and analyses the covariation between closure and fragmentation. The chapter allows us to revisit classical debates in comparative politics about the merits and vices of two- and multi-party systems. After showing how the in...
Chapter
The seventh chapter establishes a theoretical distinction between the party- and the systemic-level analysis of party politics. We introduce new measures of party institutionalization, describe cross-temporal and cross-regional trends, and establish the degree of covariance between closure and party institutionalization. Even though there are many...
Chapter
This chapter provides a comprehensive explanatory model of party system closure. The model includes the variables analysed in the previous chapters (i.e. age and birth period of democracy, party institutionalization, parliamentary fragmentation, and polarization), with the addition of the degree of economic development, the type of electoral system...
Chapter
The second chapter introduces the dataset of the book, defines its units of measurement, and operationalizes its key concepts. We discuss the method of creating our principal tool of analysis, the composite closure index. We reflect in detail on the question of how experiences accumulated through time can be taken into account when measuring stabil...
Chapter
The final chapter examines the impact of party system closure on the survival as well as the quality of democracy. We consider the question of whether closure is a necessary or sufficient precondition for the survival of democracy, and whether the other often proposed measures of party system stability, especially electoral volatility and parliamen...
Chapter
On New Year’s Day 1993 Czechoslovakia was dissolved, giving place to two new European countries, Czechia and Slovakia. Czechs and Slovaks lived under Habsburg rule for centuries, then, between 1918 and 1938 and between 1945 and 1993, under a common state. Their coexistence, their shared culture and their common experience of Communism provided them...
Chapter
The first chapter lays the foundation for a cooperation-focused way of thinking about party politics. It provides reasons why its analysts should go beyond individual parties and consider blocs of parties. It introduces the concept of poles, as distinct from blocs, and builds a party system typology around them. The second part of the chapter elabo...
Chapter
The ninth chapter considers polarization as a systemic property, manifested by the proportion of votes collected by anti-political-establishment parties. We find that virtually all party systems that collapsed had high levels of polarization. We also detect a clear tendency towards increasing polarization during the last half century, with importan...
Book
The Introduction starts with some examples of pairs of old and new democracies, some larger, some smaller, some in the East, some in the South, and illustrates how party system development can differ despite very similar background conditions. We then proceed to identify four main factors that differ within each pair, as possible explanations of th...
Article
Over recent decades, democracies have seen a decline in support for traditional political parties. In parallel, the vote shares of populist and other antiestablishment forces have increased dramatically, especially during the last decade. As maintained elsewhere, the latter development is the consequence of the former, with its negative consequence...
Preprint
External shocks have been shown to be able to alter countries' political dynamics in a deep manner. The number of works examining the impact of economic crisis, natural disasters or even terrorist attacks are numerous. However, the literature addressing the political effects of the current Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is still in its infancy. De...
Chapter
The study of political parties and party systems is intimately linked to the development of modern political science. The configuration of party competition varies across time and across polities. In order to capture this variance, one needs to go beyond the analysis of individual parties and to focus on their numbers (i.e. fragmentation), their in...
Article
That political parties are in a deep crisis is nothing new. The number of works foreseeing the decline of representative democracy is copious. However, studies that empirically examine the relationship between support for anti-political-establishment parties and liberal democracy are almost a rara avis. This article tries to fill a gap in the liter...
Article
The rise in support for anti-political-establishment parties (APEp), especially since the beginning of the 2008 Great Recession, has put democracy in peril. Some scholars have warned us about the negative impli- cations the recent rise of APEp might have for the development of democracy in Western Europe. For that reason, it is important we begin t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report reviews and analyses party financing regulation in 13 African countries, drawing on an in depth scrutiny of party legislation and personal interviews1 with representatives of nine different political parties2 in more than half of those countries (i.e. Angola, Malawi, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Uganda). It examines the compl...
Article
Full-text available
Much has been written about what makes political parties form, persist, change and die. One factor often brought into this discussion is the availability of resources in general and the state financing of political parties in particular. However, an empirical link at the aggregate level is difficult to establish because of various issues of concept...
Article
Full-text available
The recent global financial crisis has been a serious stress test for representative democracies. Voter support has sup- posedly become more volatile, fragmented, and polarized, leaving elites with an intricate mix of economic and political challenges. However, a closer look at a new data set of European party systems during three major crises (192...
Article
Full-text available
This article looks at the development of Southern European party systems between the moment of their independence (Malta and Cyprus) and democratisation (Portugal, Greece and Spain) and before the beginning of 2012, at the highest point of the global financial and economic crisis. In particular, it constitutes the first attempt since Morlino’s path...
Article
Full-text available
Los partidos políticos tradicionales de los países de Europa occidental han conseguido un menor apoyo electoral en las elecciones que se han celebrado recientemente. Desde la Gran Recesión, nuevos partidos han entrado en sistemas de partidos consolidados y formaciones que hasta el momento ocupaban un segundo plano en la vida política – la mayoría d...
Article
Full-text available
This article is part of the special cluster titled Parties and Democratic Linkage in Post-Communist Europe, guest edited by Lori Thorlakson, and will be published in the August 2018 issue of EEPS In an article written in 1995 titled “What Is Different about Postcommunist Party Systems?” Peter Mair applied the method that he called “ ex adverso extr...
Book
Full-text available
The question of how political parties are, and ought to be, regulated has assumed an increased importance in recent years, both within the scholarly community and among policy-makers and politicians as the state assumes an increasingly active role in the management of, and control over, their behaviour and organisation This book concentrates on the...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we study the development of the Polish party system since the 1989 Round Table talks, examining the impact that populism might have had on the party system, especially given that populist forces have been present in Poland since its transition to democracy and that populism has always permeated its party system.
Article
Full-text available
Democracy is currently considered to be in global crisis. This is often specified as a crisis of political parties. This article investigates whether this is true for Asia by comparing the state of Asian and European political parties. It finds that, first, despite some exceptions, Asian political parties are considered comparatively trustworthy an...
Article
Full-text available
Although much has been written about the process of party system institutionalization in different regions, the reasons why some party systems institutionalize while others do not still remain a mystery. Seeking to fill this lacuna in the literature, and using a mixed-methods research approach, this article constitutes a first attempt to answer sim...
Article
When democracies ban political parties, one of the central issues that usually emerges in both public and academic debate concerns the effects of proscription. Some argue that proscription may lead to radicalisation, a growth of militancy and readiness to use violence. Others argue that, in the long run, banning parties may damage the foundations o...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction – Explaining party bans, political and legal contexts – Banned parties and banning states in Europe, the political context – Nature of banned parties – Nature of banning states – Tolerant and intolerant democracies, the legal context – Evolving rationales for party bans and procedures for proscription – Contemporary rationales for bann...
Article
Full-text available
No matter the region of the world under study, party (system) institutionalisation has been traditionally considered to be a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the survival of democracy. Despite being one of the most quoted statements in the democratisation literature, the few studies looking at the relationship between institutionalisati...
Article
Full-text available
¿Quién no ha escuchado que la democracia está en crisis? Elección tras elección, desde Filipinas hasta los Estados Unidos de América, pasando por África, Latinoamérica o la misma Europa, observamos cómo partidos y/o candidatos de corte populista (o anti- establishment) han venido ganando adeptos en las últimas décadas, y muy especialmente desde la...
Article
Full-text available
Since Mainwaring and Scully’s resurrection of the concept in 1995, party system institutionalisation has become something of a buzzword to which many refer without a proper definition. Indeed, most scholars simply assume that its meaning is clear and unproblematic, focusing all subsequent efforts on developing operational indicators, but without re...
Article
Full-text available
div class="title">New Parties in Old Party Systems: Persistence and Decline in Seventeen Democracies. By Bolleyer Nicole . New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2013. 272p. $90.00 - Volume 14 Issue 4 - Fernando Casal Bértoa
Conference Paper
The recent global financial crisis has been a serious stress test for representative democracies. Voter support has sup- posedly become more volatile, fragmented, and polarized, leaving elites with an intricate mix of economic and political challenges. However, a closer look at a new data set of European party systems during three major crises (192...
Article
Full-text available
Party regulation in general and its systemic consequences in particular have not been a matter of concern for scholars until very recently. Despite recent efforts to study how political parties are regulated in post-authoritarian democracies and in conflict-prone societies, the question of how party legislation affects party formation and party sys...
Article
Full-text available
The degree of closure of the governmental arena is a central aspect of the stabilization of party systems, and yet little systematic effort has been devoted to its operationalization. The article proposes a new index, examines its reliability and validity, and reports the ranking of 60 party systems. By redefining the units of measurement we sugges...
Article
Full-text available
In the second half of 2015 Poland held a referendum in which voters were asked to give their opinion on the way party funding was regulated. Of those 7.8 percent of voters who turned out at the polls, only 17.4 percent voted in favour of the system of public funding in force at the time. Taking into consideration such a “negative” social opinion re...
Book
Full-text available
This edited collection, in honour of the late political scientist Peter Mair, contains original chapters that are directly linked to his theoretical and/or methodological ideas and approaches. Peter Mair demonstrated that political parties have traditionally been central actors in European politics and an essential focus of comparative European pol...
Article
Full-text available
The article analyses the party finance model in Spain, and delivers longitudinal data on the performance of the model for the political parties between 2007 and 2013. In this period, public finance has been the predominant source for political parties, with an increasing role for the regional and local administrations. The ban of anonymous donation...
Article
Full-text available
In the first stage of democratic transition, like in most post-communist countries, Poland adopted a more laissez-faire stance towards the regulation of political parties. These regulations, like the one adopted in 1990, were a natural response to the former Communist system and represented a rejection of its restrictions and a fear of a one-party...
Article
Full-text available
This article, a detailed analysis of the content of the legislation on political parties in postcommunist Slovakia, constitutes one part of a broad-based attempt to discover the extent to which changes in the patterns of party regulation have affected party system formation and development. In Slovakia the answer is “not much”, but the process by w...
Article
Full-text available
Recent years have seen a considerable increase in the scope and magnitude of party regulations. Despite the increased propensity of the modern democratic states to intervene in the activities, organisation and behaviour of parties, the phenomenon of party regulation has received relatively little systematic and comparative scholarly attention. In o...
Article
Full-text available
Political finance regulation is often praised in terms of its ability to introduce equality among political parties, to create more transparent political parties and to lower the influence of affluent donors on the political decision-making process. Little examination exists, however, of the effectiveness of this type of regulation. This article ai...
Article
Full-text available
Despite its increasing importance, the phenomenon of party regulation has hitherto received relatively little systematic and comparative scholarly attention. The contributions to this special issue fill part of this lacuna by evaluating the various dimensions of party regulation and their impact on the parties and the party systems in post-authorit...
Article
Full-text available
Party regulation in new democracies in general, and in the Spanish political system in particular, has not been a matter of concern until very recently. In order to fill this gap, this article explores the way political parties have been regulated not only in the Constitution, but also in the main laws regulating party foundation, organisation, dis...
Article
Full-text available
Since Lipset and Rokkan (1967) published their seminal work on the importance of social cleavages for the ‘freezing’ of party systems more than forty years ago, much has been written on the field demonstrating or discrediting the original hypothesis. In the current article, I examine how cleavage formation and development have influenced the differ...
Article
Full-text available
Adopting Ionescu's qualitative approach to political science, and building on Sartori's definition of party system, this article examines the degree to which European (both East and West) party systems have developed since the collapse of communism in 1990 in all three major areas of partisan competition: parliamentary, governmental and electoral....
Article
Full-text available
Party system institutionalisation has traditionally been viewed as a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the healthy functioning of democracy; yet the question of why some of these competitive party systems managed to institutionalise at the end of the second decade of party politics while others have not has not received the necessary att...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is the first systematic attempt to map the evolution of legal regulations concerning campaign finance in post-communist Romania and to link them with corruption practices parties have been engaged in, over the last decade. Our document analysis reveals a general increase in the complexity of the legal framework regulating campaign spendi...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
Este proyecto engloba aquellos trabajos sobre sistema electoral y de partidos en España y en sus comunidades autónomas.
Project
The goal of this project is to study the factors behind the support for populist parties.