Fabio De Marco

Fabio De Marco
University of Trieste | UNITS · Department of Physics

Ph.D. (Physics)

About

40
Publications
8,181
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465
Citations
Citations since 2017
40 Research Items
465 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140

Publications

Publications (40)
Article
Wavefront-marking X-ray imaging techniques use e.g., sandpaper or a grating to generate intensity fluctuations, and analyze their distortion by the sample in order to retrieve attenuation, phase-contrast, and dark-field information. Phase contrast yields an improved visibility of soft-tissue specimens, while dark-field reveals small-angle scatter f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The differentiation of minimal-fat—or low-fat—angiomyolipomas from other renal lesions is clinically challenging in conventional computed tomography. In this study, we have assessed the potential of grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography imaging (GBPC-CT) for visualization and quantitative differentiation of minimal-fat angiomy...
Article
Full-text available
Background Spirometry and conventional chest x-ray have limitations in investigating early emphysema, while computed tomography, the reference imaging method in this context, is not part of routine patient care due to its higher radiation dose. In this work, we investigated a novel low-dose imaging modality, dark-field chest x-ray, for the evaluati...
Article
Dark-field chest radiography signal intensity appeared to correlate with inflation status in a cadaveric lung.
Article
Full-text available
Background Currently, alternative medical imaging methods for the assessment of pulmonary involvement in patients infected with COVID-19 are sought that combine a higher sensitivity than conventional (attenuation-based) chest radiography with a lower radiation dose than CT imaging. Methods Sixty patients with COVID-19-associated lung changes in a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Wavefront-marking X-ray imaging techniques use e.g., sandpaper or a grating to generate intensity fluctuations, and analyze their distortion by the sample in order to retrieve attenuation, phase-contrast, and dark-field information. Phase contrast yields an improved visibility of soft-tissue specimens, while dark-field reveals small-angle scatter f...
Preprint
Full-text available
p>Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast and in particular dark-field radiography are promising new imaging modalities for medical applications. Currently, the potential advantage of dark-field imaging in early-stage diagnosis of pulmonary diseases in humans is being investigated. These studies make use of a comparatively large scanning interferometer...
Preprint
Full-text available
p>Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast and in particular dark-field radiography are promising new imaging modalities for medical applications. Currently, the potential advantage of dark-field imaging in early-stage diagnosis of pulmonary diseases in humans is being investigated. These studies make use of a comparatively large scanning interferometer...
Article
Full-text available
X-ray directional dark-field imaging is a recent technique that can reveal a sample’s small-scale structural properties which are otherwise invisible in a conventional imaging system. In particular, directional dark-field can detect and quantify the orientation of anisotropic structures. Here, we present an algorithm that allows for the extraction...
Preprint
Full-text available
Medical imaging is performed in daily clinical routine for the assessment of pulmonary involvement in patients infected with COVID-19. As conventional (attenuation-based) chest radiography provides only a low sensitivity for COVID-19-pneumonia, CT is the gold standard for lung imaging in COVID-19 patients. However, CT imaging exposes the patient to...
Article
Full-text available
X-ray dark-field imaging is a widely researched imaging technique, with many studies on samples of very different dimensions and at very different resolutions. However, retrieval of three-dimensional (3D) information for human thorax sized objects has not yet been demonstrated. We present a method, similar to classic tomography and tomosynthesis, t...
Article
Dark-field radiography of the human chest is a promising novel imaging technique with the potential of becoming a valuable tool for the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other diseases of the lung. The large field-of-view needed for clinical purposes could recently be achieved by a scanning system. While this approach ove...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although advanced medical imaging technologies give detailed diagnostic information, a low-dose, fast, and inexpensive option for early detection of respiratory diseases and follow-ups is still lacking. The novel method of x-ray dark-field chest imaging might fill this gap but has not yet been studied in living humans. Enabling the ass...
Article
Full-text available
We present a method to generate synthetic thorax radiographs with realistic nodules from CT scans, and a perfect ground truth knowledge. We evaluated the detection performance of nine radiologists and two convolutional neural networks in a reader study. Nodules were artificially inserted into the lung of a CT volume and synthetic radiographs were o...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To evaluate the dose characteristic for patient examinations at the first clinical X-ray dark-field chest radiography system and to determine whether the effective patient dose is within a clinically acceptable dose range. Methods: A clinical setup for grating-based dark-field chest radiography was constructed and commissioned, operatin...
Article
Full-text available
Diagnostic lung imaging is often associated with high radiation dose and lacks sensitivity, especially for diagnosing early stages of structural lung diseases. Therefore, diagnostic imaging methods are required which provide sound diagnosis of lung diseases with a high sensitivity as well as low patient dose. In small animal experiments, the sensit...
Article
Full-text available
Background Grating-based x-ray dark-field and phase-contrast imaging allow extracting information about refraction and small-angle scatter, beyond conventional attenuation. A step towards clinical translation has recently been achieved, allowing further investigation on humans. Methods After the ethics committee approval, we scanned the full body...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Diseases of the respiratory system are leading global causes of chronic morbidity and mortality. While advanced medical imaging technologies of today deliver detailed diagnostic information, a low-dose, fast, and inexpensive option for early detection and/or follow-ups is still lacking. Here, we report on the first human application of a...
Preprint
Full-text available
X-ray dark-field imaging enables a spatially-resolved visualization of small-angle X-ray scattering. Using phantom measurements, we demonstrate that a material's effective dark-field signal may be reduced by modification of the visibility spectrum by other dark-field-active objects in the beam. This is the dark-field equivalent of conventional beam...
Article
Full-text available
X-ray dark-field (XDF) imaging accesses information on the small-angle scattering properties of the sample. With grating interferometry, the measured scattering signal is related to the sample’s autocorrelation function, which was previously demonstrated for simple samples, such as mono-dispersed microspheres for which the autocorrelation function...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although x-ray dark-field imaging has been intensively investigated for lung imaging in different animal models, there is very limited data about imaging features in the human lungs. Therefore, in this work, a reader study on nine post-mortem human chest x-ray dark-field radiographs was performed to evaluate dark-field signal strength...
Article
Full-text available
Grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging is a novel imaging modality which has been refined during the last decade. It exploits the wave-like behaviour of X-radiation and can nowadays be implemented with existing X-ray tubes used in clinical applications. The method is based on the detection of small-angle X-ray scattering, which occurs e.g. at air-t...
Article
Full-text available
Lung tissue causes significant small-angle X-ray scattering, which can be visualized with grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging. Structural lung diseases alter alveolar microstructure, which often causes a dark-field signal decrease. The imaging method provides benefits for diagnosis of such diseases in small-animal models, and was successfully us...
Article
Full-text available
Disorders of the lungs such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality and the third leading cause of death in the world. The absence of sensitive diagnostic tests for early disease stages of COPD results in under-diagnosis of this treatable disease in an estimated 60–85% of the patients. In...
Article
Full-text available
Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast (gbPC) is an X-ray phase-contrast imaging method involving optical gratings that typically employs the Talbot self-imaging e ect. X-ray phase contrast is known to provide significant benefits for biomedical imaging. To investigate these benefits for gbPC, a high-sensitivity gbPC micro-CT setup for small biological...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of x-ray dark-field radiography to detect pneumothoraces in a pig model. Eight pigs were imaged with an experimental grating-based large-animal dark-field scanner before and after induction of a unilateral pneumothorax. Image contrast-to-noise ratios between lung tissue and the air-filled ple...
Article
Full-text available
X-ray chest radiography is an inexpensive and broadly available tool for initial assessment of the lung in clinical routine, but typically lacks diagnostic sensitivity for detection of pulmonary diseases in their early stages. Recent X-ray dark-field (XDF) imaging studies on mice have shown significant improvements in imaging-based lung diagnostics...
Data
Extended data figure 1: Full-field multi-contrast X-ray radiographs of a fruit arrangement. (a) Full-field X-ray attenuation, (b) dark-field, (c) differential-phase radiographs, and (d) photograph of a fruit arrangement used as a test phantom to visualize the performance of the scanner across the entire FOV (32 x 35 cm 2). Note that the XDF channel...
Article
Full-text available
Current clinical imaging methods face limitations in the detection and correct characterization of different subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), while these are important for therapy and prognosis. The present study evaluates the potential of grating-based X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (gbPC-CT) for visualization and characterization...
Article
Full-text available
X-ray grating-based interferometry promises unique new diagnostic possibilities in medical imaging and materials analysis. To transfer this method from scientific laboratories or small-animal applications to clinical radiography applications, compact setups with a large field of view (FoV) are required. Currently the FoV is limited by the grating a...

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