Fergus I M Craik

Fergus I M Craik
Baycrest · Rotman Research Institute

PhD

About

326
Publications
316,184
Reads
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51,798
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2000 - present
Baycrest
Position
  • Senior Researcher
August 1971 - present
University of Toronto
Position
  • University Professor Emeritus
September 1965 - August 1971
Birkbeck, University of London
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (326)
Article
Full-text available
Background: The notion that memory performance in older adults can be boosted by information provided by the environment was proposed by Craik (1983). The suggestion was that age-related memory deficits can be attenuated and sometimes even eliminated by a complementary combination of environmental support and consciously controlled self-initiated...
Article
It has been claimed that bilingual experience leads to an enhancement of cognitive control across the lifespan, a claim that has been investigated by comparing monolingual and bilingual groups performing standard executive function (EF) tasks. The results of these studies have been inconsistent, however, leading to controversy over the essential as...
Article
This study compared brain and behavioral outcomes for monolingual and bilingual older adults who reported no cognitive or memory problems on three types of memory that typically decline in older age, namely, working memory (measured by n-back), item, and associative recognition. The results showed that bilinguals were faster on the two-back working...
Chapter
In this final chapter some big-picture topics are described and discussed. These include the concept of hierarchies in memory theory and an assessment of their validity in the levels-of-processing (LOP) framework (e.g., does the construct of “LOP” connote a continuum of depth or a series of qualitative stages?). A further topic is the hypothesized...
Book
The book sets out Fergus Craik’s view of human memory as a dynamic activity of mind and brain. In this account, remembering is understood as a system of active cognitive processes, similar to the processes underlying attending, perceiving, and thinking. The book therefore extends and elaborates the concept of “levels of processing” proposed by Crai...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the background and development of the levels of processing (LOP) ideas proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972) and on the empirical support for the ideas provided by Craik and Tulving (1975). The chapter describes how the concept arose from the British work on models of attention by Donald Broadbent and Anne Treisman in the 19...
Chapter
Endel Tulving’s views of synergistic ecphory and cue-dependent forgetting are discussed and endorsed, in particular the view that external stimulation (or self-initiated internal stimulation) necessarily interacts with encoded records to yield retrieval. Paul Kolers’ view of retrieval as repetition of processing operations is also evaluated. Other...
Article
Memorializes Donald T. Stuss (1941-2019). Through his early spiritual training in a monastery, Don developed an interest in the highest forms of human consciousness, ethics, and behavior. As a teacher and coach, he became interested in team building and motivation. Don nurtured those interests in his research on the functions of the human frontal l...
Preprint
Presents an obituary for Donald T. Stuss (1941–2019). The work of Donald T. Stuss, OC, FRSC, who died in Toronto on September 3, 2019, of complications following pancreatic cancer was world-leading but also notable for his influence on the landscape of Canadian neuroscience. Don worked as a teacher and football coach at high schools in Ontario befo...
Article
Purpose: Conversion rates from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD) were examined considering bilingualism as a measure of cognitive reserve. Methods: Older adult bilingual (n=75) and monolingual (n=83) patients attending a memory clinic who were diagnosed with MCI were evaluated for conversion to AD. Age of MCI and AD diagn...
Article
I present the case for viewing human memory as a set of dynamic processes rather than as structural entities or memory stores. This perspective stems largely from the construct of levels of processing, reflecting work I published with Robert Lockhart and with Endel Tulving. I describe the personal and professional contexts in which these and other...
Chapter
Cognitive Changes and the Aging Brain - edited by Kenneth M. Heilman December 2019
Article
Two prominent aspects of memory problems in older adults are a difficulty in retrieving recent episodic events and an often transient inability to retrieve names and other well-known facts from semantic memory. The question addressed in the present studies was whether these age-related difficulties reflect a common cause—a retrieval problem related...
Article
In Figure 3b of the originally published article, the colours of the bars were incorrectly reversed. The bars shown in green should have been shown in blue to represent the findings from older adults, whereas the bars shown in blue should have been shown in green to represent the findings from young adults. This has been corrected in the HTML and P...
Article
Cognitive ageing research examines the cognitive abilities that are preserved and/or those that decline with advanced age. There is great individual variability in cognitive ageing trajectories. Some older adults show little decline in cognitive ability compared with young adults and are thus termed ‘optimally ageing’. By contrast, others exhibit s...
Article
Division of attention (DA) at the time of learning has large detrimental effects on subsequent memory performance, but DA at retrieval has much smaller effects (Baddeley, Lewis, Eldridge, & Thomson, 1984, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 518–540; Craik, Govoni, Naveh-Benjamin, & Anderson, 1996, Journal of Experimental Psychology: G...
Article
Full-text available
Background/study context: Recent studies have shown that young adults better remember factual information they are curious about. It is not entirely clear, however, whether this effect is retained during aging. Here, the authors investigated curiosity-driven memory benefits in young and elderly individuals. Methods: In two experiments, young (age r...
Article
Objectives: Prospective memory (PM), the ability to execute delayed intentions, has received increasing attention in neuropsychology and gerontology. Most of this research is motivated by the claim that PM is critical for maintaining functional independence; yet, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to back up the claims. Thus, the present stud...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background/Study Context: Recent studies have shown that young adults better remember factual information they are curious about. It is not entirely clear, however, whether this effect is retained during aging. Here, we investigated curiosity-driven memory benefits in young and elderly individuals. Methods: In two experiments, young (age range 18-2...
Article
In the alpha span test, short lists of words are presented and the participant’s task is to mentally reorder the words and give them back in correct alphabetical order. Alpha span is the longest list of words correctly recalled; the article also describes a scoring method in which credit is given for partially correct answers. Alpha span provides a...
Article
Presents an obituary for George Mandler, who died in London on May 6, 2016 at the age of 91. Mandler was one of the pioneers of the cognitive revolution in psychology. He was instrumental in moving the study of human learning from notions based largely on associations to a view of memory as an organized, nested hierarchical structure. Mandler was a...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVES: The majority of existing investigations on attention, aging, and driving have focused on the negative impacts of age-related declines in attention on hazard detection and driver performance. However, driving skills and behavioral compensation may accommodate the negative effects that age-related attentional decline places on driving per...
Article
Objective: Prospective memory is the ability to 'remember to remember' and a facet of memory important to everyday functioning. For older adults, prospective memory slips are a common concern. In the present study, we conducted an initial validation of a paper-and-pencil adaptation of the Actual Week test, and reported on internal consistency, int...
Article
Full-text available
Age differences in the spatial distribution of attention over a wide field of view have only been described in terms of the spatial extent, leaving the topographical aspect unexplored. This study examined age differences between younger and older adults in good general health in an important topographical characteristic, the asymmetry between the u...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on “50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory” are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Method Historical and recent...
Article
Full-text available
Age differences in the spatial distribution of attention over a wide field of view have only been described in terms of the spatial extent, leaving the topographical aspect unexplored. This study examined age differences between younger and older adults in good general health in an important topographical characteristic, the asymmetry between the u...
Book
Memory, Attention, and Aging is a collection of some of the most influential journal articles previously published by Fergus Craik and his collaborators, with new introductory material unifying the research of this noted cognitive psychologist. The reprinted articles are grouped into six sections reflecting Craik’s various research interests across...
Article
Full-text available
Prospective memory (PM) – the ability to remember and successfully execute our intentions and planned activities – is critical for functional independence and declines with age, yet few studies have attempted to train PM in older adults. We developed a PM training program using the Virtual Week computer game. Trained participants played the game in...
Article
Full-text available
The article reports 4 experiments that explore the notion of recognition without awareness using words as the material. Previous work by Voss and associates has shown that complex visual patterns were correctly selected as targets in a 2-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) recognition test although participants reported that they were guessing. The p...
Article
Full-text available
The Breakfast Task (Craik & Bialystok, 2006) is a computerized task that simulates the planning and monitoring requirements involved in cooking breakfast, an everyday activity important for functional independence. In Experiment 1, 28 adults performed the Breakfast Task, and outcome measures were examined with principal component analysis to elucid...
Article
Full-text available
We explored the effects of age and time of day (TOD) on verbal fluency ability with respect to performance level and intraindividual variability (IIV). Verbal fluency, which involves complex cognitive operations, was examined in 20 older (mean age = 72.8 years) and 20 younger (mean age = 24.2 years) adults with test start time alternating between m...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. Bilingualism has been shown to benefit executive function (EF) and delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. This study aims at examining whether a bilingual advantage applies to EF in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Method. In a cross-sectional outpatient cohort of monolingual English ( n = 57 ) and bilingual Welsh/English ( n = 46 ) speakers...
Article
Full-text available
The observation of a bilingual advantage in executive control tasks involving inhibition and management of response conflict suggests that being bilingual might contribute to increased cognitive reserve. In support of this, recent evidence indicates that bilinguals develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) later than monolinguals, and may retain an advantag...
Article
Full-text available
How does the brain maintain to-be-remembered information in working memory (WM), particularly when the focus of attention is drawn to processing other information? Cognitive models of WM propose that when items are displaced from focal attention, recall involves retrieval from long-term memory (LTM). In this fMRI study, we tried to clarify the role...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies are reported in which younger and older monolingual and bilingual adults performed executive function tasks. In Study 1, 130 participants performed a Stroop task and bilinguals in both age groups showed less interference than monolinguals with a greater benefit for older adults. In Study 2, 108 participants performed a complex working m...
Article
The observation of a bilingual advantage in executive control tasks involving inhibition and management of response conflict suggests that being bilingual might contribute to increased cognitive reserve. In support of this, recent evidence indicates that bilinguals develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) later than monolinguals, and may retain an advantag...
Article
Full-text available
This commentary is a review of the findings and ideas reported in the preceding nine articles on the effects of distraction on aspects of cognitive performance. The articles themselves deal with the disruptive effects of distraction on recall of words, objects and events, also on visual processing, category formation and other cognitive tasks. The...
Article
Full-text available
There is an emerging literature suggesting that speaking two or more languages may significantly delay the onset of dementia. Although the mechanisms are unknown, it has been suggested that these may involve cognitive reserve, a concept that has been associated with factors such as higher levels of education, occupational status, social networks, a...
Article
Los autores comienzan su trabajo con una exposición de diversos alegatos a favor y en contra de los modelos multialmacén, considerando la validez de las pruebas en que se basan con referencia a los conceptos de capacidad, codificación y características del olvido, centrándose respecto a este último en la función de retención. Seguidamente proponen...
Article
Full-text available
Many working memory (WM) models propose that the focus of attention (or primary memory) has a capacity limit of one to four items, and therefore, that performance on WM tasks involves retrieving some items from long-term (or secondary) memory (LTM). In the present study, we present evidence suggesting that recall of even one item on a WM task can i...
Article
Full-text available
Previous articles have reported that bilingualism is associated with a substantial delay in the onset of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The present study reports results from 74 MCI patients and 75 AD patients; approximately half of the patients in each group were bilingual. All patients were interviewed to obtai...
Article
Full-text available
If the free recall of unrelated word lists depends on one memory store, then although the absolute number of errors may change as recall proceeds there is no reason for the relative proportions of different types of error to change. On the other hand, if recall consists of output from a short-term store which employs acoustic coding, followed by re...
Article
Full-text available
Although it is generally agreed that recall performance declines more than recognition memory performance in the course of normal aging, there are some dissenting voices. There are also a few empirical findings that cast doubt on that conclusion. In light of these ambiguities the present experiments were designed to answer the question in a more de...
Article
Full-text available
An interesting puzzle is provided by previously reported results showing that retention levels following performance of “shallow” orienting tasks are little enhanced by intentional learning instructions. The present results show that lack of processing time does not underlie this failure. Retention was enhanced only when ample processing time and/o...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parame...
Article
Full-text available
Younger and older adults who were either monolingual or bilingual were tested with verbal and spatial working memory (WM) span tasks. Aging was associated with a greater decline in spatial WM than in verbal WM, but the age-related declines were equivalent in both language groups. The bilingual participants outperformed the monolinguals in spatial W...
Article
Associative memory involves remembering relations between items of information and is critically dependent on the hippocampus, a brain structure that shows early changes in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease. We examined associative and item memory in aMCI with a focus on the role of medial-temporal lobe regions and g...
Article
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Describes the author's own experiences growing up and becoming involved in the fields of cognitive psychology and gerontology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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This is the second of the six separate entries under the broad heading Memory. This entry includes: the information-processing framework; the nature of codes; the role of prior knowledge; what makes for a good encoding; summary. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to outline some recent developments in our understanding of human memory processes—specifically, encoding and retrieval processes in long-term episodic memory. A brief history of work in this area is provided, followed by a discussion of memory codes. The nature of encoding and retrieval operations is then explored, w...
Article
Full-text available
Intraindividual variability (IIV) in trial-to-trial reaction time (RT) is a robust and stable within-person marker of aging. However, it remains unknown whether IIV can be modulated experimentally. In a sample of healthy younger and older adults, we examined the effects of motivation- and performance-based feedback, age, and education level on IIV...
Article
Building on earlier evidence showing a beneficial effect of bilingualism on children's cognitive development, we review recent studies using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods to examine the effects of bilingualism on cognition in adulthood and explore possible mechanisms for these effects. This research shows that bilingualism has a somewhat...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Previous reports have found that lifelong bilingualism is associated with a delay in the onset of dementia, including Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT). Because amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is often a transition stage between normal aging and DAT, our aim in this paper was to establish whether this delay in symptom on...
Article
Full-text available
Recent theories suggest that performance on working memory (WM) tasks involves retrieval from long-term memory (LTM). To examine whether WM and LTM tests have common principles, Craik and Tulving's (1975) levels-of-processing paradigm, which is known to affect LTM, was administered as a WM task: Participants made uppercase, rhyme, or category-membe...
Chapter
The frontal lobes are central to human cognition and consciousness. This chapter reviews the history of research on frontal lobe function in three eras, from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century, characterized by clinical case studies and qualitative observations of animals with experimental frontal lesions, from the mid-20th century to the late 20...
Article
Cognitive abilities depend on the brain, which becomes less efficient as people age. This chapter notes two major factors that make the picture less negative. The first is that agerelated declines are highly task dependent, and performance on some tasks holds up well. The second is that certain manipulations and conditions can serve to counteract t...
Book
This book creates a bridge across cognitive development and cognitive aging. Pairs of researchers study the rise and fall of specific cognitive functions, such as attention, executive functioning, memory, working memory, representations, language, problem solving, intelligence, and individual differences to find ways in which the study of developme...
Article
Reed Hunt remarked that whereas it seems intuitively obvious that distinctive events are well remembered simply because we pay more attention to them, this commonsense analysis may conceal more complex truths. This chapter weighs Hunt's remark in light of the data and arguments presented in the book, surveys the various points of view, and assesses...
Article
In this chapter I explore the similarities and differences between the effects of normal aging and the effects of frontal lobe damage on aspects of memory and attention. It is well established that normal aging is associated with some degree of frontal lobe atrophy, and is also established that older adults perform relatively poorly on certain task...
Book
In the past 25 years, the frontal lobes have dominated human neuroscience research. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed their importance to brain networks involved in nearly every aspect of mental and cognitive functioning. Studies of patients with focal brain lesions have expanded on early case study evidence of behavioral, emotional, an...
Article
Full-text available
This review article surveys the evidence for age-related changes in memory from cognitive and neuroimaging studies. It is probable that the observed declines in episodic memory with increasing age are a consequence of impairments in both acquisition (encoding) and retrieval - possibly for similar reasons - but the present review focuses on the form...
Article
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Previous research has shown that bilingual speakers have higher levels of cognitive control than comparable monolinguals, especially at older ages. The present study investigates a possible neural correlate of this behavioral effect. Given that white matter (WM) integrity decreases with age in adulthood, we tested the hypothesis that bilingualism i...
Article
Despite the traditional view that damage to the hippocampus and/or surrounding areas of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) does not impair short-term or working memory (WM), recent research has shown MTL amnesics to be impaired on WM tasks that require maintaining a small amount of information over brief retention intervals (e.g., maintenance of a sing...
Article
Full-text available
Much of the research on delaying the onset of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on pharmacotherapy, but environmental factors have also been acknowledged to play a significant role. Bilingualism may be one factor contributing to 'cognitive reserve' (CR) and therefore to a delay in symptom onset. If bilingualism is protective, then th...
Article
Full-text available
Word lists of several orders of approximation to English were presented for immediate free recall to young and old adult subjects. The total recall scores were broken down into ‘number of chunks recalled’ and ‘number of words per chunk’. The ‘chunks recalled’ measure is taken here to reflect retrieval efficiency: scores were lower in older subjects...
Article
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