Fergus Nicol

Fergus Nicol
Oxford Brookes University · Oxford Institute for Sustainable Development (OISD)

BSc

About

202
Publications
98,751
Reads
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10,719
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 1998 - present
London Metropolitan University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (202)
Chapter
The adaptive model of thermal comfort is an essential method for the design of resilient buildings because it embraces both place, and season specific temperatures ranges within its comfort zones. This chapter demonstrates the importance of this fact by quantifying seasonal differences of comfort temperature in twenty-three offices in Japan. Monthl...
Article
Full-text available
Oversimplifying occupant behaviour using static and standard schedules has been identified as a limitation of building energy simulation tools. This paper describes the use of hierarchical cluster analysis to establish the most typical indoor temperature profiles of Albanian dwellings based on monitored indoor temperatures in winter and summer, alo...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the description of comfort models for Ventilative Cooling. In particular, the adaptive comfort approach is described in full practical detail with an eye to related standards and regulations and designing buildings which will allow occupants to make themselves comfortable.
Article
Office workers use a variety of adaptive opportunities to regulate their indoor thermal environment. The behavioural adaptations such as window opening, clothing adjustments, heating/cooling use are one of the important factors for the adaptive thermal comfort. It is well-known that they are the most important contributors in the adaptive thermal c...
Article
The adaptive approach to thermal comfort shows that there is not a single comfortable temperature. A wide range of the temperatures which occur in indoor environments can be found acceptable to building occupants depending on their individual experiences and circumstances. This paper extends the approach introduced in a recent paper [1] to learn th...
Article
In order to quantify the seasonal differences in the comfort temperature and to develop a domestic adaptive model for highly insulated Japanese dwellings, thermal measurements and a thermal comfort survey were conducted. We collected 19,081 thermal comfort votes from 94 residents of 69 flats. The results suggest that the residents are highly satisf...
Article
Expert guidance in the UK suggests a limit to temperatures in bedrooms to of 26°C or less to avoid overheating. This short paper looks at the temperatures in bedrooms and uses data from comfort surveys combined with models which link comfort to the thermal environment. Evidence is given that people sleep comfortably where temperatures are 29–31°C i...
Article
Full-text available
In order to quantify the seasonal differences in the comfort temperature and to develop a domestic adaptive model for Japanese dwellings, thermal measurements, a thermal comfort survey, and an occupant behaviour survey were conducted for 4 years in the living and bedrooms of dwellings in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 36,114 thermal c...
Article
Full-text available
Office workers use a variety of adaptive opportunities to regulate their indoor thermal environment. The behavioural adaptations such as window opening, clothing adjustments, and use of heating/cooling are important factors for adaptive thermal comfort. It is well-known that they are the most important contributors in the adaptive thermal comfort m...
Chapter
Full-text available
This short chapter introduces the causal relationship between the behaviour of building occupants, their comfort and the energy used by the buildings. It suggests that much of the behaviour is motivated by the desire of the occupants to make themselves comfortable and to optimise the environment. The provision of comfortable conditions in domestic...
Chapter
The adaptive approach to thermal comfort recognises that people are not passive with regard to their thermal environment, but actively control it to secure comfort. Thermal comfort can thus be seen as a self-regulating system, incorporating not only the heat exchange between the person and the environment but also the physiological, behavioural and...
Article
Full-text available
Window opening behavior and thermal comfort were monitored in relation to the thermal environment over a 4 year period in the living rooms and the bedrooms of dwellings in the Kanto region of Japan. 36 144 sets of physical and subjective data were collected from 243 residents of 120 dwellings. This paper explores relationships between the different...
Article
Full-text available
Recognizing the value of open-source research databases in advancing the art and science of HVAC, in 2014 the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II project was launched under the leadership of University of California at Berkeley's Center for the Built Environment and The University of Sydney's Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Laboratory. The...
Book
These are the proceedings of the tenth Windsor Conference held at the Cumberland Lodge conference centre in Windsor Great Park, UK. You are advised to download and save the file to your own computer (145Mb) to ensure the links within the book are active and save download time. Other information about the Conference is available at the website http:...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Legacy Document from the International Conference PLEA 2017 Design to Thrive, held in Edinburgh 2-5th July 2017. Contains the reports from all the 31 Forum Leaders
Book
Full-text available
Proceedings from the 33rd International Conference PLEA 2017 Design to Thrive, held in Edinburgh 2-5th July 2017. This is the E-Book volume I out of three. PLEA 2017 Conference www.plea2017.net
Book
Full-text available
Proceedings from the International Conference PLEA 2017 Design to Thrive, held in Edinburgh 2-5th July 2017. This is the E-Book volume II out of three. PLEA 2017 Conference www.plea2017.net
Book
Full-text available
Proceedings from the International Conference PLEA 2017 Design to Thrive, held in Edinburgh 2-5th July 2017. This is the E-Book volume III out of three. PLEA 2017 Conference www.plea2017.net
Article
This study investigates whether children's thermal perception at home and their dominant behaviour to achieve thermal comfort are related to their socio-economic background and contribute to their thermal perception at school. The indoor operative temperatures of 27 classrooms were collected during the cooling season of 2014–2015 from eight primary...
Article
In recent years, the urgent need to adapt our lifestyles and buildings to deal with a more extreme and a warming climate has become clear, not least through the increasing overheating of buildings. This is reflected in the rising concerns about the discomfort and heat stress to building occupants caused by the increasing indoor temperatures. Europe...
Article
This study investigates the seasonal adaptation to temperature that occurs in Japanese offices, with a view to suggesting an adaptive model for them. Temperatures were measured in 11 office buildings and thermal comfort transverse surveys of occupants were conducted for over a year in the Tokyo and Yokohama areas of Japan. A total of 4660 samples w...
Article
It might be assumed that buildings with active mechanical heating/cooling systems will have a narrower indoor temperature range than those without: that the indoor temperature will be adjusted by the system to reflect the needs of occupants, which are approximately the same for all. This assumption is critically examined through the records of indo...
Article
Full-text available
There is a direct link between the attainment of children at school and the thermal conditions in classrooms and there are guidelines in place to help designers provide the most effective thermal conditions. However, results from thermal comfort surveys and the collection of the perception of 662 pupils, aged between 8 and 11 in 27 naturally ventil...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Overheating is becoming a problem in buildings in the city centre. This situation is further exacerbated by the Urban Heat Island phenomena and by climate change. High levels of urbanisation and design decisions that compromise the use of passive technologies e.g. opening windows, have resulted in more active systems being used for cooling. This ha...
Book
Full-text available
Preface to the Proceedings of the 9th Windsor 2016 at Cumberland Lodge, Windsor For many the costs of providing acceptable indoor temperatures have become prohibitive. Around the world people already have to make stark choices on whether to spend money on heating and cooling or on eating. The science of comfort developed in the 20th century around...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The awareness of climate change and the increasingly urgent need to reduce carbon emissions in buildings and cities is growing in parallel with concerns with the comfort of occupants due to the rising temperatures. Recent comfort theories have acknowledged the interaction between people and their surrounding environment. BS15251 and TM52 have sugge...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Accepted sources tend to assume that buildings with active mechanical heating/cooling systems will have a narrower indoor temperature range than those without. The assumption is that the indoor temperature will be adjusted to reflect the comfort needs of occupants, which are assumed to be approximately the same for all. Using records of indoor temp...
Book
The book tells the story of the development of the sdaptive approach to thermal comfort from its origins in the 1960s, looks critically at some methods of statistical analysis, and shows various worldwide trends in thermal comfort field study results.
Article
Full-text available
In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 13,525 thermal comfort votes from over 239 residents of 120 homes, together with cor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The awareness of climate change and the increasingly urgent need to reduce carbon emissions in buildings and cities is growing in parallel with concerns with the comfort of occupants due to the rising temperatures. Passive strategies for heating and cooling are first line of defence to the effects of climate change (Nicol, 2012; Roaf, 2015). Recent...
Book
Full-text available
EDITORIAL A conference for Masters students in sustainable buildings The amount of energy used by a building can vary enormously depending on its relation not just to the climate and the design and operation of the building, but also to the habits and behaviour of its occupants. The core and specialized engineering science and architectural disci...
Book
Full-text available
EDITORIAL A conference for Masters students in sustainable buildings The amount of energy used by a building can vary enormously depending on its relation not just to the climate and the design and operation of the building, but also to the habits and behaviour of its occupants. The core and specialized engineering science and architectural discip...
Book
Full-text available
Preface to the Proceedings of the 8th Windsor Conference 2014 at Cumberland Lodge, Windsor For many the costs of providing acceptable indoor temperatures have become prohibitive. In Japan energy rationing has become necessary after the destruction of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The repercussions in the Japanese energy markets have made critical c...
Article
Providing thermal comfort in schools has a significant impact on students' performance and health. Climate change may result in an increased risk of overheating. A clear understanding and definition of overheating in schools is needed. Overheating can occur for various reasons. In order to deal with the problem realistically, it is necessary to hav...
Article
Full-text available
The current global economic crisis which started in 2008 has changed the world for many people. The cost of living has gone up, and for many the standard of living is going down with a corresponding increase in fuel poverty. Even for larger companies the cost of energy is beginning to feature in boardroom discussions. Increasingly, studies of clima...
Article
We look critically at the principal graphs relating thermal comfort indoors to the climate, and compare the metrics used for the climate; an exponential running mean of the mean outdoor temperature proves better than either the historic monthly mean or the current outdoor temperature. Using the SCATs and the ASHRAE RP-884 databases of field-studies...
Article
This is the editorial article for Architectural Science Review Vol56(1) which as based on papers given at the 2012 Windsor conference
Article
The main source of ventilation in the majority of UK schools is windows. The occupants of the classroom (i.e. pupils and teachers) in noisy areas tend to shut windows especially during quiet activities (i.e. silent and lecturing activities) to reduce the effect on teaching of aircraft noise as well as other external noises. Closing windows has two...
Article
This paper investigates the indoor thermal conditions in fifty low income non air conditioned houses in Athens, Greece, during the extremely hot summer of 2007. Hourly indoor temperature data have been analysed during three extended heat waves. Indoor temperatures as high as 40 °C were recorded and the average indoor minimum temperature was always...
Book
The fundamental function of buildings is to provide safe and healthy shelter. For the fortunate they also provide comfort and delight. In the twentieth century comfort became a 'product' produced by machines and run on cheap energy. In a world where fossil fuels are becoming ever scarcer and more expensive, and the climate more extreme, the challen...
Article
Full-text available
A simple logical model of the interaction between a building and its occupants is presented based on the principle that if free to do so, people will adjust their clothing or available building controls with the aim of achieving or restoring comfort and reducing discomfort. These adjustments are related to building design in two ways: first, the fr...
Article
Full-text available
Achieving a pleasant indoor environment with low energy consumption is a major goal of good building design. With high levels of insulation to reduce fabric heat losses, heat loads associated with infiltrations in dwellings in the UK have gone up from one fifth to one third. This has made it imperative to reduce infiltration rates to a minimum cons...
Article
Full-text available
Schools' buildings can have a significant impact on students and teachers' health and performance through their internal environment such as noise level, indoor temperature, air quality and light. Providing good environmental conditions for schools has always been critical. The two main reasons are: firstly of the conflict between comfort factors (...