Farooq Naeem

Farooq Naeem
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Psychiatry, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Schizophrenia Program

MBBS, MSc Research Methodlogy, MRCPcyh, PhD

About

252
Publications
97,044
Reads
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3,504
Citations
Citations since 2016
119 Research Items
2619 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - present
University of Toronto
Position
  • Professor (Full)
May 2016 - June 2017
Queen's University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2013 - April 2016
Queen's University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (252)
Article
The prevalence of non-psychotic disorders such as depression and anxiety has been increasing in East Asian populations along with the use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Interventions (CBIs) as treatment. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of CBIs on depression and anxiety outcomes for East Asian adults. A literature sear...
Article
Full-text available
Background Bipolar disorder is a source of marked disability, morbidity and premature death. There is a paucity of research on personalised psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder, especially in low-resource settings. A pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a culturally adapted psychoeducation intervention for bipolar disorder (CaPE) i...
Article
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Introduction: Suicide is a global health concern. Sociocultural factors have an impact on self-harm and suicide rates. In Pakistan, both self-harm and suicide are considered as criminal offence's and are condemned on both religious and social grounds. The proposed intervention 'Youth Culturally Adapted Manual Assisted Problem Solving Training (YCM...
Article
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Background Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high in Pakistan both due to natural disasters and ongoing conflicts. Offspring of trauma survivors are at increased risk for mental and physical illnesses. Parental PTSD has been linked to troubled parent–child relationships, behaviour problems, trauma symptoms, and depression in ch...
Article
Online cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), self-help and guided self-help (GSH) interventions have been found to be efficacious and cost-effective for treatment of anxiety and depression, but there are limited data from low- and middle-income countries on culturally adapted digital interventions for these common mental disorders. The aim of this stu...
Article
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Objectives The aim of the project was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a mobile phone application-based intervention ‘TechCare’, for individuals with psychosis in the North West of England. The main objectives were to determine whether appropriate individuals could be identified and recruited to the study and whether the TechCare App...
Article
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Background Canadians of South Asian (SA) origin comprise the largest racialized group in Canada, representing 25.6% of what Statistics Canada terms “visible minority populations”. South Asian Canadians are disproportionately impacted by the social determinants of health, and this can result in high rates of mood and anxiety disorders. These factors...
Article
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Background Rates of depression among Pakistani mothers are high, leading to poor developmental outcomes in their children. This study tested the effectiveness of a manualized integrated parenting program; Learning through Play Plus (LTP+) for maternal depression in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cluster randomized control trial conducted from Januar...
Article
Aims of the study To test the feasibility of a group psychosocial intervention called Learning Through Play (LTP) plus Culturally adapted Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CaCBT) for depressed Kenyan mothers with children aged 0-36 months. Methods used to conduct the study This study was a single-arm mixed methods feasibility study to test an integrate...
Article
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The cognitive model of negative symptoms suggests that some dysfunctional beliefs mediate the relationship between neurocognitive deficits and negative symptoms and disability. This study tested the hypothesis that dysfunctional performance beliefs mediate neurocognitive deficits, negative symptoms, and disability. We used a hierarchal component mo...
Chapter
Full-text available
Traumatic experiences are known to have a significant impact upon one’s physical and mental health. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is understood to be a common mental health consequence of trauma. However, Complex Trauma and consequences of adverse childhood experiences appear more prevalent and a serious public health concern that hinders t...
Article
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Aims This review and meta-analysis aim to estimate the cumulative incidence of clozapine induced agranulocytosis and leukopenia the impact of the associated factors such as dose of clozapine, duration of follow-up, gender and race on the cumulative incidence. Background Clozapine is the only medication licensed for treatment-resistant schizophreni...
Article
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Introduction Individuals with schizophrenia are at a high risk of physical health comorbidities and premature mortality. Cardiovascular and metabolic causes are an important contributor. There are gaps in monitoring, documenting and managing these physical health comorbidities. Because of their condition, patients themselves may not be aware of the...
Article
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Background: Training lay people to deliver mental health interventions in the community can be an effective strategy to mitigate mental health manpower shortages in low- and middle-income countries. The healthy beginning initiative (HBI) is a congregation-based platform that uses this approach to train church-based lay health advisors to conduct m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aims of the study: To test the feasibility of a group psychosocial intervention called Learning Through Play (LTP) plus Culturally adapted Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CaCBT) for depressed Kenyan mothers with children aged 0-36 months. Methods used to conduct the study: This study was a single-arm mixed methods feasibility study to test an integrat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Globally, paternal depression is a neglected and under-researched area. Aims: To feasibility test Learning Through Play Plus Dads (LTP+ Dads), a group parenting psychoeducation program adapted for depressed Pakistani fathers of children under 3 years of age. Methods: Fathers with depression were recruited in Karachi, Pakistan, for...
Article
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PIDD1 encodes p53-Induced Death Domain protein 1, which acts as a sensor surveilling centrosome numbers and p53 activity in mammalian cells. Early results also suggest a role in DNA damage response where PIDD1 may act as a cell-fate switch, through interaction with RIP1 and NEMO/IKKg, activating NF-κB signaling for survival, or as an apoptosis-indu...
Article
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Background:The patient's follow-up is a significant challenge for managing the psychiatric illness, especially psychotic disorders. Although many factors affect patients' clinical non-attendance with psychosis, patients and their families' approach toward medication influences treatment follow-up. The study evaluates the patient's and family's appr...
Article
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Abstract Background: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an evidence based therapy and is now recommended by national organizations in many high income countries. CBT is underpinned by the European values and therefore for it to be effective in other cul- tures it needs to be adapted. Aims: This paper describes an evidence based approach to cultura...
Article
Abstract Background: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), self-help and guided self-help interventions have been found to be efficacious and cost effective for victims of trauma, but there are limited data from low- and middle-income countries on culturally adapted interventions for trauma. Aims: To investigate the feasibility and acceptability of c...
Article
Abstract Background: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), self-help and guided self-help interventions have been found to be efficacious and cost effective for victims of trauma, but there are limited data from low- and middle-income countries on culturally adapted interventions for trauma. Aims: To investigate the feasibility and acceptability of...
Article
Objectives: To establish feasibility and acceptability of a Culturally adapted Family Intervention (CulFI) that was developed using an empirically derived conceptual framework in Pakistan. Methods: A rater-blind, randomised trial to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of delivering CulFI compared to treatment as usual in Karachi, Pakistan...
Article
Background: The risk factors and adverse outcomes related to maternal depression and child malnutrition are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) including Pakistan. Above 25% of women suffer from maternal depression. Up to 50% children are under-nourished which contributes to 35% of all under-5 death...
Article
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Background The evidence base for stigma in mental health largely originates from high-income countries. Aims This study from Pakistan aimed to address the gap in literature on stigma from low- and middle-income countries. Method This cross-sectional study surveyed 1470 adults from Karachi, Pakistan. Participants from three groups (healthcare prof...
Article
In a humanitarian crisis, healthcare workers are on the frontline in providing their services. Despite being crisis management personnel, healthcare workers may get exposed to occupational stress due to unprecedented circumstances, challenges in delivery of high-quality care, lack of resources, and most importantly for being at high risk to suffer...
Article
Health systems are adapting to the unique challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Social distancing has forced clinicians to provide their services through online platforms in high income countries. Similar trends have been noticed in Low and middle-income countries (LAMIC). Digital health can help LAMIC address traditional barriers to care by o...
Article
Background Social anxiety is common among adolescents in Pakistan and is associated with low self-esteem. Among the recommended treatments, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective, and self-help approaches are encouraged. Aim To determine the effectiveness of culturally adapted CBT-based guided self-help (CACBT-GSH) intervention, using a...
Article
Culture influences models of mental illness, help-seeking behaviours and outcomes of interventions. Cultural competency training has been developed to improve clinician practice in addressing these issues. The study aims to identify to what extent culturally competent and informed interactions are used by clinicians in England and how patients expe...
Article
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Research into social determinants of mental and emotional health problems highlighted the need to understand the cultural factors. Mental health of immigrants is influenced by a variety of cultural, psychological, social, and economic factors. There is some evidence to suggest that South Asian people have higher rates of mental and emotional health...
Article
Full-text available
At the start of 2020, originating from Wuhan city, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started to spread throughout China.1 The World Health Organization has declared this to be a pandemic.2 Both healthcare workers and the general public have been experiencing psychological problems, including anxiety, depression, and stress, as a result of the rap...
Article
Background: Depressive disorders account for almost half of all Disability Adjusted Life Years caused by psychiatric disorders but efficacy of pharmacological intervention to prevent depressive disorders is not known. We aimed to assess efficacy of pharmacological treatments in prevention of depression. Methods: We searched PubMed, Psych Info, EMBA...
Article
The preponderance of western psychological concepts are often relied upon to conceptualise health-related phenomena. It is hardly surprising therefore that despite the availability of a number of interventions, studies have concluded that outcomes for minority cultural groups are not as good as for Caucasian people (western Europe and North America...
Article
Full-text available
Western values influence cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as it was primarily developed and practised in the West. As understanding the cultural context has been linked to better therapy outcomes, it has been suggested that CBT might need modification to non-Western clients’ cultural backgrounds. Previously we developed a cost-effective approach...
Article
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Background The waiting room in psychiatric services can provide an ideal setting for offering evidence-based psychological interventions that can be delivered through electronic media. Currently, there is no intervention available that have been developed or tested in mental health. Aims This proof-of-concept study aimed to evaluate a pilot design...
Chapter
The burden of psychiatric disorders and mental health problems across the globe is steadily increasing. Despite exhaustive efforts to alleviate suffering due to these disorders a considerable proportion of those diagnosed with mental health problems require long-term rehabilitation to help them return to a normal lifestyle. Psychiatric rehabilitati...
Conference Paper
Introduction/background: As of 2016, 21.9 percent of Canadians were immigrants, and this population continues to grow and change. International studies have found migration and associated processes to be risks for psychiatric illness including Mood Disorders (MD), and Anxiety Disorders (AD). These illnesses are potentially devastating to patients...
Article
The study of cultural factors in the application of psychotherapy across cultures – ethnopsychotherapy – is an emerging field. It has been argued that Western cultural values underpin cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) as they do other modern psychosocial interventions developed in the West. Therefore, attempts have been made to culturally adapt C...
Chapter
p>Given the growing evidence base of psychotherapies for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, it is timely to explore their relevance to global mental health. In this chapter, we review the evidence base for psychotherapies used in high-income countries and discuss whether and how these can be extrapolated to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)....
Article
Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in its current form might not be applicable in non-Western cultures. Differences between Western and non-Western cultures have been reported widely. Most psychotherapeutic interventions have been developed in the West and are underpinned by the values that might be specific only to Western culture. To adapt CBT, we...
Article
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in its current form might not be acceptable to service users from a variety of backgrounds. Therefore, it makes sense to adapt CBT when working with diverse populations. Contributors to this special issue of the Cognitive Behaviour Therapist have tackled the issues around the cultural adaptation of CBT from vario...
Article
Purpose: This single-center retrospective cohort study is one of the first reports to evaluate the inpatient care provided to persons diagnosed with schizophrenia in Canada. Methods: This study examined all admissions for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia over a 6-month period in 2017 to an inpatient psychiatric unit situated in a nonprofit ge...
Article
Full-text available
Aims and method To systematically review the literature on barriers to the use of clozapine and identify any interventions for optimizing clozapine use in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Journal databases were searched from 1972 to March 2018. The following search terms were used: treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine, barriers, use, pres...
Article
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Background: Many medical students, junior doctors, and other health-care professionals have been affected by the negative experience of bullying. Research is scarce on bullying experienced by medical and nonmedical students in Saudi Arabia unlike what is found in Western countries. It is unclear whether being a nonmedical student modifies the risk...
Article
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Relatives and close friends provide life-long support as informal carers to those living with psychosis. We introduce a model for training informal carers in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for psychosis, called Psychosis Recovery by Enabling Adult Carers at Home (Psychosis REACH). The model aims to address the carers’ own emotional needs and at...
Article
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Objective: To study psychiatric problems among those attending primary care clinics in two major cities in Punjab, Pakistan. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study. The participants attending primary care clinics in Lahore and Faisalabad in Punjab, Pakistan were interviewed from October 2015 to October 2016. The Mini International Neuropsych...
Article
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Aim The aim of this study was to inform thinking around the terminology for ‘schizophrenia’ in different countries. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate: (1) whether medical students view alternative terminology (psychosis subgroups), derived from vulnerability-stress models of schizophrenia, as acceptable and less stigmatisin...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to better understand the implementation of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp) by exploring the impact of clinicians' attitudes toward CBTp within the Theory of Planned Behavior framework (i.e., by considering attitudes, behaviors, intention, and social norms) as well as perceived obstacles and response to...
Article
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Background Despite strong evidence for cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating mental health, its use, thus far, has been limited for people with intellectual disabilities. This study describes a CBT‐based guided self‐help (CBT‐GSH) manual for individuals with intellectual disability, and focus groups explore the views of clinicians, therapis...
Article
Full-text available
Background Evidence for efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in treatment of schizophrenia is growing. CBT is effective and cost efficient in treating positive and negative symptoms. To effectively meet the needs of diverse cultural groups, CBT needs to be adapted to the linguistic, cultural and socioeconomic context. We aimed to assess...
Article
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Objective: To translate and validate the Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI) in Pashto. Methodology: This study was conducted in Peshawar from July 2015 to January 2016 on 216 participants. The participants consisted of two groups; students (n=111), and patients (n=105) with a mean age of 21.8 ±5.6 years. Three bilingual experts, using forward-backwar...
Article
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Objective: To translate and validate the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in Pashto. Methodology: This study was conducted in Peshawar from July 2015 to January 2016 on 216 participants. The participants consisted of two groups; students (n=111) and patients (n=105). Mean age of the sample was 21.8 ±5.6 years. Majority were females [n=1...
Article
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Objective: To translate and validate the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) in Pashto. Methodology: This study was conducted in Peshawar from July 2015 to January 2016 on 216 participants. The participants consisted of two groups; students (n=111) and patients (n=105) with a mean age of 21.8 ±5.6 years. Three...
Article
Bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP, MIM 606854) is a heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder of abnormal cortical lamination, leading to moderate-to-severe intellectual disability (ID), seizure disorder, and motor difficulties, and caused by mutations in the G protein–coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) gene. Twenty-eight mutations in 40 diff...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Delivering the diagnosis of a serious illness is an important skill in most fields of medicine, including mental health. Research has found that communication skills can impact on a person's recall and understanding of the diagnosis, treatment options and prognosis. People may feel confused and perplexed when information about their il...
Article
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Background: Music has the potential to be an effective and engaging therapeutic intervention in the treatment of mental illness. This research area remains underdeveloped. Aims: This paper reports the feasibility of an innovative low-intensity CBT-based music (CBT-Music) group targeted to symptoms of depression and anxiety. Method: A total of...
Article
Schizophrenia is a complex multifactorial psychiatric disorder. Both environmental and genetic factors are thought to play a role in the development of this condition. Many studies have shown an association between consanguinity and schizophrenia. A study from Iran has examined the association between age at onset and consanguinity. In this study,...
Article
Full-text available
The relative burden of mental health disorders is increasing globally, in terms of prevalence and disability. There is limited data available to guide treatment choices for clinicians in low resourced settings, with mHealth technologies being a potentially beneficial avenue to bridging the large mental health treatment gap globally. The aim of the...
Article
There is a scarcity of publicly funded Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) programs in Canada. The evidence-based psychological services can not only reduce the burden of disease, but such services can also potentially pay for themselves. We ran a pilot project of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Low InTEnsity (CBT Lite) which was delivered by the fr...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been a steadily increasing recognition of the need to improve the cultural competence of services and cultural adaptation of interventions so that every individual can benefit from evidence based care. There have been attempts at culturally adapting evidence-based interventions for mental health problems, and a few meta-a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To find out the relationship between mindfulness and bullying behaviour among school children in Pakistan. Methodology: This cross sectional research was conducted in three private sector schools of Multan from March to August 2015. Two hundred gender- matched students, aged between 8 to 11 years were enrolled for the study. The assessme...
Article
Objectives: To establish evidence of cognitive changes in early psychosis (EP) patients compared to healthy controls (HC) in Pakistan. Methods: Fifty-one participants with EP were recruited from psychiatric units in Karachi and Rawalpindi, Pakistan and matched with 51 HC. Neurocognitive domains were assessed using standardised neuropsychological te...
Article
Full-text available
The current paper provides an overview of the cultural and religious background of Pakistan; the current situation of mental health in Pakistan with special emphasis on cultural adaptation of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in Pakistan. In the context of Sufism- Islamic Mindfulness, it is interesting to note that it has been easy to explain the c...
Article
The availability of publicly funded psychological therapy for people with mental health challenges is limited in Canada and elsewhere despite evidence supporting its clinical and social benefits. We report on a pilot program of such therapy, presenting its salient features, lessons learned, and future prospects. Keywords: low intensity, CBT, IAPT,...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately 1% of the global population is affected by intellectual disability (ID), and the majority receive no molecular diagnosis. Previous studies have indicated high levels of genetic heterogeneity, with estimates of more than 2500 autosomal ID genes, the majority of which are autosomal recessive (AR). Here, we combined microarray genotyping...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately 1% of the global population is affected by intellectual disability (ID), and the majority receive no molecular diagnosis. Previous studies have indicated high levels of genetic heterogeneity, with estimates of more than 2500 autosomal ID genes, the majority of which are autosomal recessive (AR). Here, we combined microarray genotyping...