Fabio Zaina

Fabio Zaina
Italian Scientific Spine Institute · Rehab

MD, Physiatrist

About

254
Publications
128,204
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4,560
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2006 - present
Italian Scientific Spine Institute
Position
  • Consultant

Publications

Publications (254)
Article
Full-text available
We introduced pelvis semi-rigid material (ethylene vinyl acetate) (Free-Pelvis) to improve the comfort and adaptability of very rigid braces (VRBs) for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but this can also negatively impact the corrective forces on the trunk. Study Design: This was a matched retrospective cohort study. The inclusion criter...
Article
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Purpose The focus of SPINE20 is to develop evidence-based policy recommendations for the G20 countries to work with governments to reduce the burden of spine disease, and disability. Methods On September 17–18, 2021, SPINE20 held its annual meeting in Rome, Italy. Prior to the meeting, the SPINE20 created six proposed recommendations. These recomm...
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Background: The Roussouly classification, based on the functional parameter sacral slope (SS), describes the normal sagittal balance in adults and has proved useful for surgery. Reference values in children should be defined, since they are an important treatment target of conservative treatment. Moreover, during growth, there are few correlations...
Article
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Purpose In-brace radiograph of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has been shown to reflect brace efficacy and the possibility of achieving curve correction. Conversely, the first out-of-brace radiograph could demonstrate the patient’s ability to maintain the correction. We aimed to determine which of the two radiographs is the best predic...
Article
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Purpose Studies have shown that bracing is an effective treatment for patients with idiopathic scoliosis. According to the current classification, almost all braces fall in the thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO) category. Consequently, the generalization of scientific results is either impossible or misleading. This study aims to produce a classifi...
Article
This review presents the state of the art according to the current evidence on nonoperative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, focusing on bracing. The definition of braces for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and a short history are provided. The analysis includes biomechanics, types, existing classifications, indicatio...
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PurposeIn conservative early onset scoliosis treatment, interest in bracing is growing because repeated general anaesthesia (required by casting) has been questioned for possible brain damages. We aimed to check the results in the medium term of bracing, comparing idiopathic (IIS) to secondary (SIS) infantile scoliosis.Methods We performed a retros...
Article
Combining evidence-based medicine and shared decision making, current guidelines support an evidence-based personalised approach (EBPA) for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents (AIS). EBPA is considered important for adolescents' compliance, which is particularly difficult in AIS. Benchmarking to existing Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) as parad...
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Purpose Adult scoliosis is sometimes associated with back pain and severe curves can progress over time. Despite scoliosis has been estimated to affect up to 68% of the population over 60, there is scant literature about conservative treatment for adult scoliosis. Recently, we tested a new brace designed to alleviate pain for adult patients with ch...
Article
The development of high-quality research is desired in all healthcare fields. Experimental and nonexperimental designs are used to investigate the effect or association of an intervention and clinical or surrogate outcome. The aims of these methods are to improve knowledge and to develop new strategies to manage a disease or condition. Randomized c...
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Objective To investigate the feasibility and acceptability of telemedicine as a substitute of outpatient services in emergency situations like by the sudden surge of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. Design Observational cohort study with historical control. Setting Tertiary referral outpatient Institute. Participants Consecutive services provided...
Article
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Low Back Pain (LBP) is the most common musculoskeletal condition affecting the quality of life of individuals, especially if persistent. Over the decades, a lot of work has been done in an attempt to reduce the negative impact of back pain, and help patients recover and maintain a better quality of life. New insights are coming from different field...
Article
Study design: Comparative effectiveness study OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate factors leading to higher percentage of brace failures in a cohort of North American patients with AIS relative to their peers in Italy. Summary of background data: Studies of bracing in USA have shown worse outcomes than studies from European centers, possibly due to sample c...
Chapter
Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and the trunk; it associates a spinal pathologic curve on the frontal plane, a rotation in the horizontal plane, and a disturbance of the normal curves on the sagittal plane. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form (85% to 90%). Adult spinal deformity is defined when scoliosis is diagnose...
Article
Background: Aesthetics is recognized as a main outcome in idiopathic scoliosis (IS) treatment, but to date, there is no criterion standard for physicians' evaluation. Trunk Aesthetic Clinical Evaluation (TRACE) is a simple 12-point ordinal scale to quantify symmetry as a proxy of aesthetics. TRACE is already diffused worldwide and has been used in...
Article
Background: Plumb line distances (PDs) are widely used in conservative clinical practice to evaluate the sagittal shape of the spine. Objective: The objective was to assess the normative values of PDs in a large, healthy population in an age range representative of the adolescent population with spinal deformities, and to correlate it with x-ray...
Article
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Objective: To compare the validity of the Italian Spine Youth Quality of Life (ISYQOL) questionnaire with that of the Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS22) questionnaire, the criterion standard for health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in adolescents with spinal deformities. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Outpatient clini...
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Unfortunately, the affiliation of the author Negrini S has been incorrectly published in the original version. The complete correct affiliation of this author should read as follows.
Article
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Purpose This study aims to propose and validate a new unified “Risser+” grade that combines the North American (NA) and European (EU) variants of the classic Risser score. The “Risser+ ” grade can effectively combine the North American and European Risser Classifications for skeletal maturity with adequate intra-rater/inter-rater reliability and ag...
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Background In respect to the prescribed regimen and the regular daily pattern, investigate how short-term results are affected by wear time adherence in terms of hours per day. Methods This is a case-control study. The setting is outpatient clinic. There were 168 subjects, all of whom met the inclusion criteria: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and...
Article
Background: In some studies, an association has been reported between laterality of the curve in scoliotic adolescents and hand dominance; however, additional studies have to be performed to confirm these findings. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence between trunk asymmetry and side dominance in hand, foot and vi...
Article
Background: In an ideal experimental setting, 2 randomized controlled trials recently showed the efficacy of physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSEs) for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Now large observational studies are needed to check the generalizability of these results to everyday clinical life. Objective: To exp...
Article
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Introduction/Background End of growth RCTs showed the efficacy of bracing and physiotherapic scoliosis specific exercises (PSSE). Current guidelines propose PCA according to the step-by-step theory: invasivity increases with treatment intensity, from observation to PSSE to soft, rigid and very rigid bracing. This requires to set individualised outc...
Article
Introduction/Background Current GUIDELINES propose PCA, but there are no large studies to check final results, and predict which patients will respond better. A personalised conservative approach (PCA) to adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is based on different treatment protocols according to risk groups (11–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–45). The...
Article
Introduction/Background Back pain prevalence ranges from 7 to 58% of subjects aged between 13 and 15, equally distributed in males and females. Back pain is thought to be associated with spinal deformities but no studies investigated the prevalence of back pain in different spinal deformities like, spondylolisthesis, Scheuermann disease, hyperkypho...
Article
Background: Adult scoliosis is sometimes associated with back pain. Recently, the Peak™Scoliosis Brace was designed to alleviate pain in adult patients with scoliosis. Objectives: To test the efficacy of the Peak Scoliosis Brace in reducing pain in adult scoliosis patients. Study design: Prospective experimental cohort study. Methods: A tota...
Article
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Purpose: A long debate exists about the connection between anorexia nervosa (AN) and scoliosis due to conflicting evidence. No study so far has evaluated the prevalence of scoliosis in patients with AN. The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis in patients with AN. Methods: Design: cross-sectional study. Study g...
Article
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Background The International Scientific Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) produced its first guidelines in 2005 and renewed them in 2011. Recently published high-quality clinical trials on the effect of conservative treatment approaches (braces and exercises) for idiopathic scoliosis prompted us to update the la...
Article
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BackgroundA temperature monitor is used to objectively measure brace wear time in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The reliability of this device have been demonstrated, and some specialists introduced the use of a compliance monitor as a standard of care in everyday clinical practice, as we did since 2010 with the Thermobrace (TB). The attitude to...
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between trunk sagittal posture and nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP) by evaluating plumb-line distances in subjects recruited in an everyday clinical setting. Methods Of the 1364 subjects recruited, 63.1% were female (mean age ± SD: 56.2 ± 16.8 years). Subjects were categorized...
Article
Objective: To provide a meta-analysis of current literature concerning the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis during growth. Design: A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases was conducted up to November 2016. Eligible works were prospective or retrospective studies that enrolled patients with infantile (IIS), juvenile...
Article
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Background The literature did not show clearly if a correlation between trunk and facial asymmetry exists. The aim of this study was to verify the association between trunk and facial asymmetries, and trunk and facial sagittal configuration in adolescents. Methods This is a cross-sectional screening study. It was carried out in a small town in Nor...
Article
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PurposeOverweight was found to be a negative predictor of brace effectiveness for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), with a threefold higher risk of progression than in normal weight patients. The aim of this study is to investigate overweight, as a predictor of brace results in AIS patients. Methods Design: retrospective cohort study. Populati...
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Background Context Spinal deformities are commonly associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Several questionnaires (eg, Scoliosis Research Society-24 [SRS-24] and Scoliosis Research Society-22 [SRS-22]) have been developed to evaluate HRQOL in these conditions. In adults as well as during growth, the HRQOL is considered one of t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A temperature monitor is used to objectively measure brace wear time in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The reliability of this device have been demonstrated, and some specialists introduced the use of a compliance monitor as a standard of care in everyday clinical practice, as we did since 2010 with the Thermobrace (TB). The attitude...
Article
Purpose: The eosinophilic granuloma is a unifocal or multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by an expanding proliferation of Langerhans cells in bones. Skeletal LCH is a rare condition, and vertebral regeneration in cases of vertebral body collapse is even rarer. We report the case of a girl with spontaneous complete healing. Meth...
Article
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Background Scoliosis is a three dimensional deformity, and brace correction should be 3D too. There is a lack of knowledge of the effect of braces, particularly in the sagittal and transverse plane. The aim of this study is to analyse the Sforzesco Brace correction, through all the parameters provided by Eos 3D imaging system. Method Design: This i...
Article
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Background Despite its importance in affecting adult pain, and disability, there is a lack of universal criteria for the diagnosis and evaluation of thoraco-lumbar Junctional Kyphosis (JK) and a gold standard measurement and diagnostic system does not exist.This study aims to verify the sensibility and specificity of clinical, and Formetric surface...
Article
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Purpose Tennis is widely practiced by adolescents in many countries. Many spinal deformity experts consider this activity, together with other asymmetrical sports, as risk factors for scoliosis development even though scientific data are missing. The aim of the present study was to verify the prevalence of spinal deformities and LBP in adolescent c...
Article
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O1 The functional properties of paraspinal muscles in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): A systematic review of the literature Eric Parent, Alan Richter O2 The importance of the lateral profile in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis Angelo Gabriele Aulisa, Vincenzo Guzzanti, Paolo Pizzetti, Andrea Poscia, Lorenzo Aulisa O3 Radiological...
Article
Study design: A Cochrane Systematic Review OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the efficacy of bracing for adolescents with AIS versus no treatment or other treatments, on quality of life, disability, pulmonary disorders, progression of the curve, psychological and cosmetic issues. Summary of background data: Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional defo...
Article
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Aim: This systematic literature review aims to check the current state of the art of non-gaitrelated optoelectronic trunk movement analysis; results have been analysed from a clinical and a methodological perspective. Methods: Extensive research was performed on all papers published until December 31st, 2015, dealing with trunk movement analysis...
Article
Study design: Systematic review OBJECTIVES.: To evaluate the effectiveness of different types of surgery compared with different types of non-surgical interventions in adults with symptomatic LSS. Summary of background data: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a debilitating condition associated with degeneration of the spine with aging. People with...
Article
Background: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a debilitating condition associated with degeneration of the spine with aging. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of different types of surgery compared with different types of non-surgical interventions in adults with symptomatic LSS. Primary outcomes included quality of life, disability, funct...
Article
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Background: SEAS is the acronym for "Scientific Exercise Approach to Scoliosis", a name related to the continuous changes of the approach based on results published in the literature. Rehabilitation program: SEAS is an individualized exercise program adapted to all situations of conservative treatment of scoliosis: stand-alone in low-medium degr...
Article
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Scoliosis is a complex three dimensional (3D) deformity: the current lack of a 3D classification could hide something fundamental for scoliosis prognosis and treatment. A clear picture of the actually existing 3D classifications lacks. The aim of this systematic review was to identify all the 3D classification systems proposed until now in the lite...
Article
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The publication of research in the field of conservative treatment of scoliosis is increasing after a long period of progressive decline. In 2014, three high quality and scientifically sound papers gave new strength to the conservative scoliosis approach. The efficacy of treatment over observation was demonstrated by two RCTs for bracing, and one f...
Article
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Scoliosis fusion surgery is generally considered the only means to stop the progression of adult idiopathic scoliosis (ADIS), but for patients refusing surgery there is lack of evidence in favour of conservative treatment. The aim of the present study was to verify the possible effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercises when facing ADIS progress...