Research Item (5)
The objective of this study was to assess total concentration and chemical fractionation of trace metals in the industrial wastewater and sludge collected from seven different types of industries in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. The sludge from industries is either dumped on landfills or reused as secondary resources in order to preserve natural resources. Metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in the sludges were 1.4-9,470, 4.8-994, 12.8-444, 2.2-224, 1.9-46.0 and 1.3-87.0 mg/kg, respectively. As a whole, the average concentrations of trace metals in samples were in the decreasing order of Cr > Ni > Cu > As > Pb > Cd. The results of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction showed that the studied metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction followed by the oxidizable fraction. The study revealed that the mobile fractions of trace metals are poorly predictable from the total content, and bioavailability of all fractions of elements tends to decrease.
- Mar 2015
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors have been used in various consumer products. However, limited information regarding their occurrence and concentration levels in products is available. In this study, we investigated 18 PFAAs and 14 PFAA precursors in various categories of consumer products purchased in Japan. Relatively high total concentrations of PFAAs and their precursors were found in sprays for fabrics and textiles (<limit of quantitation (LOQ)-30000ngg(-1)) and car wash/coating products (<LOQ-7500ngg(-1)) compared to other categories, and the similar observation was found in previous studies in Norway and Germany. A precursor of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), N-methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (MeFOSE) was detected in a higher frequency (8%) and in greater concentrations (<LOQ-3600±1800ngg(-1)) than PFOS (frequency 4%; concentrations<LOQ-59±10ngg(-1)). These results indicate that careful control of PFOS precursors in consumer products is required. Furthermore, the amount of PFAAs emitted from consumer products may be underestimated if the occurrence of PFAA precursors is not considered. In addition to PFAA precursors, long chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (carbon chain length⩾7) were also detected in greater concentrations than short chain PFCAs (⩽6). This result suggests that consumer products are one of the important sources of long-chain PFCAs in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Sep 2014
Production and use of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is regulated worldwide. However, numerous potential precursors that eventually decompose into PFOS and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are still being used and have not been studied in detail. Therefore, knowledge about the levels and sources of the precursors is essential. We investigated the total concentration of potential PFAA precursors in the Tama River, which is one of the major rivers flowing into the Tokyo Bay, by converting all the perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid (PFSA) precursors into PFCAs by chemical oxidation. The importance of controlling PFAA precursors was determined by calculating the ratios of PFCAs formed by oxidation to the PFAAs originally present (Σ�[PFCA C4-C12] / Σ[PFAAs]before oxidation) (average = 0.28 and 0.69 for main and tributary branch rivers, respectively). Higher total concentrations of �[PFCAs] were found in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents. However, the ratios found in the effluents were lower (average = 0.21) than those found in the river water samples, which implies the decomposition of some precursors into PFAAs during the treatment process. On the other hand, higher ratios were observed in the upstream water samples and the existence of emission sources other than the STP effluents was indicated. This study showed that although the treatment process converting a part of the PFAA precursors into PFAAs, STPs were important sources of precursors to the Tama River. To reduce the levels of PFAAs in the aquatic environment, it is necessary to reduce the emission of the PFAA precursors as well.
- Jun 2012
In this study, we analyzed over 30 types of PFCs, including precursors in both the dissolved phase and particle solid phase, in 50 samples of river water collected from throughout the Tokyo Bay basin. PFCs were detected in suspended solids (SSs) at levels ranging from <0.003-4.4 ng L(-1) (0.11-2470 ng g(-1) dry weight). The concentrations of PFCs in the SS were one to two order(s) of magnitude lower than those of PFCs in the dissolved phase. Relatively high levels of PFCs (total of 35 PFCs) in SS were observed in urbanized areas. The concentration of PFCAs, including PFOA and PFNA, were significantly correlated with the geographic index as artificial area (R(2) of the linear regression curve in a double logarithmic plot: 0.09-0.55). Conversely, PFOS and FOSA were significantly correlated with the arterial traffic area (R(2) in a double logarithmic plot: 0.29-0.55). Those spatial trends were similar to the trends in dissolved PFCs. We estimated the loading amount of PFCs into Tokyo Bay from six main rivers and found that more than 90% of the total PFCs reached Tokyo Bay in the dissolved phase. However, 40.0-83.5% of the long chain PFCAs (C12-C15), were transported as particle sorbed PFCs. Rain runoff events might increase the loading amount of PFCs in SS. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that greater attention should be given to PFCs, especially for longer chain PFCs in SS in addition to dissolved PFCs.
- Mar 2011
Pollution from 35 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the water of the Tokyo Bay basin was examined. The water in the basin contained relatively high levels of perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) compared to the other PFCs, which were present at concentrations of 20.1 ng/L, 6.7 ng/L, and 5.8 ng/L, respectively. In contrast, the concentrations of their precursors and degradation products were an order of magnitude lower. Sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent in the area also contained high levels of PFNA compared with the river water samples (Mann-Whitney U-test, p<0.0002). From a spatial aspect, increases in PFC pollution levels correlated with increased urbanization in the study area suggested that there are nonpoint source contributors to the PFC pollution in this area. Branched isomers of the PFCs were also quantified. Samples that contained high concentrations of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCA) showed lower proportions of its branched isomer. This indicates that the branched isomers are more prominent in the area with lower PFC pollution. This analysis was beneficial for estimating the individual contributions of different PFCA production processes. This survey provided new information on the sources, spatial distribution, and behavioral characteristics of PFC pollutants in this area.