Fabrizio Macagno

Fabrizio Macagno
Universidade NOVA de Lisboa | NOVA · Faculty of Human and Social Sciences

Ph.D. in Linguistics - Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore - Milano
Assistant professor - Department of Philosophy and Department of Communication. Universidade Nova de Lisboa

About

147
Publications
139,522
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Introduction
My research is characterized by a continuous dialogue between theoretical insights and practical and social applications, in particular to areas of law, education, and doctor-patient communication. The theoretical developments are focused on the relationship between language (and more specifically pragmatics) and argumentation. The following topics are at the center of my research: emotive language, presupposition, dialogue types, implicatures, argumentation schemes.
Additional affiliations
October 2019 - present
Universidade NOVA de Lisboa
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
May 2011 - January 2019
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia
Position
  • Dialectical definitions. A semantic and linguistic approach to argument schemes.
Description
  • Developing the theory of argumentation schemes pointing out their semantic dimension.
October 2010 - March 2020
Universidade NOVA de Lisboa
Position
  • Argumentação, Comunicação e Contexto
Description
  • Developing a new pragmatic model of argumentation and applying it to the legal and economic contexts

Publications

Publications (147)
Article
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This coded database presents a corpus of argumentative tweets published by four politicians (Matteo Salvini, Donald Trump, Jair Bolsonaro, and Joe Biden) within 6 months from their taking office, which corresponds to the official end of their election campaign. The coding is based on a threefold method of analysis based on the instruments of argume...
Article
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Empathy, broadly defined as the ability to experience another's emotions and perceptions, is one of the major attitudes and actions underpinning an individual's participation in dialogue across diversity. The goal of this methodological paper is to operationalize empathy as a discursive construct, manifested in children and adolescent dialogic inte...
Article
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An argumentation profile is defined as a methodological instrument for analyzing argumentative discourse considering distinct and interrelated dimensions: the types of argument used, their quality, and the emotions triggered. Walton’s theoretical contributions are developed as a coherent analytical and multifaceted toolbox for capturing these aspec...
Article
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The phrase secundum quid et simpliciter is the Latin expression translating and labelling the sophism described by Aristotle as connected with the use of some particular expression “absolutely or in a certain respect and not in its proper sense.” This paper presents an overview of the analysis of this fallacy in the history of dialectics, reconstru...
Article
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The detection of hate speech and fake news in political discourse is at the same time a crucial necessity for democratic societies and a challenge for several areas of study. However, most of the studies have focused on what is explicitly stated: false article information , language expressing hatred, derogatory expressions. This paper argues that...
Article
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Most of the tools developed in the area of Science Education aimed at analyzing either the product or the process of argumentation do not consider the following: (a) arguments are a part of dialogues, (b) dialogues present different objectives, (c) dialogues start from different assumptions, and (d) dialogues shape the roles and moves of interlocut...
Article
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The fallacy of ignoring qualifications, or secundum quid et simpliciter, is a deceptive strategy that is pervasive in argumentative dialogues, discourses, and discussions. It consists in misrepresenting an utterance so that its meaning is broadened, narrowed, or simply modified to pursue different goals, such as drawing a specific conclusion, attac...
Article
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Walton’s theory has had an enormous impact on different fields, starting from philosophy. His perspective of argumentation as a phenomenon inherently pragmatic, in which logics is interwoven with context and dialogue, is presented as the backbone of his approach to his approach to argument, fallacies, dialogue, and persuasion in general. This theor...
Article
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This paper proposes a method for analyzing the dialogical functions of metaphors in communicative interactions, and more specifically in the context of medical interviews. The dialogical goals proposed and pursued by the interlocutors are coded using a coding scheme that captures seven mutually exclusive categories of dialogical moves. The function...
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Argumentation schemes are a relatively recent notion that continues an extremely ancient debate on one of the foundations of human reasoning, human comprehension, and obviously human argumentation, i.e., the topics. To understand the revolutionary nature of Walton’s work on this subject matter, it is necessary to place it in the debate that it cont...
Article
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This dataset belongs to a large-scale educational intervention project introducing cultural literacy learning in schools. The dataset includes transcribed dialogic interactions from 111 lessons conducted in classrooms of five countries: England, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and Cyprus. The lessons were part of the same Cultural Literacy Learning Progr...
Article
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Neste ensaio, discutimos alguns aspectos metodológicos sobre a argumentação na Educação em Ciências, especificamente: o emprego dos conceitos argumentação como produto e como processo por alguns pesquisadores; a ênfase dada à argumentação como produto nas pesquisas; e o uso de determinados instrumentos de coleta de dados para analisar e avaliar a a...
Article
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In the domain of medical science, factual evidence is usually considered as the criterion on which to base decisions and construct hypotheses. Evidence-based medicine is the translation of this approach into the field of patient care, and it means providing only the type of care that is based on evidence that proves its effectiveness and appropriat...
Article
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The analysis of multimodal argumentation in advertising is a crucial and problematic area of research. While its importance is growing in a time characterized by images and pictorial messages, the methods used for interpreting and reconstructing the structure of arguments expressed through verbal and visual means capture only isolated dimensions of...
Chapter
Together with the volume “Inquiries in philosophical pragmatics: Theoretical developments,” this book collects selected contributions to the conference Pragmasophia II held in Lisbon in 2018. The eleven essays of this volume focus on how a linguistic structure or expression manifests a pragmatic phenomenon, and are ordered considering their relatio...
Chapter
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This paper investigates the emotive (or expressive) meaning of words commonly referred to as “loaded” or “emotive,” which include slurs, derogative or pejorative words, and ethical terms. We claim that emotive meaning can be analyzed from a argumentative perspective at distinct levels, which can forexplain some essential aspects of ethical terms, i...
Chapter
Together with the volume “Inquiries in philosophical pragmatics: Linguistic and theoretical issues,” this book collects selected contributions to the conference Pragmasophia II held in Lisbon in 2018. This first volume intends to contribute to the dialogue between philosophers and linguists, trying to broaden the boundaries of this discipline defin...
Chapter
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In the literature, the pragmatic dimension of metaphors has been clearly acknowledged. Metaphors are regarded as having different possible uses, especially pursuing persuasion. However, an analysis of the specific conversational purposes that they can be aimed at achieving in a dialogue and their adequacy thereto is still missing. In this chapter,...
Book
Together with the volume “Inquiries in philosophical pragmatics: Linguistic and theoretical issues,” this book provides a journey through the more recent developments of pragmatics, considering both its philosophical and linguistic nature. This first volume is devoted to the theoretical models developed from a philosophical perspective, including b...
Book
This book addresses the interconnection between linguistics and pragmatics, proposing new theoretical approaches to linguistic issues relevant to discourse analysis, communication, and rhetoric, such as implicatures, temporal ordering, implicit constituents, presupposition, polysemy, and the strategic use of pronouns. Contributing authors in pragma...
Book
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Statutory interpretation involves the reconstruction of the meaning of a legal statement when it cannot be considered as accepted or granted. This phenomenon needs to be considered not only from the legal and linguistic perspective, but also from the argumentative one - which focuses on the strategies for defending a controversial or doubtful viewp...
Article
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Dialogue moves are a pragmatic instrument that captures the most important categories of “dialogical intentions.” This paper adapts this tool to the conversational setting of chronic care communication, characterized by the general goal of making reasoned decisions concerning patients’ conditions, shared by the latter. Seven mutually exclusive and...
Article
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Metaphors are considered as instruments crucial for persuasion. However, while many studies and works have focused on their emotive, communicative, and persuasive effects, the argumentative dimension that represents the core of their “persuasiveness” is almost neglected. This paper addresses the problem of explaining how metaphors can communicate a...
Book
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In this book, we present the argumentative approach to academic writing that we used in classroom. What characterizes it and makes it unique is the perspective that is adopted. We do not start from preexisting ideas that only need to be presented in a way that is suitable to an academic public. We intend to show that writing academically is a conse...
Article
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The definition and the assessment of the quality of argumentative texts has become an increasingly crucial issue in education, classroom discourse, and argumentation theory. The different methods developed and used in the literature are all characterized by specific perspectives that fail to capture the complexity of the subject matter, which remai...
Article
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Two fundamental critical thinking skills that students are expected to develop during their formal education are: the use of evidence for justifying their positions, and the consideration of objections or contrary opinions in their own reasoning. These skills, fully manifested in argumentative reasoning, have not been sufficiently addressed in high...
Article
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Twitter costituisce uno strumento non solo di condivisione delle informazioni pubbliche o personali, ma anche di persuasione. Tuttavia, mentre per l’analisi dei dati macro-analitici esistono specifiche piattaforme e programmi e per quella linguistica specifici studi, la dimensione argomentativa è ad oggi inesplorata. Questo articolo propone un meto...
Article
The analysis of how context affects meaning, and how utterances affect a conversational situation is a fundamental and little acknowledged dimension of educational and argumentative dialogues. Pragmatics is presupposed by any discipline addressing how dialogic teaching affects learning or how argumentative dialogues can improve critical thinking sk...
Article
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Relevance is one of the crucial criteria for assessing the quality of argumentation in education. In argumentation and education, relevance has never been analyzed or coded. While several theories have included in their analysis some indicators of cohesion or clarity, this characteristic of dialogue and discourse has never been addressed as a disti...
Article
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Donald Trump's speeches and messages are characterized by terms that are commonly referred to as "thick" or "emotive", meaning that they are characterized by a tendency to be used to generate emotive reactions. This paper investigates how emotive meaning is related to emotions, and how it is generated or manipulated. Emotive meaning is analyzed as...
Article
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Resumo: O conceito de definição é controverso, em primeiro lugar, pela sua ambiguidade. O conceito de definição refere-se, ao mesmo tempo, a estruturas proposicionais, nomeadamente diferentes tipos de relações conversíveis entre definiens e o definiendum, e diferentes atos de fala com propósitos definitórios vários. Por um lado, as definições podem...
Article
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This article proposes a coding scheme for identifying and assessing linguistic evidence of problematic understanding in health-care provider communication with patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drawing on the existing literature in pragmatics and linguistics, the scheme is grounded on the distinctions between the different types of lin...
Article
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RESUMO: Neste artigo demonstra-se como os esquemas argumentativos (esquemas que representam argumentos refutáveis, combinados com perguntas críticas correspondentes), podem ser usados para representar a estrutura lógica dos vários tipos de argumentos reconhecidos como fundamentais na interpretação da lei por Tarello (1980). Defende-se que o proces...
Article
Metaphors can be used as crucial tools for reaching shared understanding, especially where an epistemic imbalance of knowledge is at stake. However, metaphors can also represent a risk in intercultural or cross-cultural interactions, namely in situations characterised by little or deficient common ground between interlocutors. In such cases, the us...
Chapter
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This paper builds a nine-step method for determining whether a straw man fallacy has been committed in a given case or not, by starting with some relatively easy textbook cases and moving to more realistic and harder cases. The paper shows how the type of argument associated with the fallacy can be proved to be a fallacy in a normative argumentatio...
Chapter
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Pragmatic presuppositions are analyzed considering their relation with the notion of commitment, namely the dialogical acceptance of a proposition by an interlocutor. The attribution of commitments carried out by means of pragmatic presupposition is shown to depend on the reasonableness of the underlying presumptive reasoning, ultimately grounded o...
Article
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Este artigo tem por objetivo comparar as formas atuais de modelar a estrutura inferencial de argumentos de raciocínio prático (baseados em objetivos) e propor uma nova abordagem na qual esta estrutura é considerada de maneira modular. O raciocínio prático não é visto simplesmente como um raciocínio que parte de um objetivo e de um meio para uma açã...
Article
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In the tradition stemming from Aristotle through Aquinas, rational decision making is seen as a complex structure of distinct phases in which reasoning and will are interconnected. Intention, deliberation, and decision are regarded as the fundamental steps of the decision-making process, in which an end is chosen, the means are specified, and a dec...
Article
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This paper compares current ways of modeling the inferential structure of practical (goal-based) reasoning arguments, and proposes a new approach in which it is regarded in a modular way. Practical reasoning is not simply seen as reasoning from a goal and a means to an action using the basic argumentation scheme. Instead, it is conceived as a compl...
Article
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The detection and analysis of misunderstandings are crucial aspects of discourse analysis, and presuppose a twofold investigation of their structure. First, misunderstandings need to be identified and, more importantly, justified. For this reason, a classification of the types and force of evidence of a misunderstanding is needed. Second, misunders...
Chapter
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The purpose of this chapter is threefold: 1) to describe the schemes, showing how they evolved and how they have been classified in the traditional and the modern theories; 2) to propose a method for classifying them based on ancient and modern developments; and 3) to outline and show how schemes can be used to describe and analyze or produce real...
Article
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This paper advances an approach to presupposition rooted in the concept of commitment, a dialectical notion weaker than truth and belief. It investigates ancient medieval dialectical theories and develops the insights thereof for analyzing how presuppositions are evaluated and why a proposition is presupposed. In particular, at a pragmatic level, p...
Article
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This paper advances an approach to relevance grounded on patterns of material inference called argumentation schemes, which can account for the reconstruction and the evaluation of relevance relations. In order to account for relevance in different types of dialogical contexts, pursuing also non-cognitive goals, and measuring the scalar strength of...
Chapter
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The purpose of this chapter is twofold. On the one hand, our goal is theoretical, as we aim at providing an instrument for detecting, analyzing, and solving ambiguities based on the reasoning mechanism underlying interpretation. To this purpose, combining the insights from pragmatics and argumentation theory, we represent the background assumptions...
Article
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The fields of linguistic pragmatics and legal interpretation are deeply interrelated. The purpose of this paper is to show how pragmatics and the developments in argumentation theory can contribute to the debate on legal interpretation. The relation between the pragmatic maxims and the presumptions underlying the legal canons are brought to light,...
Article
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The reasoning process of analogy is analyzed as a strict interdependence between a process of abstraction of a common feature and the transfer of an attribute of the Analogue to the Primary Subject. The first reasoning step is regarded as an abstraction of a generic characteristic that is relevant for the attribution of the predicate. The abstracte...
Chapter
In this chapter, an argumentative approach to ambiguity and commitment attribution is advanced in order to address the problem of establishing the speaker’s commitments in case of ambiguity of his utterance. The goal is to analyze how a doubtful or potentially doubtful interpretation of an utterance can be supported dialectically by providing a dia...
Chapter
Quotations are selections of an Original Speaker’s words that can be used for different argumentative purposes, such as supporting a viewpoint through the authority of an expert source, or attacking the interlocutor by confronting him with his past commitments. However, quotations can be also distorted for pursuing different goals. In this chapter,...
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This chapter investigates the structure and the strategies of the straw man fallacy. A straw man fallacy consists in the speaker’s attacking a distorted version of the other’s viewpoint or commitments, in order to rebut his argument more easily by attacking a position that has been simplified and weakened. This strategy, however, can lead to the ri...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes the notion of commitment and shows how speakers’ commitments can be reconstructed. To this purpose, some models of utterance interpretation and the notions of speaker’s intention and dialogue acts will be discussed. A commitment is a dialogical obligation, a responsibility of the speaker for the intended effects of his utteran...
Chapter
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This chapter is focused on rhetorical strategies based on indirect reporting and distortion of a party’s viewpoint. We begin by clarifying the role of the notion of argumentative relevance for assessing when a viewpoint is correctly reported or manipulated. We will describe relevance as a sequential concept referring to the number of premises and i...
Article
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In this paper it is shown how certain defeasible argumentation schemes can be used to represent the logical structure of the most common types of argument used for statutory interpretation both in civil and common law. The method is based on an argumentation structure in which the conclusion, namely, the meaning attributed to a legal source, is mod...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the structure and the defeasibility conditions of argument from analogy, addressing the issues of determining the nature of the comparison underlying the analogy and the types of inferences justifying the conclusion. In the dialectical tradition, different forms of similarity were distinguished and related to...
Article
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In this article, we describe the notion of dialogue move intended as the minimal unit for the analysis of dialogues. We propose an approach to discourse analysis based on the pragmatic idea that the joint dialogical intentions are also co-constructed through the individual moves and the higher-order communicative intentions that the interlocutors p...
Article
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Pragmatic presupposition is analyzed as grounded on an implicit reasoning process based on a set of presumptions, which can define cultural differences. The basic condition for presupposing a proposition is represented as a reasoning criterion, namely reasonableness. Presuppositions, on this view, need to be reasonable, namely they need to be the r...
Book
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This book shows how research in linguistic pragmatics, philosophy of language, and rhetoric can be connected through argumentation to analyze a recognizably common strategy used in political and everyday conversation, namely the distortion of another’s words in an argumentative exchange. Straw man argumentation refers to the modification of a posit...
Article
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Argumentation schemes can be described as abstract structures representing the most generic types of argument, constituting the building blocks of the ones used in everyday reasoning. This paper investigates the structure, classification, and uses of such schemes. Three goals are pursued: 1) to describe the schemes, showing how they evolved and how...
Article
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In order to model relevance , we use argument diagrams (graphs), argumentation schemes, profiles of dialogue, and some tools from artificial intelligence. We show how this method helps an analyst judge relevance or irrelevance of an argument in four real examples, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate. We contend that this method of...
Article
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The classification of a state of affairs under a legal category can be considered as a kind of condensed decision that can be made explicit, analyzed, and assessed using argumentation schemes. In this paper, the controversial conflict of opinions concerning the nature of " marriage " in Obergefell v. Hodges is analyzed pointing out the dialecti-cal...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to show whether the two crucial dimensions used for assessing the quality of argumentation, argument-as-a-product (argument structure) and argument-as-a-process (relevance), are interrelated, and how they can be used to assess the effect of argumentative mode on students’ arguments. To this purpose, a twofold coding sch...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to show how microargumentation mechanisms of presumptive reasoning and reasoning from best explanation can be used to explain some cases of presupposition suspension. It will be shown how the relationship between presupposition triggers and pragmatic presuppositions can be analyzed in terms of presumptive and nonpresump...
Article
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Welchen Einfluss haben dialogische Lernsituationen auf den Gebrauch von Evidenz bei adoleszenten Schülerinnen und Schülern? Zusammenfassung. Diese Studie untersucht wie sich argumentativer Diskurs und individuelles Argumentieren in Bezug auf den Gebrauch von Evidenz unterscheiden. In einem 1 × 2 Cross-over Design diskutierten 37 Mittelstufenschüler...
Article
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This paper explains the importance of classifying argumentation schemes, and outlines how schemes are being used in current research in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics on argument mining. It provides a survey of the literature on scheme classification. What are so far generally taken to represent a set of the most widely usefu...
Article
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This paper proposes an argumentation-based procedure for legal interpretation, by reinterpreting the traditional canons of textual interpretation in terms of argumentation schemes, which are then classified, formalized, and represented through argument visualization and evaluation tools. The problem of statutory interpretation is framed as one of w...
Article
The relation between argumentation and education is currently attracting researchers’ attention from both argumentation theory and educational practice fields. Although much work has been done in the intersection between methods of analyzing and assessing arguments and their emergence in educational contexts, there is still a lack of clarity regard...
Chapter
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The interpretation and the indirect reporting of a speaker’s communicative intentions lie at the crossroad between pragmatics, argumentation theory, and forensic linguistics. Since the leading case Masson v. New Yorker Magazine, Inc., in the United States the legal problem of determining the truth of a quotation is essentially equated with the corr...
Chapter
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The phenomenon of presupposition suspension can be analyzed in terms of explicatures and the corresponding non-presumptive interpretative reasoning underlying it. On the view presented in this paper, the polyphonic articulation of an utterance at different levels can be used to explain cases in which presuppositions are suspended. Presuppositional...
Chapter
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The concept of “definition” refers both to a propositional structure, namely a type of convertible relation between the definiens and the definiendum, and a speech act that can have various definition al purposes. On the one hand, definition s can have different subject matter. For instance, it is possible to define a concept (essential definition...
Article
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This paper is aimed at combining the advances in argumentation theory with the models used in the field of education to address the issue of improving students’ argumentative behavior by interacting with an expert. The concept of deeper or more sophisticated argumentative strategy is theoretically defined and used to advance two new coding schemes,...
Data
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The study presented here examines how interacting with a more capable interlocutor influences use of argumentation strategies in electronic discourse. To address this question, 54 young adolescents participating in an intervention centered on electronic peer dialogs were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control condition. In both cond...
Chapter
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One of the crucial problems of argumentation schemes as illustrated in (Walton, Reed & Macagno 2008) is their practical use for the purpose of analyzing texts and producing arguments. The high number and the lack of a classification criterion make this instrument extremely difficult to apply practically. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the...
Chapter
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Presuppositions are pragmatically considered as the conditions of the felicity of a speech act, or discourse move; however, the decision of setting the conditions of a move, which the hearer needs to accept in order to continue the dialogue, can be thought of as a speech act of a kind. The act of presupposing depends on specific conditions and in p...
Article
Full-text available
The study presented here examines how interacting with a more capable interlocutor influences use of argumentation strategies in electronic discourse. To address this question, 54 young adolescents participating in an intervention centered on electronic peer dialogs were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control condition. In both cond...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of establishing the best interpretation of a speech act is of fundamental importance in argumentation and communication in general. A party in a dialogue can interpret another’s or his own speech acts in the most convenient ways to achieve his dialogical goals. In defamation law this phenomenon becomes particularly important, as the dia...