F. Klijn

F. Klijn
Deltares and Delft University of Technology · Technology, Policy and Management

PhD

About

153
Publications
45,274
Reads
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3,486
Citations
Introduction
Frans Klijn is an experienced geo-ecologist and policy analyst, and professor in Adaptive Delta Management. He coordinated various interdisciplinary teams and has been engaged in policy analyses for the Netherlands’ government and EU-research. He is held partly responsible for the transition towards the Room-for-Rivers policy. Presently, he primarily investigates a possible transition towards an adaptive flood-risk management policy in view of global change, based on resilience and robustness.
Additional affiliations
September 1996 - June 2015
Deltares
Position
  • senior specialist
March 1987 - March 1997
Leiden University
Position
  • Researcher/ Assistent Professor
March 1985 - March 1987
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Landscape Ecology

Publications

Publications (153)
Article
Full-text available
The need for explicitly considering equity in climate change adaptation planning is increasingly being recognized. However, evaluations of adaptation often adopt an aggregated perspective, while disaggregation of results is important to learn about who benefits when and where. A typical example is adaptation of rice agriculture in the Vietnam Mekon...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and socio-economic development result in increasing flood risk which challenges flood risk management policy making and practice. Each situation, however, is different and calls for not only understanding the natural context, but also the socio-economic and cultural context. Only then Flood Risk Management strategies can be designed...
Article
Full-text available
Most alluvial plains in the world are protected by flood defences, for example, embankments, whose primary aim is to reduce the probability of flooding of the protected areas. At the same time, however, the presence of embankments at one area influences hydraulic conditions of downstream areas located on the same river. These hydraulic interactions...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing attention for the robustness of systems, in view of more frequent and more extreme weather events. Calls to increase a system's robustness are usually motivated by the resulting reduced sensitivity to extreme events and uncertainties about their probability of occurrence. The concept has been elaborated for flood risk systems, b...
Book
Full-text available
Het klimaat verandert en de zeespiegel stijgt. Daarover bestaat geen twijfel, hoe- wel er nog wel onzekerheid bestaat over de snelheid van de veranderingen, en soms over de precieze richting daarvan. Wordt het in Nederland bijvoorbeeld veel natter of juist droger? Of allebei, maar in verschillende jaargetijden? Ondanks deze onzekerheden is het vers...
Article
Full-text available
To support equitable adaptation planning, quantitative assessments should consider the fairness of the distribution of outcomes to different people. What constitutes a fair distribution, however, is a normative question. In this study, we explore the use of different moral principles drawn from theories of distributive justice to evaluate fairness....
Article
Full-text available
Flood risk management decisions in many countries are based on decision‐support frameworks which rely on cost‐benefit analyses. Such frameworks are seldom informative about the geographical distribution of risk, raising questions on the fairness of the proposed policies. In the present work, we propose a new decision criterion that accounts for the...
Article
Full-text available
Over decades the concept of integration has been promoted to enhance alignment between policy domains, and to manage trade-offs and maximize synergies across management practices. Integrated approaches have the potential to enable better outcomes for flood risk management (FRM) and society as a whole. However, achieving integration in practice is a...
Article
Full-text available
Rivers typically flow through multiple flood-protected areas which are clearly interconnected, as risk reduction measures taken at one area, e.g. heightening dikes or building flood storage areas, affect risk elsewhere. We call these interconnections ‘hydraulic interactions’. The current approach to flood risk management, however, neglects hydrauli...
Article
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Door klimaatverandering verandert het afvoerregime van onze grote rivieren. Hoogwaters worden hoger en frequenter, laagwaters lager en langduriger. Hoe we daarop reageren hangt af van hoe we klimaatverandering zien: als opgave, of als kans om onvolkomenheden aan te pakken. In dit artikel presenteren we aanzetten voor een meer geo-ecologisch gefunde...
Article
Full-text available
The Netherlands has just finished implementing the Room for the Rivers program along the Rhine and Meuse Rivers in response to increasing river discharges. Recently, making more room for the river is, however, being challenged for future application because the flood defenses are assessed to be too weak and will need reinforcement anyway. To be abl...
Article
In view of the need to adapt to uncertain climate change through spatial interventions, this article explores how spatial planners might navigate amid uncertainty. To draw out insights for planning, we examine planning frameworks which explicitly recognise uncertainty and uncertainty descriptions from studies in environmental risk and climate uncer...
Article
Full-text available
Current approaches for assessing large-scale flood risks contravene the fundamental principles of the flood risk system functioning because they largely ignore basic interactions and feedbacks between atmosphere, catchments, river-floodplain systems, and socioeconomic processes. As a consequence, risk analyses are uncertain and might be biased. How...
Technical Report
Full-text available
NCG is een samenwerking van de twaalf Groninger gemeenten in het aardbevingsgebied, de provincie Groningen en de Rijksoverheid. NCG werkt aan het versterken van woningen en gebouwen. Maar ook aan het vergroten van de leefbaarheid en duurzaamheid en het versterken van de regionale economie. Het beleidskader hiervoor is het Meerjarenprogramma Aardbev...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of resilience is used by many in different ways: as a scientific concept, as a guiding principle, as inspirational 'buzzword', or as a means to become more sustainable. Next to the academic debate on meaning and notions of resilience, the concept has been widely adopted and interpreted in policy contexts, particularly related to climate...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge on the different components of flood risk has much improved over the last decades, but research which fully takes into account not only the interactions between those components but also between different areas in a catchment or delta is still rare. Integrated analyses based on a complete system’s approach at sufficiently large scale will...
Article
Full-text available
The Netherlands is updating its flood protection, whilst fully taking into account climate change and socioeconomic development. This translates in ‘anticipatory standards’ which need to be met in 2050, and which apply for the then foreseen climate and economy. Whilst the government maintains to have adopted a policy of adaptive planning and manage...
Article
Full-text available
Since 1996, the Netherlands has adopted a flood risk management policy based on making more room for the rivers. Currently, the focus in flood risk management is being adapted again, in view of increasing societal vulnerability and foreseeable effects of climate change. In this context, the choice between making more room for the river and/or stren...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes the contents and findings of an expert panel that discussed the underlying assumptions of the results of the study performed by the KNMI and Deltares: Implications of the KNMI'14 climate scenarios for the discharge of the Rhine and the Meuse. The focus of the discussions was the plausibility of extreme high discharges of the R...
Technical Report
Full-text available
At the request of the Netherlands' Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment we explored what the new KNMI (2014) climate scenarios mean for the future discharge regimes of the Rhine and Meuse Rivers, in particular for extreme floods and low flows. The new scenarios comprise even wetter overall conditions than foreseen earlier, and slightly less d...
Article
Full-text available
Densely populated deltas are so vulnerable to sea level rise and climate change that they cannot wait for global mitigation to become effective. The Netherlands therefore puts huge efforts in adaptation research and planning for the future, for example through the national research programme Knowledge for Climate and the Delta Programme for the Twe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
De minister van EZ heeft besloten tot rijksregie om te komen tot een duurzame versterking en vernieuwing van het aardbevingsgebied Groningen. Opdat in september 2015 een Plan van Aanpak en Contouren van het Programma zouden kunnen worden vastgesteld, is Deltares gevraagd een verkenning uit te voeren voor de Overheidsdienst Groningen (OG), c.q. de N...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely being recognized that climate change is happening. Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases cause warming of the atmosphere and oceans. The resulting changes in the climate system and water cycle are unequivocal and manifest themselves in sea level rise and an increasing likelihood of extreme weather worldwide, evidenced by the incr...
Article
Full-text available
For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there is currently an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk-reducing...
Article
Flood risk management planning involves making decisions on which measures to implement and when to do so. This is particularly difficult in view of global changes, which are inherently uncertain. Rational decision making on which comprehensive strategy to implement, or on which measures to take first, requires ex-ante assessments that question whe...
Article
Full-text available
Decision makers in fluvial flood risk management increasingly acknowledge that they have to prepare for extreme events. Flood risk is the most common basis on which to compare flood risk-reducing strategies. To take uncertainties into account the criteria of robustness and flexibility are advocated as well. This paper discusses the added value of r...
Article
Full-text available
For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there currently is an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk reducing...
Article
Full-text available
Decisions about flood risk management are usually based on the reduction in flood risk compared to the cost of the strategy. It is common practice to express this flood risk (the combination of flood probabilities and potential flood damages) in a single number. The downside of this approach is that explicit information about how the system respond...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Flood risk management planning involves making decisions on which measures to implement, and when to do so. Rational decision making on which comprehensive strategy to implement, or on which measures to take first, requires ex-ante assessments that question whether flood risk is effectively reduced, and against which societal costs. Such decision m...
Article
Full-text available
Decision makers in fluvial flood risk management increasingly acknowledge that they have to prepare for extreme events. Flood risk is the most common basis on which to compare flood risk-reducing strategies. To take uncertainties into account the criteria of robustness and flexibility are advocated as well. This paper discusses the added value of r...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Tijdens een studiedag over ‘Dijken voor de toekomst’, die KvK-Thema 1 in november 2011 samen met STOWA had georganiseerd, werd duidelijk dat veel discussie over ‘praktisch doorbraakvrije’ dijken het gevolg is van verschillende percepties, mede veroorzaakt doordat op onderdelen nog kennis ontbreekt. KvK heeft gevraagd enkele van die openstaande kenn...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In this report we examine what societal or group risk encompasses and we discuss how it could influence the current updating of the flood protection standards for the Netherlands (as commissioned by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment). More specifically we investigate which combination of policy instruments and physical interventions so...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent research revealed that the Netherlands ranks as the country with the best flood protection in the world. However, there remains a very small chance that a large-scale flood would occur. The country's vulnerability to floods may be reduced by means of spatial planning measures helping poli-cymakers in their decisionmaking about where to build...
Article
Full-text available
In the 1990s, the Netherlands government changed its policy on river flood management, away from recurrently raising embankments and towards, in contrast, making more room for the rivers. When the design discharge in the Rhine River was revised in 2001, this new policy necessitated the selection of a number of physical measures, which would lower t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In het huidig waterkeringsysteem staan individuele dijkringen centraal. En er gelden uniforme eisen voor alle dijkvakken / kunstwerken binnen één dijkring. Met het hanteren van deze uitgangspunten wordt ingeboet op doelmatigheid van investeringen in hoogwaterbescherming, terwijl tevens ongewenste systeemwerking (cascade-effecten) tussen dijkringen...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Dit rapport beoogt enig inzicht te verschaffen in het natuurlijke gedrag van rivieren in Nederland, zowel zonder menselijke invloed als in de door de mens beïnvloede situatie, in de huidige situatie en in de recente ontstaansgeschiedenis van de delta. Deze inzichten kunnen behulpzaam zijn bij het maken van keuzes over de toekomstige inrichting van...
Article
Flood risk management in Europe and worldwide is not static but constantly in a state of flux. There has been a trend towards more integrated flood risk management in many countries. However, the initial situation and the pace and direction of change is very different in the various countries. In this paper, we will present a conceptual framework t...
Conference Paper
Flood Risk Management (FRM) in Europe and worldwide is not static but constantly in flux. Generally, there has been a trend towards more integrated FRM in many countries. However, the initial situation in the various countries is very different. The Netherlands, for instance, long time focused solely on structural flood defences and only recently s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Experiences with recent and past floods have lead to recurrent calls to reinforce flood defences in such a way as to always prevent their breaching. When a breach forms, the inflow is very fast and furious, leaving no time for evacuation and causing many fatalities and huge economic damage. When an embankment is being overtopped without breaching,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Dutch flood risk management policy presently is being revised. This revision is aimed at 'keeping flood risks at a socially acceptable level'. The current policy exclusively aims at flood preven-tion, using protection standards for embankments which are largely based on a damage risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis from the1960s. The stand...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report is the executive summary of the full report, also available under the same main title and report number. It is also included in the full report. Earlier analyses of the development of flood risk in the 21st century revealed that socioeconomic development is by far the most important cause of increasing risks. Also it was questioned whe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Especially in low-lying deltaic areas, a sound adaptation policy is urgently needed, because relying on a global mitigation policy for climate change is way too risky. In this report, we successively discuss measures and instruments aimed at: 1 lowering the probability of flooding, 2 gaining control over the flooding process and the resulting expos...
Article
Full-text available
The Netherlands' policy for flood risk management is being revised in view of a sustainable development against a background of climate change, sea level rise and increasing socio-economic vulnerability to floods. This calls for a thorough policy analysis, which can only be adequate when there is agreement about the "framing" of the problem and abo...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and sea level rise urge low-lying countries to draft adaption policies. In this context, we assessed whether, to what extent and when the Netherlands' current flood risk management policy may require a revision. By applying scenarios on climate change and socio-economic development and performing flood simulations, we established the...
Article
This paper explores how the concept of robustness can be defined and made operational for flood risk management. Decision making about taking actions to reduce the flood risk is complicated by uncertainties about the current and future flood probabilities and impacts. Because decision makers are increasingly aware of uncertainties, new decision-mak...
Article
Full-text available
Deze knelpuntenanalyse is een eerste stap in een verkenning van de zoetwaterproblematiek. Doel van de landelijke knelpuntenanalyse is om vast te stellen waar de toekomstige watervraag groter is dan de waterbeschikbaarheid, hetzij qua hoeveelheid, hetzij qua kwaliteit. Daartoe is de watervraag van diverse gebruikers in beeld gebracht, evenals de wat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Dit rapport gaat over de ruimtelijke implicaties van deltadijken. Deltadijken zijn dijken waarin geen bres ontstaat als er water overheen stroomt of er golven overheen slaan. Er ontstaat dan geen onbeheersbare overstroming maar veeleer forse wateroverlast. Naar verwachting zullen er nauwelijks slachtoffers vallen, en zal de schade veel beperkter zi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Little of the European coast line or land area has escaped human influence, with increasing pressures over generations of settlement, agriculture, industry and commerce. The pressures include water and flood management activities which control the extent and frequency of floods and the drainage of water from the land. Internationally, policies and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Dit rapport maakt deel uit van het project ‘Klimaatbestendigheid van Nederland- Waterland’, waarin landelijke analyses en regionale casussen worden onderzocht. Dit rapport gaat over het zuidwestelijk estuariumgebied, afgebakend als het gebied van de Biesbosch tot en met de voordelta en van Zeeuws-Vlaanderen tot en met Rotterdam. De kernvraag in dit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Dit rapport maakt deel uit van het project ‘Klimaatbestendigheid van Nederland- Waterland’, waarin landelijke analyses en regionale casussen worden onderzocht. Dit rapport gaat over het zuidwestelijk estuariumgebied, afgebakend als het gebied van de Biesbosch tot en met de voordelta en van Zeeuws-Vlaanderen tot en met Rotterdam. De kernvraag in dit...
Article
Full-text available
River and coastal floodplains are often protected by vast systems of connected embankments. In the Netherlands, about 55% of the country is protected in this way, by some 3600 km of primary defences. The protection level is probably the highest in the world, and annual mean flood risks are low. Nevertheless, the consequences of a major flood event...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Language of Risk was one of the first deliverables of the FLOODsite project. It was intended originally to be a working document for the project partners to assist with communication throughout the project. However, the document attracted interest more broadly, as FLOODsite took place at a time of policy development and change with the internat...