Fawzi M. Mahomoodally

Fawzi M. Mahomoodally
University of Mauritius | UoM · Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences; Department of Health Sciences

PhD [Professor- (Extraordinary)]- Alumni: 1. Harvard Kennedy School Executive Education, 2. Young Affiliate to The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS); 3. Fellow of the African Science Leadership Programme; 4. Member of the Global Young Academy

About

523
Publications
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Introduction
Fawzi currently works at the Department of Health Sciences, University of Mauritius. His current research interest is geared towards health sciences with a deep-rooted interest in biomedical sciences, biopharmaceutical sciences, biomedicine, and natural products, medicinal chemistry, in vitro, in vivo, and in silico models, functional foods, Complementary and alternative medicines/ traditional medicines, ethnopharmacology, herbal medicines, pharmacovigilance of alternative medicines, and African traditional medicines. For any potential collaboration and queries, please mail to f.mahomoodally@uom.ac.mu; f.mahomoodally@gmail.com
Additional affiliations
May 2009 - present
University of Mauritius
Position
  • Head of Department

Publications

Publications (523)
Chapter
Lumnitzera racemosa is a shrub widely distributed in Madagascar, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and India. It is traditionally used to treat snake bites, rheumatism, skin allergies, blood purifier, asthma, and diabetes. It possesses antioxidant, cytotoxicity, and anticoagulant properties. Alkaloids, phe...
Chapter
Bruguiera parviflora is mostly distributed in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. Traditionally used to treat constipation in India. It is a poorly explored mangrove plant in terms of pharmacological properties, phytochemical profiling and fungal endophytes.
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Ceriops tagal is a 25 m tall plant largely distributed in North Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Madagascar, and East Africa. Traditionally used to treat sores, haemorrhages and malignant ulcers and malaria in China. It possessed antitumor and antioxidant activities. This mangrove species is host to the fungal endophyes Cytospora sp., Penicillium sp...
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Heritiera fomes is a 15- to 25-m tall plant scarcely distributed across the globe and traditionally used to treat cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, and skin diseases. Alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, steroids, saponins, gums, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, terpenoids, anthraquinone glycoside, and proanthocyanidins w...
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Rhizophora apiculata is a 30 m tall plant distributed in Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, and India. Traditionally used to treat colitis, inflammatory and bowel disease. Aliphatic alcohols, hydrolysable tannins, steroids, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds were identified in this mangrove species. It possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial and an...
Article
Convolvulus arvensis L. is an evergreen herb growing in various regions of Pakistan. Despite of several medicinal properties associated to this herb, it was not investigated scientifically for its bioactive compounds and detailed pharmaceutical properties. Therefore, its methanolic extract was divided into hexane (CA‐H), chloroform (CA‐C), ethyl ac...
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Pelliciera rhizophorae is a 20 m tall plant scarcely distributed across the globe. It is a poorly explored mangrove in terms of its pharmacological properties, phytochemical profile and fungal endophytes.
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Mangroves are inhabited by an astronomical number of fungal communities responsible to produce a diverse array of extracellular degradative enzymes, namely, cellulase, xylanase, pectinase, cholesterol oxidase. Such enzymes can be isolated from the mangrove fungi and harnessed for different biotechnological applications, namely, as chemical catalyst...
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Rhizophora racemosa is 30 m tall plant distributed along the West coast of Africa, Brazil, and Central America. In Nigeria, it is traditionally used to alleviate toothache and dysmenorrhea. It is poorly explored in terms of its pharmacological properties, phytochemical profiling and fungal endophytes.
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Rhizophora mucronata is a 20–25 m tall plant widely distributed across the globe and is present in various countries, namely, North America, East Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomons Island. Traditionally used to treat many diseases including amoebiasis, diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting. It possesses...
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Aegialitis rotundifolia is a 2-3 m tall plant mainly found in Bangladesh. Traditionally used as a pain reliever, anti-inflammatory and anti-ache agent. There is a dearth of knowledge on its pharmacological properties, phytochemical profile and fungal endophytes.
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Obesity and osteoporosis are two important problems affecting global health with a high impact on both mortality and morbidity. There are complex interactions between metabolic factors and regulatory pathways influencing both obesity and osteoporosis. The long -term prevention of skeletal damage hinges on obesity prevention.
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The riches of mangroves have attracted people on every continent over the course of thousands of years. Mangroves have been exploited in many countries, including Vietnam, Malaysia, East Africa, Madagascar, for their wood to produce charcoal, poles, wood vinegar, to construct houses and boats, to make handicrafts, amongst others. Despite mangrove e...
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Aegiceras corniculatum is a 6-m tall plant found in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, South Thailand, and in many regions in Australia and traditionally used to treat rheumatism, painful arthritis, and inflammation. It possessed antinociceptive, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities. Phytochemicals such as amino acids, benzoquinones, tannins, couma...
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The relationship between endophytes and their host plants has fascinated researchers especially for their ability to produce structurally unique phytocompounds of significant biopharmaceutical and biomedical importance. It was found that mangrove endophytic fungi are capable to produce an impressive panoply of metabolites with promising biological...
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Nypa fruticans, commonly known as mangrove palm, is found in Northern Australia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Traditionally used to treat snake bites and diabetes. It possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Compounds from different phytochemical classes alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthranoids, polypheno...
Chapter
Avicennia officinalis is a 30-m tall plant scarcely distributed across the globe. It is traditionally used to treat snakebites, dyspepsia, and smallpox. It possesses antimicrobial, antiulcer, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and neuropharmacological properties. Host to fungal endophytes originate from different genera including Aspergillus, Penicilli...
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Avicennia marina is a 14-m tall plant distributed in Australia, Indonesia, India, and Madagascar, along the coastlines of Saudi Arabia and southeast of Africa and scarcely distributed in north of America and traditionally used to treat small pox, skin diseases, ulcers, and throat pains. Biomolecules from different phytochemical classes, namely, alk...
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Avicennia germinans is a 30-50 m high plant widely distributed along the coastlines of United States, Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Cayenne, Brazil, and Ecuador. Traditionally used to treat malaria, haemorrhoids, rheumatism, swellings, throat pains, and haemorrhage. This mangrove species is poorly explored in terms of its ph...
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Acanthus ilicifolius is a a small tree of height up to 2 m distributed in Bangladesh, India, Australia, Indonesia and South Thailand. Traditionally used to treat rheumatism, relief for asthma, diabetes, diuretic, dyspepsia, leprosy, hepatitis, blood purifier, cure for cold, gangrenous wounds, skin allergies, snake bites, pain reliever, or as an aph...
Chapter
Sonneratia apetala is a 15-20 m tall plant scarcely distributed across the globe. Traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, intestinal parasites, cough, dysentery, sprain, bruises, cataract, and sores in the ear. Its fruit contains polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), alkaloids, reducing sugar, tannins, st...
Chapter
Bruguiera gymnorhiza is a 15-m tall plant widely distributed in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, East Australia, Papua New Guinea, and Madagascar And traditionally used to treat diabetes, fever, eye disease, malaria, shingles, and diarrhea. Phytochemicals present in the leaves, stems, flowers, roots, and fruits include flavonoids, saponins, reducing...
Chapter
Bruguiera cylindrica is a 20-m tall plant scarcely distributed and traditionally used to treat hemorrhages and ulcers. It is a poorly explored mangrove species in terms of pharmacological properties, phytochemical profile, and fungal endophytes.
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Kandelia candel is a 10-m tall plant scarcely distributed across the globe and traditionally used to treat cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. It is poorly explored in terms of pharmacological properties and phytochemical profile and hosts fungal endophytes Sporothrix sp., Pestalotiopsis sp., Botryosphaeria sp., Phomop...
Chapter
Mangroves are ecologically important plants in marine habitats that occupy the coastlines of many countries. In addition to their key ecological importance, various parts of mangroves are widely used in folklore medicine and claimed to effectively manage a pile of diseases. Out of 84 mangrove species, only 27 species were found to be traditionally...
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Xylocarpus granatum is a 3-8 m tall plant distributed in Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, Madagascar, and East Africa. Traditionally used to treat many diseases including cholera, diarrhea, fever, and malaria. It possesses antioxidant, anticancer, antidiarrheal, and antimicrobial activities. Host to fungal endophytes Tricho...
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Ceriops decandra is scarcely distributed across the globe. Traditionally used to treat hepatitis, ulcers, viral infections, gastrointestinal disorders, liver disorders, diarrhoea and amoebiasis. This mangrove species possessed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. Different parts of the plant are rich with various phytoconstit...
Chapter
Rhizophora mangle is a 24 m tall plant mostly distributed in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Central America, United States, and West Africa. Traditionally used to treat diabetes, sores and swellings. It possesses antioxidant and anti-ulcer activities. Tannins, triterpenes, flavonoids, glycosides, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol diglycosides were fo...
Book
Mangroves with Therapeutic Potential for Human Health: Global Distribution, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Biopharmaceutical Applications explores, for the first time in a book, the exciting potential of mangroves for therapeutic applications in medicine and pharmacology. This authoritative, illustrated and clearly written book pairs the fa...
Article
Full-text available
Artemisia verlotiorum Lamotte is recognized medicinally given its long-standing ethnopharmacological uses in different parts of the world. Nonetheless, the pharmacological properties of the leaves of the plant have been poorly studied by the scientific community. Hence, this study aimed to decipher the phytochemicals; quantify through HPLC-ESI-MS a...
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Full-text available
In the present study, the extracts of Cytinus hypocistis (L.) L using both traditional solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, ethanol, ethanol/water, and water) and natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) were investigated in terms of their total polyphenolic contents and antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitive properties. The extracts were fo...
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The aim of the present study was to identify/quantify bioactive compounds and determine the antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitory effects of various solvent extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water) of Prangos heyniae H. Duman and M.F. Watson, Prangos meliocarpoides var. meliocarpoides, and Prangos uechtritzii Boiss. and Hausskn....
Article
Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle is a plant with several traditional uses in tropical countries. To study the potential usefulness, extracts from stem barks and leaves of F. virosa were obtained with different solvents. The phytochemical composition was assessed using LC-MS and NMR. Triterpenes, as oleanolic (0.05–88.09 mg/g extract), and ur...
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Full-text available
The bioactive content, antioxidant properties, and enzyme inhibition properties of extracts of Alcea fasciculiflora from Turkey prepared with different solvents (water, methanol, ethyl acetate) and extraction methods (maceration, soxhlet, homogenizer assisted extraction, and ultrasound assisted extraction) were examined in this study. UHPLC-HRMS an...
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Full-text available
The biological activity of the aerial part and rhizomes of Primula auriculata were assessed for the first time. The biological activities (antioxidant properties, enzyme inhibition, and AGE inhibition) as well as the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the ethyl acetate, ethanol, hydro-ethanol and water extracts of P. auriculata aerial parts and rhi...
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Berry-derived polyphenols are bioactive compounds synthesized and secreted by several berry fruits. These polyphenols feature a diversity of chemical compounds, including phenolic acids and flavonoids. Here, we report the beneficial health effects of berry-derived polyphenols and their therapeutical application on gut-microbiota-related diseases, i...
Article
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal has been identified as a miracle herb, thus the present study was carried out to investigate W. somnifera growing in Cholistan Desert for its secondary metabolic profile and various biological activities. The WS-C fraction of methanolic extract (WS-M) of W. somnifera was found rich in phenolics (39.96±0.90 mg GAE/g ext...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, six extracts of Arabis carduchorum prepared from solvents of varying polarity (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and n-hexane) were investigated for their chemical profiles and total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC/TFC) using HPLC–MS/MS and spectrophotometric/colorimetric assays, respectively, along with the asses...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, six extracts of Arabis carduchorum prepared from solvents of varying polarity (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and n‐hexane) were investigated for their chemical profiles and total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC/TFC) using HPLC–MS/MS and spectrophotometric/colorimetric assays, respectively, along with the asses...
Article
Piliostigma thonningii (Fabaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used as a traditional remedy, especially in African countries. In the present study, ethyl acetate, methanolic and water extracts of different parts of (fruits, leaves, stem barks) P. thonningii were evaluated for their bioactive contents, enzyme inhibitory, antioxidant and antimicrob...
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Full-text available
Alteration of insect growth regulators by the action of inhibitors is becoming an attractive strategy to combat disease-transmitting insects. In the present study, we investigated the larvicidal effect of 1,2,3-triazolyl-pyrimidinone derivatives against the larvae of the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis, a vector of malaria. All compounds demonstrated...
Article
Full-text available
Dioscorea hispida Dennst. locally known as “ubi gadung” has been used as a traditional remedy and source of carbohydrate among Malaysians. To assess the effect of Dioscorea hispida aqueous extract (DHAE) on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their effects on DNA damage in Sprague Dawley rat’s placental tissues, pregnant rats were r...
Chapter
Verbascum thapsus is annual or biennial herb, which belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae. It has becomes naturalized in most temperature regions of the world, where it can be found in abundance on roadsides, meadows, and pasture lands. The plant V. thapsus is commonly known as “Mullein.” V. thapsus has a broad native range including Europe, North...
Article
Full-text available
Decoctions (leaves and roots) of Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. are traditionally used against diabetes in many countries, including Mauritius. This study endeavoured to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves, roots, twigs and fruits extracts (decoction and maceration) of B. gymnorhiza against key enzymes relevant to diabetes. Considering comp...
Article
In this study, aerial part and root extracts of two Silene species, S. caramanica and S. otites obtained by five extraction methods (homogenizer assisted, maceration, Soxhlet, and ultrasound assisted extractions and infusion) were screened for their phytochemical contents, antioxidant and anti-enzymatic properties. Spectrophotometric assays reveale...
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Full-text available
This study focused on the biological evaluation and chemical characterisation of Ficus sur Forssk. (F. sur) (Family: Moraceae). The methanolic and aqueous extracts’ phytochemical profile, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory properties were investigated. The aqueous stem bark extract yielded the highest phenolic content (115.51 ± 1.60 mg gallic acid...
Article
This study focused on the biological evaluation and chemical characterization of Malabaila lasiocarpa Boiss. (M. lasiocarpa) (Family: Apiaceae). The phytochemical profile, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory of the methanolic, aqueous, dichloromethane, n‐hexane extracts were investigated. Based on UHPLC‐HRMS analyses, a total of 101 peaks were annotated...
Article
This research work prospects the phytochemical and biological properties of different polarity solvent (methanol, ethyl-acetate, n-hexane, and n-butanol) extracts of Trianthema triquetra Rottler & Willd. The assessment of chemical profile was done by ascertaining total bioactive contents and UHPLC-MS analysis. Similarly, biological profile was anal...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the essential oils (EOs) obtained from three endemic Prangos species from Turkey (P. heyniae, P. meliocarpoides var. meliocarpoides, and P. uechtritzii) were studied for their chemical composition and biological activities. β-Bisabolenal (12.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.9%) were the principal components of P. heyniae EO, while P. m...
Article
: In this study, the aerial part and root extracts obtained using solvents of different polarity (hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, ethanol/water, and water) of one of the species of Doronicum genus, D. orientale were subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological screening. For instance, the extracts yielded total phenolic and flavonoid contents in...
Article
In our continuous screening for bioactive microbial natural products, the culture extracts of a terrestrial Actinomycetes sp. GSCW‐51 yielded four new metabolites, i.e. 5‐hydroxymethyl‐3‐(1¢‐hydroxy‐6¢‐methyl‐7‐oxo‐octyl)‐dihydrofuran‐2(3H)‐one ( 1 ), 5‐hydroxymethyl‐3‐(1¢,7¢‐dihydroxy‐6¢‐methyloctyl)‐dihydrofuran‐2(3H)‐one ( 2 ), 5¢‐methyl­thio­in...
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Full-text available
Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn (squill), belonging to the Asparagaceae family, is acknowledged as a medicinally valuable species from the Drimia genera. In this study, water, methanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of D. maritima aerial parts and bulbs were investigated for their polyphenols profile and evaluated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibiti...
Article
In this study, the aerial parts and bulbs of nine Allium species were investigated for their functional phytochemical profile, in vitro antioxidant activities, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Phenolics, alkaloids, glucosinolates and other sulfur-containing co...
Article
Mangrove plants, also known as halophytes, are ecologically important plants that grow in various tropical and subtropical intertidal regions. Owing to the extreme abiotic and biotic stressful conditions they thrive in, these plants produce unique compounds with promising pharmacological propensities. Mangroves are inhabited by an astronomical numb...
Article
The recovery of pectin from citrus peel waste for application in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and medical industries has attracted much interest. It has been postulated that the presence of polyphenols, sometimes regarded as an impurity, in extracted pectin might confer enhanced biological property. This research study aimed at investig...
Article
Objective This review documents the folk medicinal plants used worldwide for the management of hypercholesterolemia. Methods An exhaustive bibliographic research was done using scientific engines and databases including Science direct, Medline/PubMed, and Google Scholar. Results 174 surveys were obtained which dated from 2001 to 2020. A total of...
Article
Full-text available
Sartoria hedysaroides Boiss and Heldr. (Fabaceae) is an endemic plant of Turkey that has received little scientific consideration so far. In the present study, the chemical profiles of extracts from the aerial part and roots of S. hedysaroides obtained using solvents with different polarities were analyzed combining integrated NMR, LC-DAD-MSn, and...
Chapter
Well established as a ubiquitous enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is present in all contemporary organisms and tissues and is conspicuously primeval in evolution. Mandatorily involved in the rate limiting step of the pentose phosphate pathway, its role in averting subsequent cellular insults in assonance to inducing cellular hypertr...
Chapter
Catalase is a common antioxidant enzyme with the highest turnover rate. It is present in living tissues and is a key clinical enzyme involved in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen. According to the structure and sequence, catalases can be divided into three classes namely monofunctional catalase or typical catalase, ca...
Chapter
Age-related cognitive decline is emerging as one of the greatest health challenges of the twenty-first century. With the projected trends in population ageing and population growth, the prevalence of cognitive decline and risk of dementia is constantly increasing since cognitive impairment results from the physiological process of brain aging. Cogn...
Chapter
Foods containing sulfur compounds such as cruciferous and allium vegetables have long been included in the diet for their perceived health benefits. Organosulfur compounds are classified according to the functional group to which sulfur is attached. Only with today’s advanced technology, we can confirm that these active compounds have anticarcinoge...
Chapter
Ferritin is a protein that plays a key role in iron metabolism, with the inherent ability to store and release iron when the body needs it. Body serum level of ferritin can be used as an indicator to measure the amount of iron stored in the body. Moreover it has been reported to be one of the biomarker of disease progression in Parkinson’s disease,...
Chapter
Protein hydrolysates encompass of 2 to 20 amino acid residues (oligopeptides), released by hydrolysis either during gastrointestinal digestion in the body or during fermentation. Generation of bioactive peptides depending on the reaction environment and amino acid residues can either increase or decrease the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolys...
Chapter
Uric acid has attracted much interest of the scientific community due to its versatile role in health. This organic compound is renowned as being a powerful ROS and peroxynitrite scavenger but also as a major contributor to several pathologies. Furthermore, this weak acid can act both as an antioxidant and pro-oxidant molecule. Its antioxidant prop...
Chapter
Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), is described as an enigmatic dipeptide found endogenously in body tissues. Carnosine synthesis occurs when histidine and β-alanine are combined in the presence of carnosine synthase, whereby β-alanine is the rate-limiting amino acid for this process. The molecule possesses functional and biological properties in pa...
Chapter
The end product of heme catabolism, bilirubin has been often depicted as a toxic compound to tissues. With a normal range established about 0.2–1.2 mg/dL, any increase beyond this level tends to be detrimental to the body. However, several promising scientific studies have been able to demonstrate its potency as an endogenous antioxidant. Evidence...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents the evaluation of biological activities and chemical profiling of Oenanthe aquatica (L.) Poir. and Oenanthe silaifolia M. Bieb. The phytochemical profile, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, cytotoxic and antiviral activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated. The aqueous extract of O. aquatica possessing the...
Article
The aim of the study was to characterize the fruit extracts of Ficus sur, Gardenia ternifolia and Uapaca togoensis prepared from water and methanol solvents. The metabolomic and antiradical was investigated. Enzyme inhibitory effects were also studied against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Extr...
Article
Full-text available
Boerhavia diffusa is a great tropical plant and is widely used for various traditional purposes. In the present study, we examined the influence of solvents (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and infusion (water)) on chemical composition and biological capabilities of B. diffusa. An UHPLC-HRMS method was used to determine the chemical charac...
Article
Full-text available
Feijoa sellowiana leaves and fruits have been investigated as a source of diverse bioactive metabolites. Extract and eight metabolites isolated from F. sellowiana leaves were evaluated for their enzymatic inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, amylase, tyrosinase, acetylcholinestrerase and butyrylcholinesterase both in vitro and in silico. Feij...
Article
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p>To facilitate the recognition and classification of medicinal plants that are commonly used by Mauritians, a mobile application which can recognise seventy different medicinal plants has been developed. A convolutional neural network (CNN) based on the TensorFlow framework has been used to create the classification model. The system has a recogni...
Article
In the present study, extracts of four medicinal plants (Cajanus cajan, Carica papaya, Morinda morindoides, and Senna alexandrina) obtained at two different extraction temperatures (24°C and 45°C) were investigated for their polyphenolic contents, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory properties. For instance, extracts of the studied species yielded t...
Article
Full-text available
Spondias species have been used in traditional medicine for different human ailments. In this study, the effect of different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol, and water) and extraction methods (infusion, maceration, and Soxhlet extraction) on the enzyme inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, α-amylase,...
Article
Phytochemicals are important bioactive components present in natural products. Although the health benefits of many food products are well-known and accepted as a common knowledge, the identity of the main bioactive molecules and the mechanism by which they interact in the body of human are often unknown. It was only in the last 30 years when the f...
Article
Introduction: Turmeric rhizome (Cucurma longa L.) has showed great potential as a traditional drug in folk medicine of several countries. In light of the prominent use of turmeric rhizome in treating both respiratory and viral diseases, we aimed to dock major compounds from the essential oil of turmeric against three key proteins involved in COVID-...