Farhat N Beg

Farhat N Beg
University of California, San Diego | UCSD · Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Center for Energy Research (CER)

Ph.D.

About

578
Publications
39,322
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11,507
Citations
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January 2010 - December 2012
January 2009 - present

Publications

Publications (578)
Preprint
Full-text available
Magnetization of inertial confinement implosions is a promising means of improving their performance, owing to the potential reduction of energy losses within the target and mitigation of hydrodynamic instabilities. In particular, cylindrical implosions are useful for studying the influence of a magnetic field due to their axial symmetry. Here we p...
Article
Full-text available
Ion stopping in warm dense matter is a process of fundamental importance for the understanding of the properties of dense plasmas, the realization and the interpretation of experiments involving ion-beam-heated warm dense matter samples, and for inertial confinement fusion research. The theoretical description of the ion stopping power in warm dens...
Article
The gas-puff Z pinch has a long history with myriad applications as an efficient neutron or x-ray source. Its simplicity as a load configuration makes it suitable for studying fundamental plasma physics phenomena such as instabilities and energy transport. For example, the implosion of cylindrical shells onto a fusion fuel are inherently susceptibl...
Preprint
Full-text available
The potential benefits of the use of magnetic fields in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments have been investigated for several years, and exploring them has given rise to new experimental platforms such as the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) approach at the Z-machine, or its laser-driven equivalent at the OMEGA 60 laser. Impleme...
Article
The gas-puff Z-pinch is a well-known source of x-rays and/or neutrons, but it is highly susceptible to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI). Approaches to MRTI mitigation include density profile tailoring, in which nozzles are added or modified to alter the acceleration trajectory, and axial pre-magnetization, in which perturbations are s...
Article
Gas puff Z-pinch experiments with annular Ar and Ne gas shells have been conducted on the Compact Experimental System for Z-pinch and Ablation Research (CESZAR) linear transformer driver (LTD) with 500 kA current and 160 ns rise time. Here, we present results from the first systematic gas puff Z-pinch experiments using a fast ( ≤200 ns) LTD as a dr...
Article
Full-text available
As an alternative inertial confinement fusion scheme, shock ignition requires a strong converging shock driven by a high-intensity laser pulse to ignite a precompressed fusion capsule. Understanding nonlinear laser-plasma instabilities is crucial to assess and improve the laser-shock energy coupling. Recent experiments conducted on the OMEGA EP las...
Article
The dense plasma focus (DPF) can be an intense source of x rays, wherein the insulator sleeve strongly dictates the electrical breakdown, which subsequently affects the formation of a plasma sheath and a collapse phase. Experiments on a 25 kJ DPF (operated at 4.4 kJ) are carried out to demonstrate the influence of insulator surface morphology on th...
Article
Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometry has been implemented to map electron density gradients in High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments. X-ray backlighter targets have been evaluated for Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry (TXD). Cu foils, wires, and sphere targets have been irradiated by 10–150 J, 8–30 ps laser pulses, while two pulsed-power generator...
Article
An experimental study of the magnetic field distribution in gas-puff Z pinches with and without a preembedded axial magnetic field (Bz0) is presented. Spatially resolved, time-gated spectroscopic measurements were made at the Weizmann Institute of Science on a 300 kA, 1.6 μs rise time pulsed-power driver. The radial distribution of the azimuthal ma...
Article
Full-text available
The generation of hot, directional electrons via laser-driven stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is a topic of great importance in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) schemes. Little recent research has been dedicated to this process at high laser intensity, in which back, side, and forward scatter simultaneously occur in high energy density plasmas,...
Article
Wire X-pinches (WXPs) have been studied comprehensively as fast ( ∼ 1 ns pulse width), small ( ∼ 1 μm) x-ray sources, created by twisting two or more fine wires into an “X” to produce a localized region of extreme magnetic pressure at the cross-point. Recently, two alternatives to the traditional WXP have arisen: the hybrid X-pinch (HXP), composed...
Article
The addition of Kr dopant to a deuterium or deuterium–tritium dense plasma focus (DPF) is conventionally thought to enhance radiative cooling of the imploding sheath, resulting in a tighter pinch and, under optimized conditions, increased neutron yield [M. Krishnan, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3189 (2012)]. In this work, 2D radiation magnetohydrody...
Article
Full-text available
Inertial confinement fusion approaches involve the creation of high-energy-density states through compression. High gain scenarios may be enabled by the beneficial heating from fast electrons produced with an intense laser and by energy containment with a high-strength magnetic field. Here, we report experimental measurements from a configuration i...
Article
Experiments on a MA-class Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) device have been carried out to investigate changes in neutron production by adding moderate amounts of krypton to a deuterium fill gas. The neutron yield from Z-pinch devices, including DPFs, conventionally scales as the peak current to the fourth power. However, a dramatic drop-off from ∼I⁴ scali...
Article
Full-text available
A linear transformer driver (LTD) generator capable of delivering up to 0.9 MA current pulses with 160 ns rise time has been assembled and commissioned at University of California San Diego. The machine is an upgrade of the LTD-III pulser from Sandia National Laboratories, consisting of 40 capacitors and 20 spark gap switches, arranged in a 20-bric...
Article
Full-text available
Structures on the front surface of thin foil targets for laser-driven ion acceleration have been proposed to increase the ion source maximum energy and conversion efficiency. While structures have been shown to significantly boost the proton acceleration from pulses of moderate-energy fluence, their performance on tightly focused and high-energy la...
Article
Full-text available
Proton beams driven by chirped pulse amplified lasers have multi-picosecond duration and can isochorically and volumetrically heat material samples, potentially providing an approach for creating samples of warm dense matter with conditions not present on Earth. Envisioned on a larger scale, they could heat fusion fuel to achieve ignition. We have...
Article
Full-text available
Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations for laser plasma interaction with laser intensity of 1016W/cm2, plasma density range of 0.01–0.28nc, and scale length of 230–330μm showed significant pump depletion of the laser energy due to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the low-density region (ne=0.01–0....
Article
Currently there is considerable interest in creating scalable laboratory plasmas to study the mechanisms behind the formation and evolution of astrophysical phenomena such as Herbig-Haro objects and supernova remnants. Laboratory-scaled experiments can provide a well diagnosed and repeatable supplement to direct observations of these extraterrestri...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the characterization of the conditions of an imploding cylindrical plasma by time-resolved x-ray emission spectroscopy. Knowledge about this implosion platform can be applied to studies of particle transport for inertial confinement fusion schemes or to astrophysical plasmas. A cylindrical Cl-doped CH foam within a tube of solid CH was...
Article
Full-text available
In the shock ignition (SI) laser fusion scheme, hot electrons generated by the laser spike pulse can either preheat the fuel or strengthen the ignition shock, depending on the hot electron characteristics. We conducted a planar target experiment on the OMEGA-EP laser facility and characterized the temperature and total energy of hot electrons gener...
Article
Full-text available
We demonstrate that laser reflection acts as a catalyst for superponderomotive electron production in the preplasma formed by relativistic multipicosecond lasers incident on solid density targets. In 1D particle-in-cell simulations, high energy electron production proceeds via two stages of direct laser acceleration: an initial stochastic backward...
Article
Gas puff Z-pinches are intense sources of X-rays and neutrons but are highly susceptible to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI). MRTI mitigation is critical for optimal and reproducible yields, motivating significant attention toward various potential mitigation mechanisms. One such approach is the external application of an axial magnet...
Poster
Full-text available
We present two sets of experimental studies done on x-pinches using university-based pulsed power generators. First, a series of experiments on wire x-pinches driven by a microsecond current generator (350 kA, 1 μs) located at Florida A&M University. Second, an analysis of experiments conducted with laser-cut foil x-pinches (LCXP) driven by the Gen...
Article
Full-text available
Shocks are abundant both in astrophysical and laboratory systems. While the electric fields generated at shock fronts have recently attracted great attention, the associated self-generated magnetic field is rarely studied, despite its ability to significantly affect the shock profile in the nonideal geometry where density and temperature gradients...
Preprint
Full-text available
Two-dimension Particle-in-cell simulations for laser plasma interaction with laser intensity of 10^16W/cm^2, plasma density range of 0.01-0.28nc and scale length of 230−330μm showed significant pump depletion of the laser energy due to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the low density region (ne= 0.01−0....
Preprint
Two-dimension Particle-in-cell simulations for laser plasma interaction with laser intensity of $10^{16} W/cm^2$, plasma density range of 0.01-0.28$n_c$ and scale length of $230 -330 \mu m$ showed significant pump depletion of the laser energy due to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the low density regi...
Article
Full-text available
Laser-driven ion acceleration has been an active research area in the past two decades with the prospects of designing novel and compact ion accelerators. Many potential applications in science and industry require high-quality, energetic ion beams with low divergence and narrow energy spread. Intense laser ion acceleration research strives to meet...
Preprint
Full-text available
As an alternative inertial confinement fusion scheme with predicted high energy gain and more robust designs, shock ignition requires a strong converging shock driven by a shaped pulse with a high-intensity spike at the end to ignite a pre-compressed fusion capsule. Understanding nonlinear laser-plasma instabilities in shock ignition conditions is...
Article
Experiments and modeling of x-ray radiography of millimeter diameter solid Al wires with laser-produced broadband x rays are reported. Experiments were performed using the 50-TW Leopard short-pulse laser in a laser and pulsed power chamber at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. To characterize broadband x rays and demonstrate a radiographic capability, b...
Article
Full-text available
Calibrated diagnostics for energetic particle detection allow for the systematic study of charged particle sources. The Fujifilm BAS-TR imaging plate (IP) is a reusable phosphorescent detector for radiation applications such as x-ray and particle beam detection. The BAS-TR IP has been absolutely calibrated to many low-Z (low proton number) ions, an...
Article
Detection of secondary D(t, n)⁴He neutrons produced when thin argon or krypton gas shells implode on a deuterium gas target is a very challenging task because the secondary neutron yield is a small fraction of the primary neutron yield and because the implosion is often accompanied by an intense hard X-ray burst. We built a large volume neutron tim...
Article
Recent experiments on the 1 MA, 100 ns Zebra driver at the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno, investigated the compression of a deuterium target by a high-atomic-number (Ar or Kr) gas-puff liner. Pinch stability improved with axial premagnetization of 1–2 kG observed as a decrease in magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability grow...
Poster
Full-text available
The generation of high-intensity ion beams driven by short pulse lasers has emerged as an important area of plasma research due to their unique short durations (~ ps) and small source sizes (~ μm), with potential applications in industry, medical and basic science, including laboratory astrophysics, geophysics, ion fast ignition for fusion, probing...
Article
The rapid heating of a thin titanium foil by a high intensity, subpicosecond laser is studied by using a 2D narrow-band x-ray imaging and x-ray spectroscopy. A novel monochromatic imaging diagnostic tuned to 4.51 keV Ti Kα was used to successfully visualize a significantly ionized area (⟨Z⟩>17±1) of the solid density plasma to be within a ∼35 μm di...
Article
New short-pulse kilojoule, Petawatt-class lasers, which have recently come online and are coupled to large-scale, many-beam long-pulse facilities, undoubtedly serve as very exciting tools to capture transformational science opportunities in high energy density physics. These short-pulse lasers also happen to reside in a unique laser regime: very hi...
Article
Full-text available
A computational study using the hybrid-particle-in-cell code ZUMA investigated the transport of a fast electron beam (55 J, 10¹³ A/cm²) produced at Titan laser conditions (λ = 1 μm, 0.7 ps, 10²⁰ W/cm²) in materials ranging from the low to high atomic number, specifically fast electron stopping and the evolution of resistive magnetic fields. Fast el...
Article
A semi-analytic model is presented for the gas-puff Staged Z-pinch, a magneto-inertial fusion concept in which an annular gas-puff liner implodes onto a deuterium or deuterium-tritium target. The one-dimensional model is a modification of the semi-analytic model for MagLIF (SAMM) [R. D. McBride and S. A. Slutz, Phys. Plasmas 22, 052708 (2015)], tha...
Poster
Full-text available
With the microtubes, the conversion efficiency to protons is increased by a factor up to 5× and by a factor 2× for carbon ions. • For heavy-ions, the spectrum is tailored by the micro-structure but the conversion efficiency remains similar. • Collisional ionization is responsible for highly charged gold ions.
Article
Full-text available
Intense lasers can accelerate protons in sufficient numbers and energy that the resulting beam can heat materials to exotic warm (10 s of eV temperature) states. Here we show with experimental data that a laser-driven proton beam focused onto a target heated it in a localized spot with size strongly dependent upon material and as small as 35 μm rad...
Article
Characteristics of fast electrons generated in an intense laser-solid target interaction are studied by modeling angularly resolved bremsstrahlung measurements with a hybrid Particle-In-Cell code, Large Scale Plasmas. The experiment was performed using the 50 TW Leopard laser at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. A 100 μm thick Cu foil was irradiated by...
Article
Full-text available
The physics governing electron acceleration by a relativistically intense laser is not confined to the critical density surface; it also pervades the subcritical plasma in front of the target. Here particles can gain many times the ponderomotive energy from the overlying laser and strong fields can grow. Experiments using a high-contrast laser and...
Article
The objectives of this tutorial are as follows: 1) to help students and researchers develop a basic understanding of how pulsed-power systems are used to create high-energy-density (HED) matter; 2) to develop a basic understanding of a new, compact, and efficient pulsed-power technology called linear transformer drivers (LTDs); 3) to understand why...
Preprint
Full-text available
The physics governing electron acceleration by a relativistically intense laser are not confined to the critical density surface, they also pervade the sub-critical plasma in front of the target. Here, particles can gain many times the ponderomotive energy from the overlying laser, and strong fields can grow. Experiments using a high contrast laser...
Article
Full-text available
Our understanding of the dynamics of ion collisional energy loss in a plasma is still not complete, in part due to the difficulty and lack of high-quality experimental measurements. These measurements are crucial to benchmark existing models. Here, we show that such a measurement is possible using high-flux proton beams accelerated by high intensit...
Article
Full-text available
Here we propose a pump-probe X-ray absorption spectroscopy temperature measurement technique appropriate for matter having temperature in the range of 10 to a few 100 eV and density up to solid density. Atomic modeling simulations indicate that for various low- to mid-Z materials in this range the energy and optical depth of bound-bound and bound-f...
Article
Fast electron transport has been studied in cold solid density CH, cold CH foam (200mg/cm3), and CH plasma (40 eV 30mg/cm3) targets—the latter created by shocking the CH foam with a 1.2 kJ long pulse laser and allowing it to expand. The fast electrons were produced using the OMEGA EP laser pulse (800 J, 8 ps) incident on a Au flat target. With the...
Article
The staged Z-pinch (SZP) is a magnetoinertial fusion scheme, where a high-Z gas liner implodes onto a deuterium gas target. An accurate measurement of the initial mass distribution, both in the liner and target, is crucial to achieve the fusion-relevant conditions. This paper presents the characterization of a double-valve injector for the SZP expe...
Article
We use computational modeling to investigate proton beam generation from kilojoule, multi-picosecond laser pulses pertinent to several recently commissioned, large-scale laser facilities. The dependencies of proton acceleration on electron source parameters including pulse duration, temperature, and flux are independently and systematically evaluat...