Federico Formenti

Federico Formenti
King's College London | KCL · Centre for Human and Applied Physiological Sciences

DPhil (University of Oxford) & PhD (Manchester Metropolitan University)

About

80
Publications
17,472
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,104
Citations
Citations since 2017
38 Research Items
739 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Additional affiliations
February 2012 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • Senior Researcher
March 2011 - February 2012
University of Auckland
Position
  • Lecturer
October 2006 - January 2011
University of Oxford
Position
  • Postdoctoral DPhil student

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Full-text available
Estimation of human oxygen uptake (_ Vo 2) during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human _ Vo 2 during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedalin...
Article
Full-text available
Background. There is considerable interest in oxygen partial pressure (PO2) monitoring in physiology, and in tracking PO2 changes dynamically when it varies rapidly. For example, arterial PO2 (PaO2 ) can vary within the respiratory cycle in cyclical atelectasis (CA), where PaO2 is thought to increase and decrease during inspiration and expiration,...
Article
Full-text available
Our walking and running movement patterns require friction between shoes and ground. The surface of ice is characterised by low friction in several naturally occurring conditions, and compromises our typical locomotion pattern. Ice skates take advantage of this slippery nature of ice; the first ice skates were made more than 4000 years ago, and aff...
Article
Economy of locomotion is a constant challenge for animals, particularly when related to migrations and travelling. The present study focuses on human locomotion and particularly on the development of ice skating. The aim of our research was to understand whether an environmental feature such as a strong presence of lakes (frozen in winter) could fo...
Article
Full-text available
The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors directs a coordinated cellular response to hypoxia that includes the transcriptional regulation of a number of metabolic enzymes. Chuvash polycythemia (CP) is an autosomal recessive human disorder in which the regulatory degradation of HIF is impaired, resulting in elevated levels o...
Article
Full-text available
Background The manufacturing of any standard mechanical ventilator cannot rapidly be upscaled to several thousand units per week, largely due to supply chain limitations. The aim of this study was to design, verify and perform a pre-clinical evaluation of a mechanical ventilator based on components not required for standard ventilators, and that me...
Article
A recently published article by Bian et al. (2021) presents a novel plastic optical fibre coated with hydrogel film to measure dissolved oxygen via luminescence quenching. The article concludes that “The sensor with biocompatible material is expected to be applied to the monitor of dissolved oxygen in the domain of biomedicine”. However, the oxygen...
Article
Purpose of review: More than 230 million people have tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection globally by September 2021. The infection affects primarily the function of the respiratory system, where ∼20% of infected individuals develop coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) pneumonia. This review provides an update...
Article
Patient self-inflicted lung injury may be associated with worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality. Patient-ventilator asynchrony is associated with increased ventilator days and mortality, and it has been hypothesised as one of the important mechanisms leading to patient self-inflicted lung injury. However, given the observational nature of th...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The possibility of accurately and continuously measuring arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 ) in horses may facilitate the management of hypoxaemia during general anaesthesia. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a novel fibreoptic sensor to measure PaO2 (PaO2Sensor ) continuously and in real-time in h...
Article
Background Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to personalise mechanical ventilation strategies for patients with respiratory failure. However, current methodological deficiencies could limit clinical impact. We identified common limitations and propose potential solutions to facilitate translation of AI to mechanical ventilation of pati...
Conference Paper
Patients undergoing mechanical lung ventilation are at risk of lung injury. A noninvasive bedside lung monitor may benefit these patients. The Inspired Sinewave Test (IST) can measure cardio-pulmonary parameters noninvasively. We propose a lung simulation to improve the measurement of pulmonary blood flow using IST. The new method was applied to 12...
Article
Severe respiratory failure from COVID-19 pneumonia not responding to non-invasive respiratory support requires mechanical ventilation. While ventilation can be a life-saving therapy, it can cause further lung injury if airway pressure, flow and their timing are not tailored to the individual patient's respiratory system mechanics. The pathophysiolo...
Article
Full-text available
The degree of specific ventilatory heterogeneity (spatial unevenness of ventilation) of the lung is a useful marker of early structural lung changes which has the potential to detect early-onset disease. The Inspired Sinewave Test (IST) is an established noninvasive ‘gas-distribution’ type of respiratory test capable of measuring the cardiopulmonar...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bedside measurement of lung volume may provide guidance in the personalised setting of respiratory support, especially in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome at risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. We propose here a novel operator-independent technique, enabled by a fibre optic oxygen sensor, to quantify the lung vo...
Article
Gravitational forces and the local variations in transpulmonary pressure in normal and injured lungs are important determinants of lung stress and alveolar inflation. The study by Kizhakke Puliyakote et al. (2021) in this issue of Experimental Physiology proposes a metric to quantify the regional mechanical stress and its changes that may occur dow...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Real-time bedside information on regional ventilation and perfusion during mechanical ventilation (MV) may help to elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological effects of MV settings in healthy and injured lungs. We aimed to study the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and tidal volume (VT) on the distributions of...
Article
Full-text available
The acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, as patients undergoing mechanical ventilation are at risk of ventilator-induced lung injuries. Objective: To measure the lung heterogeneity and deadspace volume to find safer ventilator strategies. Then, the ventilator settings could offer homogeneou...
Article
Full-text available
Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with hypoxaemia and are mechanically ventilated to support gas exchange. We performed a retrospective, observational study of blood gas analyses (n = 3518) obtained from patients with COVID-19 to investigate changes in haemoglobin oxygen (Hb-O 2) affinity. Calculated oxygen te...
Article
Dear Editor, e severity of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cor- relates correlates poorly with lung weight and lung mechanics, leading to the proposal of phenotypes that may be associated with similar degree of hypoxaemia but di erent lung volume, weight, and compliance [1]. e alteration of the pulm...
Article
New findings: What is the topic for this review? This review summarizes recent discoveries in mitochondrial development and morphology studied with electron microscopy. What advances does it highlight? Although mitochondria are generally considered to be isolated from each other, this review highlights recently discovered evidence for the presence...
Article
Mutations in VHL, which encodes von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL), are associated with divergent diseases. We describe a patient with marked erythrocytosis and prominent mitochondrial alterations associated with a severe germline VHL deficiency due to homozygosity for a novel synonymous mutation (c.222C→A, p.V74V). The condition is character...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bedside lung volume measurement could personalise ventilation and reduce driving pressure in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We investigated a modified gas-dilution method, the inspired sinewave technique (IST), to measure the effective lung volume (ELV) in pigs with uninjured lungs and in an ARDS model. Meth...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Determine the intra-tidal regional gas and blood volume distributions at different levels of atelectasis in experimental lung injury. Test the hypotheses that pulmonary aeration and blood volume matching is reduced during inspiration in the setting of minimal tidal recruitment/derecruitment and that this mismatching is an important det...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dynamic single-slice CT (dCT) is increasingly used to examine the intra-tidal, physiological variation in aeration and lung density in experimental lung injury. The ability of dCT to predict whole-lung values is unclear, especially for dual-energy CT (DECT) variables. Additionally, the effect of inspiration-related lung movement on CT v...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cardiac output (Q˙) monitoring can support the management of high-risk surgical patients, but the pulmonary artery catheterisation required by the current 'gold standard'-bolus thermodilution (Q˙T)-has the potential to cause life-threatening complications. We present a novel noninvasive and fully automated method that uses the inspired...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the changes determined by increased cadence on skeletal muscle oxygenation during cycling at an exercise intensity equal to the ventilatory threshold (T vent). Nine healthy, active individuals with different levels of cycling experience exercised at a power output equal to T vent , pedaling at cadences of 40, 50,...
Article
Full-text available
The selection of cadence during cycling may be determined by a number of factors, including the degree of oxygenation in the exercising skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of muscle oxygenation associated with different cycling cadences and exercise intensities, and its puta-tive role in the choice of self-selecte...
Article
Full-text available
Arterial oxygen tension is commonly measured by means of intermittent arterial gas sampling. This technique is unable to detect within-breath oxygen tension changes that may be observed in mechanically ventilated patients, especially in the presence of lung injury. Moreover, it may not afford sufficient time resolution to detect potentially injurio...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Tidal recruitment/derecruitment (R/D) of collapsed regions in lung injury has been presumed to cause respiratory oscillations in the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2). These phenomena have not yet been studied simultaneously. We examined the relationship between R/D and PaO2 oscillations by contemporaneous measurement of lung-...
Article
Full-text available
The inspired sinewave technique is a noninvasive method to measure airway dead space, functional residual capacity, pulmonary blood flow, and lung inhomogeneity simultaneously. The purpose of this paper was to assess the repeatability and accuracy of the current device prototype in measuring functional residual capacity, and also participant comfor...
Article
Full-text available
Arterial oxygen partial pressure can increase during inspiration and decrease during expiration in the presence of a variable shunt fraction, such as with cyclical atelectasis, but it is generally presumed to remain constant within a respiratory cycle in the healthy lung. We measured arterial oxygen partial pressure continuously with a fast intra-v...
Article
Full-text available
Measurement allows us to quantify various parameters and variables in natural systems. In addition, by measuring the effect by which a perturbation of one part of the system influences the system as a whole, insights into the functional mechanisms of the system can be inferred. Clinical monitoring has a different role to that of scientific measurem...
Article
Full-text available
Future spacecraft and crew habitats are anticipated to use a moderately hypobaric and hypoxic cabin atmosphere to reduce the risk of decompression sickness associated with extravehicular activity. This has raised concerns about potential hypoxia-mediated adverse effects on astronauts. Noninvasive technology for measuring tissue oxygen saturation (S...
Article
Full-text available
I have read with interest the study of lung inhomogeneities and time course of ventilator-induced mechanical injuries, recently published in Anesthesiology by Cressoni et al.1 This study aimed at investigating the genesis of ventilator-induced lung injury in healthy piglets, with particular attention to the interface between inhomogeneous lung str...
Article
Full-text available
Very fast sensors that are able to track rapid changes in oxygen partial pressure (PO2) in the gas and liquid phases are increasingly required in scientific research – particularly in the life sciences. Recent interest in monitoring very fast changes in the PO2 of arterial blood in some respiratory failure conditions is one such example. Previous a...
Article
Full-text available
To the Editor: I read with interest the findings on the influence of inspiration to expiration ratio on cyclic recruitment and derecruitment of atelectasis in a saline lavage model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (1). The main conclusion of this study is that “inverse ratio ventilation minimizes cyclic recruitment and derecruitment o...
Article
Full-text available
I read with great interest the study “Vigorous exercise can cause abnormal pulmonary function in healthy adolescents,” recently published by Abosaida and colleagues (1). The study considered more than 50 healthy adolescents who underwent a constant and progressively increasing work rate exercise testing protocol on a cycle ergometer. The study was...
Research
Full-text available
A newspaper article (in Italian) reporting that the regional tribunal condemned for the second time the University of Verona in Italy for assigning a permanent academic (researcher) position to a candidate who did not even have a doctorate. This candidate has co-authored research articles with the current head of department for at least 12 years. T...
Research
Full-text available
A newspaper article (in Italian) covering more extensively the two court cases lost by the university of Verona in Italy for assigning a permanent academic position to a candidate who did not have a PhD. The candidate Barbara Pellegrini has worked with Federico Schena, head of department at the university of Verona for several years. The candidate...
Article
Full-text available
Pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary arterial pressure both rise progressively during the first few hours of human acclimatization to hypoxia. These responses are highly variable between individuals, but the origin of this variability is unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether the variabilities between different measures of response to sustain...
Article
Full-text available
Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange) over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg) of amifostine inf...
Article
Peripherally infused somatostatin in humans reduces the acute ventilatory response to hypoxia but it is not known if it reduces basal minute ventilation, and there are conflicting results as to whether or not it reduces the acute hypercapnic ventilatory response. One explanatory mechanism for all these possible effects is that somatostatin reduces...
Article
The development of a clinically useful fiber-optic oxygen sensor based on oxygen fluorescence quenching is described in this paper. The fiber optic oxygen sensor was formed by coating a thin polymer matrix, which contains an oxygen sensitive fluorophore, on the tapered end of a polymer optical fiber. Three acrylate polymers have been used for the m...
Article
Full-text available
Neutrophil lifespan and function are regulated by hypoxia via components of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)/von Hippel Lindau/hydroxylase pathway, including specific roles for HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase-3. HIF-2α has both distinct and overlapping biological roles with HIF-1α and has not previously been studied in the context of neutrophil bio...
Conference Paper
The development of a clinically useful fiber-optic oxygen sensor based on oxygen fluorescence quenching is described in this paper. The fiber optic oxygen sensor was formed by coating a thin polymer matrix, which contains an oxygen sensitive fluorophore, on the tapered end of a polymer optical fiber. Three acrylate polymers have been used for the m...
Article
Full-text available
Two challenges in the management of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome are the difficulty in diagnosing cyclical atelectasis, and in individualising mechanical ventilation therapy in real-time. Commercial optical oxygen sensors can detect [Formula: see text] oscillations associated with cyclical atelectasis, but are not accurate at saturation leve...
Article
Full-text available
Tibetan natives have lived on the Tibetan plateau (altitude ~4000 m) for at least 25,000 years, and as such they are adapted to life and reproduction in a hypoxic environment. Recent studies have identified two genetic loci, EGLN1 and EPAS1, that have undergone natural selection in Tibetans, and further demonstrated an association of EGLN1/EPAS1 ge...
Article
The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed...
Article
Full-text available
The human pulmonary vasculature constricts in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with important consequences for homeostasis and adaptation. One function of these responses is to direct blood flow away from poorly-ventilated regions of the lung. In humans it is not known whether the stimuli of hypercapnia and hypoxia constrict the pulmonary blood...
Article
Neutrophilic inflammation plays an important role in inflammatory lung diseases but therapeutic targeting of neutrophil (PMN) persistence is lacking. PMN lifespan and function is regulated by hypoxia, a characteristic feature of inflamed tissues, via the HIF/VHL/hydroxylase pathway, specifically hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and prolyl hydro...
Article
Full-text available
In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldi...
Article
Full-text available
The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs; isoforms HIF-1α, HIF-2α, HIF-3α) mediate many responses to hypoxia. Their regulation is principally by oxygen-dependent degradation, which is initiated by hydroxylation of specific proline residues followed by binding of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein. Chuvash polycythemia is a disorder with elevated HIF. It ar...
Article
Full-text available
Human-powered load carrying is a hard and unavoidable task in the roadless hills of Himalayan region. It has been previously shown that, when carrying loads on steep paths, Nepalese porters’ metabolic cost is lower than Caucasians but the reasons are still unknown. It was suggested that a lower cost of balancing the loaded head-trunk segment was a...
Article
Full-text available
More than 3000 years ago, peoples living in the cold North European regions started developing tools such as ice skates that allowed them to travel on frozen lakes. We show here which technical and technological changes determined the main steps in the evolution of ice-skating performance over its long history. An in-depth historical research helpe...
Article
Full-text available
Carrying heavy loads in the Himalayan region is a real challenge. Porters face extreme ranges in terrain condition, path steepness, altitude hypoxia and climate for 6-8h a day, many months a year, since they were boys. It has been previously shown that, when carrying loads on level terrain, porters' metabolic economy is higher than in Caucasians bu...