F.B. Mccormick

F.B. Mccormick
Sandia National Laboratories

About

125
Publications
6,384
Reads
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1,799
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
52 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023024681012
2017201820192020202120222023024681012
2017201820192020202120222023024681012
2017201820192020202120222023024681012

Publications

Publications (125)
Conference Paper
Sandia National Laboratories' Metamaterial Science and Technology Program has developed novel HPC-based design tools, wafer scale 3D fabrication processes, and characterization tools to enable thermal IR optical metamaterial application studies.
Article
Improving light extraction for OLED devices will be pivotal for their acceptance into the marketplace. Incorporating nanostructures within the high refractive index regions of the OLED multi-layer stack results in an over two-fold improvement in light extraction efficiency. Such nanostructures were made using roll-to-roll fabrication processes. We...
Conference Paper
Sandia National Laboratories is leveraging the extensive CMOS, MEMS, compound semiconductor, and nanotechnology fabrication and test resources at Sandia National Laboratories to explore new science and technology in photonic crystals, plasmonics, metamaterials, and silicon photonics.
Article
Full-text available
We present the theory of operation along with detailed device designs and initial experimental results of a new class of uncooled thermal detectors. The detectors, termed microphotonic thermal detectors, are based on the thermo-optic effect in high quality factor (Q) micrometer-scale optical resonators. Microphotonic thermal detectors do not suffer...
Article
Beginning in the mid-1990s, Sandia National Laboratories began its migration to Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafers to develop a radiation-hardened semiconductor process for sub-0.5mum geometries. Successfully radiation hardening SOI technologies enabled an in-house processing familiarity that exceeded our expectations by opening opportunities to imp...
Article
Full-text available
Cyan Systems is developing a new Extremely High Temperature Projector System Technology (XTEMPS). The XTEMPS is a multispectral emitter array based upon photonic crystals, providing high radiance and tailored spectral emission in infrared (IR) bands of interest. Cyan has teamed with a state of the art MEMS fabrication facility, Sandia National Labo...
Conference Paper
Improvements in OLED light extraction efficiency via various roll-to-roll fabricated nanostructures are reported. Using both random and regular nanostructures we have achieved tip to ca. 2X on-axis OILED efficiency enhancement with improvements in color uniformity over angular space. Applications to both displays and lighting will be discussed.
Article
Transparent barrier films for flexible OLED applications have been made using a vacuum roll-to-roll coating process. Water vapor transmission rates into the 10 -6 g/m 2/day range have been demonstrated. Pressure sensitive encapsulating adhesives have been developed for use with the barrier films. The barrier film can also be combined with nanostruc...
Article
80nm-core Si3N4tapered waveguide transitions for broad-area laser diodes were designed, fabricated and measured. High optical losses were found in the wide waveguides. Optical loss model due to Si3N4recrystallization under high stress is proposed.
Conference Paper
A MEMS bulk wave acoustic bandgap has been designed and experimentally verified. The acoustic bandgaps are realized by including tungsten (W) scatterers in a SiO<sub>2</sub> matrix. Wide frequency ranges where acoustic waves are forbidden to exist are formed due to the large density and acoustic impedance mismatch between W and SiO<sub>2</sub>. The...
Article
Full-text available
We report on a new microphotonic technique for high-sensitivity, uncooled, thermal imaging. The technique, based on the massive thermo-optic effect in thermally isolated micro-resonators offers potential for significantly higher sensitivity than bolometric techniques.
Conference Paper
We report on a new microphotonic technique for high-sensitivity, uncooled, thermal imaging. The technique, based on the massive thermo-optic effect in thermally isolated microresonators offers potential for significantly higher sensitivity than bolometric techniques.
Article
Full-text available
The LIGA microfabrication technique offers a unique method for fabricating 3-dimensional photonic lattices based on the Iowa State "logpile" structure. These structures represent the [111] orientation of the [100] logpile structures previously demonstrated by Sandia National Laboratories. The novelty to this approach is the single step process that...
Article
Full-text available
We have designed, fabricated, and tested large sheets of photonic bandgap (PBG) material that have a "cubic array of cubes" structure. Structures with bandgaps in two wavebands have been fabricated: the thermal IR (8-12mum) and the visible/near IR (0.6-2.5mum). A thermal-IR PBG can modify the emission properties of structures for temperature contro...
Article
An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements...
Article
This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first opt...
Article
An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide...
Conference Paper
The conventional approach to achieve high readout data rates in single-layer disk media data storage systems is to decrease the physical bit size and increase the velocity at the head/media interface. Further increase in data throughput may be achieved by parallel readout architectures that read information across a number of data tracks simultaneo...
Conference Paper
Testing of servo error signal detection technique for 2- photon recorded monolithic multilayer material is investigated. A standard CD voice-coil actuator follows a fluorescent track.
Article
Monolithic multi-layer optical disks have been recorded with single-beam two-photon absorption using a high-repetition- rate laser. The recorded bit shape and signal readout will be discussed. It will also present some initial experimental results in cross talk and signal quality measurements.
Article
Two-photon 3D optical data storage techniques can achieve hundreds of GB data capacity per disk by storing data in multi-layer volumetric media. This approach can also provide fast data transfer rates by using parallel access techniques. It is a promising solution for the high data capacity demands in imaging and video applications, and the high-sp...
Conference Paper
Closed-loop tracking control using fluorescent signal power on a bi-cell detector has been demonstrated on 2-photon recorded data tracks. A similar focus control technique also appears promising. This is the first demonstration, to the authors' knowledge, of an operational tracking servo in 2-photon recorded media
Conference Paper
Both single and two-beam recording for two-photon monolithic multilayer optical storage are under development at Call/Recall, Inc. The depth resolution using single beam recording is less due to the intensity distribution properties of laser beam. Using short pulse mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser and narrowed aperture CD lens, a single beam recorded...
Article
Three-dimensional parallel readout of 2-photon multilayer optical disks can simultaneously offer high capacities (greater than 100 GB/disk) and high data transfer rates (greater than 1 Gb/s). The robust system tolerances should enable cost effective storage systems with capacities and transfer rates that are scaleable to match various application r...
Conference Paper
Our recent storage media experiments have concentrated on optimizing the 2-photon photochemistry of our stable ROM/WORM optical storage materials, though we are also exploring erasable photochemistries. Most of our system experiments have used our ROM/WORM material in 1 cm<sup>3</sup> cube samples and 5 mm×1" diameter disks. These are fabricated by...
Article
Full-text available
Chatoyant is a tool for the simulation and the analysis of heterogeneous free-space optoelectronic architectures. It is capable of modeling digital and analog electronic and optical signal propagation with mechanical tolerancing at the system level. We present models for a variety of optoelectronic devices and results that demonstrate the system's...
Conference Paper
To compete with this steady increase in capacity and performance at relatively fixed cost, new approaches are being pursued to increase the capacity and performance of optical disk storage products. Micromachining technologies will play an important role in these new systems. For example, massively parallel page-oriented techniques such as holograp...
Article
Scattering effects in a two-photon optical data storage system are numerically studied. Surface scattering analysis with a scalar, beam propagation model is performed. We analyze the problem by modeling scattering from randomly varying surfaces and also by Fourier surface decomposition. Scattering induced by propagation through multiple pages of ra...
Conference Paper
The materials and method for storing and accessing information in 3D by means of two-photon absorption is described. The materials used have very high two photon absorption cross-section and near unit quantum efficiency for fluorescence. The storage devices are composed of organic molecules uniformly dispersed in polymer matrices. The binary codes...
Conference Paper
Summary form only given. The extension of bit-oriented optical data storage into the third dimension appears to become one of the more promising approaches to satisfy the quest for removable ultra high density data storage systems for the 2000s. The advent of two-layer digital velocity display products has shown the economical feasibility of the us...
Article
Volumetric memories based on the extension of conventional approaches by using the third dimension for multiple layers may offer dramatic increases in storage capacity. For such thick- media multilayer systems, the design of the optical head includes challenges in the control and tolerancing of aberration accumulation throughout the focal depth. In...
Article
Full-text available
The methods and systems used for storing and accessing information in three dimensions by means of two-photon absorption are described. The materials into which the information is stored are organic molecules dispersed in polymer matrices, which change structure and spectra after absorption of light. The writing and accessing of the information can...
Conference Paper
Two-photon absorption can be utilized to record multiple layers of bit-oriented data in inexpensive monolithic media offering an evolutionary path for high capacity volumetric storage. The feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated by recording 100 layers of data in 8 mm thick cube shaped polymer doped with a photochromic material. We repor...
Article
We demonstrate the recording of 100 planes of digital images in a page-oriented two-photon memory and characterize the images in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and bit error rate. Possible error sources in the recording are discussed, and methods for compensating for some of these effects are presented. Looking at the distributions of the normalize...
Article
We describe a new optoelectronic switching system demonstration that implements part of the distribution fabric for a large asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switch. The system uses a single optoelectronic VLSI modulator-based switching chip with more than 4000 optical input-outputs. The optical system images the input fibers from a two-dimensional...
Conference Paper
We describe an optoelectronic switching system demonstration that implements part of the distribution fabric for a large ATM switch. The system uses a single optoelectronic VLSI modulator-based switching chip with more than 4000 optical I/O. The optical system images the input fibers from a two dimensional fiber bundle onto this chip. The optomecha...
Conference Paper
Two-photon 3-D memories are similar to multilayer optical disk systems with the potential for simple media fabrication, many layers, parallel access for high data transfer rates, and low raw bit error rates (BER). Orthogonal intersection of the writing beams may be used, or if ultra-short (e.g. <100 femtosecond) pulses are used, a counter-propagati...
Conference Paper
In this presentation we will discuss possible optoelectronic packaging technologies that can provide the much needed compactness and light weight to future parallel readout optical heads. Based on the characteristics of these technologies we will discuss possible data rates that can be achieved over the next decade by volumetric optical disk system...
Article
Full-text available
The optical transpose interconnection system (OTIS) provides a global interconnection using only a pair of lenslet arrays. We have designed and optimized various OTIS systems based on refractive, spherical diffractive, and aspheric diffractive lenslets. The optimization goal is to maximize power coupling into the elements of a detector array. The v...
Conference Paper
This talk will review several optical design and system packaging approaches explored in the past and currently under investigation in demonstration systems. To make the jump to a commodity-level smart pixel platform, new components and approaches will be needed and examples of potential useful techniques will be surveyed
Article
3D optical memory devices, capable of huge storage, very large bandwidth and amiable to parallel processing, are described. The 3D storage and accessing of information is based on non-linear absorption and emission by two different molecular structures.
Article
We present experimental results of photochromic reactions induced by single- and two-photon excitations in a poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film doped with spirobenzopyran. We also demonstrate the operation of a spirobenzopyran-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) planar waveguide, prepared by cast spinning the media onto fused-quartz slides. The follow...
Conference Paper
Imaging via Spatial Light Modulation at Photon-Counting Light Levels
Article
In the past few years, the demand for telecommunications services beyond voice telephony has skyrocketed. For the growth of these services to continue at this rate, cost effective means of transporting and switching large amounts of information must be found. Although fiber optic transmission has significantly reduced the cost of transmission, swit...
Article
Full-text available
New research in optoelectronic devices, which have made it practical to use optoelectronics in computing and communications systems, as well as the need for these systems to support higher information capacities has brought about a growing need for design and analysis tools for optoelectronic systems. While there are many research groups developing...
Article
The rapid advance of image-dependent information processing and entertainment applications has accelerated the need for data storage solutions that offer high capacity and high data transfer rates while maintaining low system and media costs. Volume optical memories based on 2-photon absorption-induced photochromism enable random access writing and...
Article
Summary form only given. In summary when an incoming photon is absorbed by the avalanche photodiode (APD) under applied voltage, a localized avalanche of charge carriers is created. The electron avalanche causes localized heating, which alters the local optical properties (index of refraction) of the diode, allowing it to act as a spatial light mod...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of new optoelectronic devices into practical systems has been impeded by the fact that researchers have been unable to evaluate how these devices can be used to make components, and then how these components can be used to build systems. We address this need with an Opto-Electronic system prototyping tool based on Ptolemy. Introduct...
Conference Paper
New research in optoelectronic devices, which have made it practical to use optoelectronics in computing and communications systems, as well as the need for these systems to support higher information capacities has brought about a growing need for design and analysis tools for optoelectronic systems. While there are many research groups developing...
Article
Details are presented of the design, fabrication, and use of a hybrid lens employed to interconnect two-dimensional arrays of optical transceivers. The hybrid lens consists of a custom-designed, 42-mm focal length, ƒ/5 compound lens followed by an array of afocal telescope compound microlenses.
Article
Several optical systems, based on a combination of lenslet arrays and computer-generated holograms (CGH), are described. They provide full or neighborhood connectivity between arrays of electronic processors, each processor containing one transmitter and N detectors. Some of the system are symmetrical, and therefore bi-directional. Specific designs...
Chapter
Optical techniques have a huge range of potential applications in signal processing and in the interconnection of digital computing systems. This 1995 book provides a detailed review of the key issues which must be addressed in the design, evaluation and implementation of practical systems for signal processing and optical interconnection. Consider...
Conference Paper
High capacity (hundreds of channels with >100 Mb/s per channel) switching systems frequently encounter difficulties in interconnect packaging within the switching fabric. These interconnection problems may be alleviated through the use of surface normal optical interconnections using optoelectronic smart pixels. Two recent experiments with FET-SEED...
Article
The interconnection problems present in many high-performance digital systems may be alleviated through the use of surface normal optical interconnections using optoelectronic smart pixels. We present recent results of high-speed operation of a five-stage experimental free-space switching network using embedded control techniques for network contro...
Article
Within the past 15 years there has been significant progress in the development of two-dimensional arrays of optical and optoelectronic devices. This progress has, in turn, led to the construction of several free-space digital optical system demonstrators. The first was an optical master-slave flip-flop using Hughes liquid-crystal light valves as o...
Article
Several different shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies that can be used within the optical link stages of photonic-switching networks are studied. These schemes include the two shuffle, the two banyan, and the segmented two shuffle, which can be used to interconnect two-input, two-output switching nodes. The schemes also include the four s...
Article
The design, construction, and operational testing of a five-stage, fully interconnected 32 × 16 switching fabric by the use of smart-pixel (2, 1, 1) switching nodes are described. The arrays of switching nodes use monolithically integrated GaAs field-effect transistors, multiple-quantum-well p-i-n detectors, and self-electro-optic-device modulators...
Article
We describe the design and demonstration of an extended generalized shuffle interconnection network, centrally controlled by a personal computer. A banyan interconnection pattern is implemented by use of computer-generated Fourier holograms and custom metallization at each 32 × 32 switching node array. Each array of electrically controlled tristate...
Article
The design, assembly, and testing details of an objective lens used to image an array of 4096 beams are discussed. The main characteristics of the lens are a 15-mm focal length, a speed of f/1.5, diffraction-limited quality, telecentricity, f-sin ((theta) ) mapping, an external stop, and a simplicity of fabrication.
Article
Full-text available
The architectural tradeoffs found in the use of smart pixels for nodes within photonic switching interconnection networks are discussed. The particular networks of interest within the analysis are strictly nonblocking extended generalized shuffle (EGS) networks. Several performance metrics are defined for the analysis, and the effect of node size o...
Article
A 5 stage, fully interconnected 32×16 switching network using smart pixel 2×1 switching nodes is demonstrated. The system was designed to operate with 150 Mbps data rates
Chapter
This chapter covers systems that use optically transparent devices for space-division switching, time-division switching, and spectral-division switching. Some systems that we will discuss, especially those classified as using spectral-division switching, may contain both optically transparent and optical logic components, but the optical logic com...
Chapter
Full-text available
Free-space digital optics relies on optical devices which may be required to play the same role as a transistor in digital electronics. In addition to being an optical port, i.e., a modulator or emitter and a detector, they may also be required to act as a thresholding device. Such devices are called optically bistable (OB). OB devices are optical...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the photonic switching systems designers to some of the optically transparent or relational devices that can be used as building blocks in constructing larger photonic switching systems. By understanding the basic properties and attributes of these devices, the systems designer can determine the limitatio...
Chapter
Free-space digital optics is a topic based on many disciplines: nonlinear optics, computer and switching network architectural design, semiconductor physics, mechanical design, and, of course, optical system design. Initial work in this area concentrated on the discovery and development of nonlinear optical effects with which to form optical switch...
Chapter
Photonic switching architectures that are based on logic devices have been under study since the early 1980s. Logic-based systems can be subdivided into two broad categories: (1) guided wave systems based on logic devices and (2) free-space systems based on logic devices.
Book
In response to the increasing interest in developing photonic switching fabrics, this book gives an overview of the many technologies from a systems designer's perspective. Optically transparent devices, optical logic devices, and optical hardware are all discussed in detail and set into a systems context. Comprehensive, up-to-date, and profusely i...
Article
A new class of networks that is well suited for free-space photonic switching applications is described. These networks are known as extended generalized shuffle networks. It is shown that these networks can provide low blocking probabilities while requiring low hardware costs. In fact, if sufficient hardware is added to these networks, they become...
Article
Free-space optical interconnections offer a means to alleviate many high speed, high density communications problems in digital systems. The realization of this new technology involves the application of many classical optical testing techniques, as well as the development of several novel tools and techniques. We describe the design and implementa...
Article
A prototype digital free-space photonic switching fabric is demonstrated. It consists of three cascaded 16 x 8 arrays of symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices that are used as logic gates that implement part of a multistage interconnection network. We discuss architecture, device tolerancing, optical system design, and optomechanical design....
Article
Full-text available
Two-dimensional arrays of logic self-electrooptic effect devices (L-SEEDs), consisting of electrically connected quantum-well p-i-n diode detectors and modulators are demonstrated. The topology of the electrical connections between the detectors is equivalent to the connections between transistors in CMOS circuits. Three different L-SEED arrays wer...
Article
A new class of switching topologies known as Extended Generalized Shuffle (EGS) networks is presented, and we show that the flexibility of these network makes them well-suited for photonic switching applications. We then analyze the hardware costs ( S-SEED arrays) and various operating characteristics (blocking probability, fault-tolerance, and sys...
Article
Four different methods of injecting control signals into photonic switches are compared. A control injection model based on time-division-multiplexed switching is developed, and the analysis studies the effects of the different control injection schemes on network performance, system complexity, and system packaging. Serious system-level limitation...
Article
Free-space optical implementations of switching networks have been proposed to circumvent many of the system-level problems that may be encountered in systems that require many high-density, high-bandwidth connections. The details of a new class of switching network (the EGS network), that is well-suited to free-space implementations, is described....
Article
Free-space interconnection of widely spaced pixels may be implemented using microlenses, rather than conventional imaging. Advantages, problems, and studies of system capacity are discussed.
Article
Photonic switching nodes based on self electro-optic devices are described. These nodes are proposed for use in extended generalized shuffle networks with free space digital optical interconnections between nodes. Several experiments are described demonstrating both individual switching nodes and arrays of switching nodes operating concurrently. No...