Fanie Pelletier

Fanie Pelletier
Université de Sherbrooke | UdeS · Department of Biology

About

221
Publications
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Publications

Publications (221)
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic climate change and habitat alterations increase the importance of understanding the causes and consequences of variation in phenological traits. Although the timing of phenological events may vary in response to both direct and mediated effects, methods to measure and distinguish direct and mediated effects have seldom been used. We u...
Article
The decline of avian aerial insectivores has been greater than any other foraging guild and both climate change and agricultural intensification are leading hypotheses explaining this decline. Spring cold snaps are predicted to increase in frequency due to climate change, and factors associated with agricultural intensification (e.g., toxicological...
Article
Full-text available
Temporal correlations among demographic parameters can strongly influence population dynamics. Our empirical knowledge, however, is very limited regarding the direction and the magnitude of these correlations and how they vary among demographic parameters and species’ life histories. Here, we use long‐term demographic data from 15 bird and mammal s...
Article
Foraging is a key behaviour, and several aspects of foraging remain to be investigated in many wild species. Low energy gain or reduced protein, nutrient, and mineral intake may explain poor individual condition, low reproductive output, high mortality, and, in extreme cases, population declines. Our study explores how foraging ecology, diet compos...
Poster
Full-text available
Phenological changes in response to climate change have been documented across taxa throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The rate of advancement often decreases with increasing trophic level, resulting in mismatch between consumers and their resources. The match-mismatch hypothesis has been investigated in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) at Ram Moun...
Article
Climate change predicts the increased frequency, duration, and intensity of inclement weather periods, such as unseasonably low temperatures (i.e., cold snaps) and prolonged precipitation. Many migratory species have advanced the phenology of important life history stages, and as a result will likely be exposed to these periods of inclement spring...
Article
In polygynous species, secondary sexual traits such as weapons or elaborate ornaments have evolved through intrasexual competition for mates. In some species, these traits are present in both sexes but are underdeveloped in the sex facing lower intrasexual competition for mates. It is often assumed that these underdeveloped sexually selected traits...
Article
Full-text available
In some species where male mating success largely depends on intrasexual competition, males can adopt migratory or resident strategies to seek breeding opportunities. The resulting mixture of resident and migrant tactics within a population can have important ecological, genetic, and evolutionary consequences for metapopulations. Bighorn sheep Ovis...
Article
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Documenting trophic niche partitioning and resource use within a community is critical to evaluate underlying mechanisms of coexistence, competition, or predation. Detailed knowledge about foraging is essential as it may influence the vital rates, which, in turn, can affect trophic relationships between species, and population dynamics. The aims of...
Article
Aerial insectivores show worldwide population declines coinciding with shifts in agricultural practices. Increasing reliance on certain agricultural practices is thought to have led to an overall reduction in insect abundance that negatively affects aerial insectivore fitness. The relationship between prey availability and the fitness of insectivor...
Article
Quantifying variation in individual resource acquisition and allocation to costly life-history functions is critical to understand the evolution of life-histories. Individuals should adaptively respond to changes in resource requirements throughout their lifetime through flexibility in resource acquisition behaviours. Empirical investigation of beh...
Article
Full-text available
1. An increasing number of empirical studies aim to quantify individual variation in demographic parameters because these patterns are key for evolutionary and ecological processes. Advanced approaches to estimate individual heterogeneity are now using a multivariate normal distribution with correlated individual random effects to account for the l...
Article
Recruitment and dispersal are important demographic rates and studying their determinants is particularly important in the current context of global anthropogenic perturbations. In birds, and especially for migratory species, assessing these rates is challenging because of the difficulties involved in tracking individuals beyond fledging. Here we a...
Article
Full-text available
Animals are expected to select a breeding habitat using cues that should reflect, directly or not, the fitness outcome of the different habitat options. However, human‐induced environmental changes can alter the relationships between habitat characteristics and their fitness consequences, leading to maladaptive habitat choices. The most severe case...
Article
Full-text available
Harvest, through its intensity and regulation, often results in selection on female reproductive traits. Changes in female traits can have demographic consequences, as they are fundamental in shaping population dynamics. It is thus imperative to understand and quantify the demographic consequences of changes in female reproductive traits to better...
Preprint
Full-text available
Wild populations must continuously adapt to environmental changes or they risk extinction. Such adaptations can be measured as phenotypic rates of change and can allow us to predict patterns of contemporary evolutionary change. About two decades ago, a dataset of phenotypic rates of change in wild populations was compiled. Since then, researchers h...
Article
In the context of increasing global environmental changes, it has become progressively important to understand the effects of human activity on wildlife populations. Declines in several avian populations have been observed since the 1970s, especially with respect to many farmland and grassland birds, which also include some aerial insectivores. Cha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change predicts the increased frequency, duration, and intensity of inclement weather periods, such as unseasonably low temperatures and prolonged precipitation. Many migratory species have advanced the phenology of important life history stages, and as a result are likely exposed to these periods of inclement spring weather more often, thu...
Article
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The rate of senescence may vary among individuals of a species according to individual life histories and environmental conditions. According to the principle of allocation, changes in mortality driven by environmental conditions influence how organisms allocate resources among costly functions. In several vertebrates, environmental conditions duri...
Article
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Agricultural pesticides usage has been increasing globally. These compounds have been developed to disrupt pest species physiology, but because their specificity is limited, they can also have adverse effects on non-target organisms. Recent studies have shown that the damaging toxicological effects of pesticides can be amplified in stressful enviro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Animals are expected to select a breeding habitat using cues that should reflect, directly or not, the fitness outcome of the different habitat options. However, human-induced environmental changes can alter the relationship between habitat characteristics and their fitness consequences, leading to a maladaptive habitat choice. The most severe case...
Article
Full-text available
Harvest can disrupt wildlife populations by removing adults with naturally high survival. This can reshape sociospatial structure, genetic composition, fitness, and potentially affect evolution. Genetic tools can detect changes in local, fine-scale genetic structure (FGS) and assess the interplay between harvest-caused social and FGS in populations...
Article
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In long‐lived polygynous species, male reproductive success is often monopolized by a few mature dominant individuals. Young males are generally too small to be dominant and may employ alternative tactics; however, little is known about the determinants of reproductive success for young males. Understanding the causes and consequences of variabilit...
Article
Trophy hunting can affect weapon size of wild animals through both demographic and evolutionary changes. In bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis Shaw, 1804), intense harvest of young males with fast-growing horns may have partly driven long-term decreases in horn size. These selective effects could be dampened if migrants from protected areas, not subjec...
Preprint
Full-text available
The historical rise of intensive agricultural practices is hypothesized to be related to declines of grassland and aerial insectivorous birds. Drivers of declines may also influence the overall abundance and spatial distribution of insects within agricultural landscapes. Subsequently, average energetic gain rates of birds breeding within more agro-...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aerial insectivores show worldwide population declines coinciding with shifts in agricultural practices. Increasing reliance on certain agricultural practices, is thought to have led to an overall reduction in insect abundance that negatively effects aerial insectivore fitness. The relationship between prey availability and the fitness of insectivo...
Article
1. Life‐history theory predicts energy allocation trade‐offs between traits when resources are limited. If females reduce allocation to growth when they reproduce, annual growth could reveal past reproductive effort, which would be useful to assess population dynamics and harvest sustainability. The potential and accuracy of growth measures for pre...
Article
Full-text available
The duration of maternal care, an important life history trait affecting population dynamics, varies greatly within species. Yet, our understanding of its predictors is limited, mostly correlative, and subject to misinterpretations, due to difficulties to disentangle the role of maternal‐ and offspring‐related characteristics. We conducted path ana...
Article
Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios are used widely to describe wildlife animal diet composition and trophic interactions. To reconstruct consumer diet, the isotopic differences between consumers and their diet items—called the trophic discrimination factor (TDF)—must be known. Proxies of diet composition are sensitive to the accuracy of TDFs...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to understand the emergence of an event require our ability to measure and understand the dynamics between time in a state (e.g., being alive or a behavior) and the outcome of the state. Studying the main drivers that affect changes in state over time allows researchers to better understand population dynamics and evolutionary processes. Ev...
Poster
Public outreach on actual issues in ecology
Article
Full-text available
Habitat loss, fragmentation and alteration are frequently identified as important threats to biodiversity, inducing major changes in the structure and composition of species communities and the resulting interspecific interactions. North American woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) populations suffer from habitat modifications and most are...
Article
Aging, or senescence, is a progressive deterioration of physiological function with age. It leads to age-related declines in reproduction (reproductive senescence) and survival (actuarial senescence) in most organisms. However, senescence patterns can be highly variable across species, populations, and individuals, and the reasons for such variatio...
Article
Natural selection has been studied for several decades, resulting in the computation of thousands of selection estimates. Although the importance of environmental conditions on selection has often been suggested, published estimates rarely take into account the effects of environmental heterogeneity on selection patterns. Here, we estimated linear...
Article
Full-text available
Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between offspring size and number. However, the role of intra-litter phenotypic variation in shaping this trade-off is often disregarded. We compared the strength of the relationship between litter size and mass from the perspective of the lightest and the heaviest yearling offspring in 110 brown bear litter...
Article
Full-text available
1. Sustainable exploitation must minimize its impact on the ecology and evolution of exploited wildlife. Intense phenotype-based selective harvests can induce evolutionary change. Refuges could mitigate those evolutionary effects if individuals not subject to selective hunting in harvest refuges migrated and reproduced in hunted areas. The role of...
Article
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In the sexual conflict over the duration of maternal care, male mammals may improve their reproductive success by forcing early mother–offspring separation in species where lactation supresses estrus. However, when individual females benefit from continuing to care for their current offspring, they should adopt counter-strategies to avoid separatio...
Article
Full-text available
During migration, animals may experience high rates of mortality, but costs of migration could also be manifested through non-lethal carry-over effects that influence individual success in subsequent periods of the annual cycle. Using tracking data collected from light-level geolocators, we estimated total spring migration distance (from the last w...
Article
Full-text available
Human harvest can induce selection on life history and morphological traits, leading to ecological and evolutionary responses. Our understanding of harvest-induced selection on behavioral traits is, however, very limited. Here, we assessed whether hunters harvest, consciously or not, individuals with specific behavioral traits. We used long-term, d...
Article
There have been an increasing number of observations of itinerancy in migratory songbirds, where individuals move among 2 or more widely separated areas during the “stationary” nonbreeding season. Knowledge of such movements and an understanding of what drives them are important for predicting how migratory populations will respond to environmental...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope ratios are increasingly used in ecological studies to evaluate diet composition and trophic relationships. However, lipids may influence stable isotope ratios due to the depletion of 13C in adipose tissues relative to proteins and carbohydrates. δ13C values can be corrected by lipid extraction or nor...
Article
Full-text available
Fitness costs of reproduction are expected when resources are limited. Costs drive the evolution of life‐history strategies and can affect population dynamics if females change their allocation of resources to reproduction. We studied fitness costs of reproduction in mountain ungulates in Alberta, Canada. We monitored two populations of bighorn she...
Article
Full-text available
Human-driven habitat fragmentation is increasing worldwide, and consequently many wild populations are subdivided, isolated and reduced in size. These changes in population structure reduce dispersal among subpopulations, limiting gene flow, accelerating genetic differentiation, and reducing genetic diversity and effective population sizes. Habitat...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of reproductive strategies is affected by the ability of organisms to deal with future environmental conditions. When environments are temporally unpredictable, however, it is difficult to anticipate optimal offspring phenotype. Diversification of offspring phenotypes, a strategy called diversified bet-hedging, may allow parents to ma...
Article
In species with sexual size dimorphism, the offspring of the larger sex usually have greater energy requirements and may lead to greater fitness costs for parents. The effects of offspring sex on maternal longevity, however, have only been tested in humans. Human studies produced mixed results and considerable debate mainly owing to the difficulty...
Article
Life-history theory predicts that selection could favor the decoupling of somatic and reproductive senescence if post-reproductive lifespan (PRLS) provides additional indirect fitness benefits [1, 2]. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that prolonged PRLS evolved because post-reproductive grandmothers gain inclusive fitness benefits by helping the...
Article
Latitudinal differences in timing of breeding are well documented but how such differences carry over to influence timing of events in the annual cycle of migratory birds is not well understood. We examined geographical variation in timing of events throughout the year using light-level geolocator tracking data from 133 migratory tree swallows (Tac...
Article
Full-text available
Keywords: activity sensors brown bear GPS collar multivariate mixed model personality repeatability Ursus arctos Animal personality traits and the emergence of behavioural syndromes, i.e. between-individual correlation of behaviours, are commonly quantified from behavioural observations in controlled environments. Subjecting large and elusive wildl...
Article
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Genetic diversity at immune genes and levels of parasitism are known to affect patterns of (dis)assortative mating in several species. Heterozygote advantage and/or good genes should shape mate choice originating from pathogen/parasite-driven selection at immune genes. However, the stability of these associations, and whether they vary with environ...
Article
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Isolation of small populations is expected to reduce fitness through inbreeding and loss of genetic variation, impeding population growth and compromising population persistence. Species with long generation time are the least likely to be rescued by evolution alone. Management interventions that maintain or restore genetic variation to assure popu...
Article
Over the last decades, aerial insectivorous birds have been declining in both North America and Europe. Those declines have been hypothetically attributed to a decrease in prey availability caused by agricultural intensification, but empirical evidence remains scarce. Here, we quantify the effect of landscape composition on the abundance and divers...
Article
Full-text available
As an important extrinsic source of mortality, harvest should select for fast reproduction and accelerated life histories. However, if vulnerability to harvest depends upon female reproductive status, patterns of selectivity could diverge and favor alternative reproductive behaviors. Here, using more than 20 years of detailed data on survival and r...
Article
Determining how migratory animals are spatially connected between breeding and non-breeding periods is essential for predicting the effects of environmental change and for developing optimal conservation strategies. Yet, despite recent advances in tracking technology, we lack comprehensive information on the spatial structure of migratory networks...
Article
Full-text available
The Atlantic-Gaspésie caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) population is a small isolated relict herd considered endangered according to the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA). This population has low recruitment and survival rates but the potential role of parasites on individual fitness is unknown. In this context, we explored the parasite status...
Article
Full-text available
The five most pervasive anthropogenic threats to biodiversity are over-exploitation, habitat changes, climate change, invasive species, and pollution. Since all of these threats can affect intraspecific biodiversity-including genetic variation within populations-humans have the potential to induce contemporary microevolution in wild populations. We...
Article
Cohort effects, when a common environment affects long-term performance, can have a major impact on population dynamics. Very few studies of wild animals have obtained the necessary data to study the mechanisms leading to cohort effects. We exploited 42 years of individual-based data on bighorn sheep to test for causal links between birth density,...
Article
Harvest of wild animals and plants is pervasive, exerts ecological and evolutionary pressure on populations, and is known to drive rapid changes in organismal traits. Although the factors that lead to rapid trait changes have received increased attention, the ecological consequences of harvest-driven trait changes are less appreciated. We review re...
Article
The prevalence of vector-borne parasites such as haemosporidian species is influenced by several environmental factors. While the negative effects of parasitism on hosts are well documented, these can also be amplified by interactions with environmental stressors, many of which are anthropogenic. Yet, we know little about the possible effects of an...
Article
Full-text available
Harvest by means of hunting is a commonly used tool in large carnivore management. To evaluate the effects of harvest on populations, managers usually focus on numerical or immediate direct demographic effects of harvest mortality on a population's size and growth. However, we suggest that managers should also give consideration to indirect and pot...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing recognition of the importance of indirect effects from hunting on wildlife populations, e.g., social and behavioral changes due to harvest, which occur after the initial offtake. Nonetheless, little is known about how the removal of members of a population influences the spatial configuration of the survivors. 2.We studied how su...