F. Harvey Pough

F. Harvey Pough
Rochester Institute of Technology | RIT · Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences

PhD

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102
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5,236
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Citations since 2017
4 Research Items
950 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (102)
Book
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Vertebrate Life integrates information from vertebrate anatomy, physiology, ecology, and behavioral studies and then helps students see important connections across levels of biological organization. The result is students come to understand how organisms function in their environments and how lineages of organisms change through evolutionary time....
Book
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Widely praised for its comprehensive coverage and exceptionally clear writing style, this best-selling text explores how the anatomy, physiology, ecology, and behavior of vertebrates interact to produce organisms that function effectively in their environments and how lineages change through evolutionary time.
Chapter
Most of the more than 11,000 extant species of nonavian reptiles are squamates (lizards and snakes); there are about 360 extant species of turtles, 26 crocodylians, and one rhynchocephalian. Although the diversity of reptiles is greatest in the tropics, many species occur in temperate regions and a few have geographic ranges that extend north of th...
Conference Paper
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The design, implementation and assessment of a novel, two-track, reformed introductory biology sequence are described in this paper. Course reform was based on the recommendations by the 2009 Vision & Change report from AAAS. Both tracks were based on guided inquiry, with an emphasis on constructivist pedagogy. One track included only students ente...
Chapter
Most of the 9300 extant species of non-avian reptiles are squamates (lizards and snakes); there are only 315 extant species of turtles, 23 crocodilians, and one rhynchocephalian. Although the diversity of reptiles is greatest in the tropics, many species occur in the temperate regions and a few have geographic ranges that extend north of the Arctic...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Terrestrial isopods are decomposers in forest ecosystems and aid in biogeochemical cycling. Despite their important role in ecosystem function, little is known about the microhabitat distribution of various species or how collection methods may under- or over-represent certain species. We tested four methods of collect...
Article
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Populations of the desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii, have been severely impacted by upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), a potentially fatal condition caused by Mycoplasma agassizii. Because natural communities of microorganisms in animals may serve as barriers to infection by potential pathogens or may influence the course of a disease, we c...
Article
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Extant amphibians comprise three lineages-- salamanders (Urodela or Caudata), frogs and toads (Anura), and caecilians (Gymnophiona, Apoda, or Caecilia)--which contain more than 6,000 species. Fewer than a dozen species of amphibians are commonly maintained in laboratory colonies, and the husbandry requirements for the vast majority of amphibians ar...
Article
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Temperature and humidity are dominant environmental variables affecting performance of nocturnal, terrestrial amphibians. Toads are frequently active at body temperatures (T(b)) and hydration states (HS) that yield suboptimal performance. We investigated the combined effects of T(b) and HS on feeding, locomotion, and metabolism of Bufo americanus....
Article
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Fossorial lizards differ in morphology from their surface-dwelling relatives. The Australian sphenomorphine skink genus Ctenotus consists of surface-dwelling species, and is closely related to the genus Lerista, which includes both surface-dwelling and fossorial species. Sand-swimming represents the derived condition and has evolved independently i...
Article
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Many plethodontid salamanders establish feeding territories. We studied interactions of two species in different genera to investigate the roles of species identity, residency, and relative body size in gaining or maintaining control of a cover object. Species identity had the largest effect, with Desmognathus ochrophaeus proving more successful th...
Article
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1. Skinks (Chalcides ocellatus) used 50% more energy to crush and swallow hard-bodied insect prey (Tenebrio molitor beetles) than medium- and soft-bodied prey (Tenebrio molitor larvae and Manduca sexta larvae, respectively). 2. Even for beetles, however, the energy cost of prey handling was no more than 1% of the energy assimilated. 3. Differences...
Article
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Article
The foraging and social behaviour of four species of Panamanian dart-poison frogs, Dendrobatidae, were recorded and that information was combined with an analysis of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and with published information about food habits to test predictions about associations among behavioural, ecological and physiological characteristics...
Article
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Study of the relations of performance to Darwinian fitness integrates the traditionally reductionist approach of physiological ecology with the perspectives of genetics and evolution. Four levels of biological organization have been included in this effort: description of genetic variation, analysis of biochemical and physiological consequences of...
Article
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The oxygen consumption and total body lactate concentration of specimens of the terrestrial salamander Plethodon jordani were measured at rest and after 5 min of forced locomotion, at full hydration (100% of standard body mass) and after dehydration to 85% of standard mass, at 15 and 25°C. In addition, we measured standard and activity oxygen consu...
Article
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Adult American toads, Bufo americanus americanus Holbrook, may be exposed to conditions that result in considerable variation in both body temperature and hydration state during their daily activity periods. We measured the interactive effects of body temperature and hydration state on locomotor performance of toads. Performance, measured as distan...
Chapter
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Examples of mimicry among vertebrates are numerically fewer than examples involving insects. The relatively small number of species of vertebrates, compared with the number of species of insects, probably explains some of the apparent scarcity of mimicry. Possibly more important is a mismatch between the primarily visual sensory world of humans and...
Article
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Article
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Head size and shape of reptiles may reflect selection for multiple uses. For example, sexual selection for large head size may enhance feeding efficiency. In contrast, morphological characteristics of the heads of fossorial reptiles suggests that fossoriality may have evolved at the expense of reduced effectiveness in feeding. Our research focused...
Article
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Because of the importance of salamanders in forest food chains, the effects of forest management practices on populations of these animals warrant consideration. We compared the numbers and activity patterns of salamanders in areas of a deciduous forest in central New York State that had been cut selectively for firewood, or clearcut, or planted wi...
Article
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We measured handling time and oxygen consumption for the scincid lizard Chalcides ocellatus feeding on crickets at temperatures of 25, 30, and 35 C in the laboratory. The time required for manipulating prey in the mouth and swallowing did not change significantly with temperature. The total net aerobic cost of handling, measured as the oxygen consu...
Article
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Frogs exhibit extensive diversity in their repertoires of social, reproductive, defensive, and predatory behavior, and in the metabolic processes that support these activities. Three aspects of anuran biology (foraging mode, post-metamorphic ontogenetic changes in ecology, and reproductive behavior) are analyzed for their correlations with metaboli...
Article
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Measured oxygen consumption (aerobic energy cost) and lactic acid production (anaerobic energy cost) of scincid lizards Chalcides ocellatus eating domestic crickets. Aerobic metabolism accounted for >90% of the total energy cost of subduing and swallowing prey. The time required to subdue and swallow a cricket was linearly correlated with oxygen co...
Article
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We used multiple regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between metabolic rate and three independent variables-mass, temperature, and standard or resting state-for squamate reptiles. For comparisons among adults of different species, mass raised to the .80 power explains 88% of the variation in metabolic rate. (The .80 mass exponent is si...
Article
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We measured whole-body lactic acid concentrations of two species of iguanid lizards and two species of teiids in the field during routine and experimentally manipulated activities. Lactate concentrations were lowest when lizards first emerged in the morning. Routine foraging behavior produced small increases in lactate concentrations for all specie...
Article
We measured oxygen consumption of the diploid frog Hyla chrysoscelis and its recently evolved tetraploid cryptic species Hyla versicolor at rest and during forced locomotory exercise. We also measured whole-body lactic acid concentrations of individuals of the two species at rest and following 4 min of exercise. Contrary to predictions based on tis...
Article
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1.1. We measured standard, resting and exercise metabolism of 28 Chaicides ocellatus (Scincidae). Individual lizards consistently showed statistically significant differences in mass-independent rates of standard and exercise metabolism during three replicates of the experiments at weekly intervals.2.2. Metabolic differences were also detected amon...
Article
1. 1. Male spring peepers (Hyla crucifer) were captured as they vocalized in a breeding chorus and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. 2. 2. These frogs had whole-body lactic acid concentrations nearly twice those of control frogs resting in the laboratory at the same temperature and time of day. 3. 3. We suggest that the energetic cost of vocal...
Article
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The response to simultaneous temperature and dehydration stress was examined in three species of Puerto Rican frogs.Eleutherodactylus antillensis is found primarily in hot, arid grasslands at low altitudes.Eleutherodactylus portoricensis is restricted to cool, forested montane habitats above 300 m.Eleutherodactylus coqui occurs in both the lowlands...
Article
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In the Puerto Rican frog Eleutherodactylus coqui, parental care is performed exclusively by males, and consists of attending the eggs and hatchlings at a terrestrial oviposition site. The two major behavioural components of parental care are egg brooding and nest defence against conspecific egg cannibals. Defence behaviour includes aggressive calli...
Article
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Leptodactylid frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) reduce rates of evaporative water loss 3-fold by adjusting their postures and activities in response to changing conditions of availability of water during nocturnal activity periods. Frogs not making these adjustments experience a potentially lethal loss of body water on a rainless night. Use of water-...
Article
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The terrestrial eggs of the coqui of Puerto Rico are brooded almost continuously by the male parent from the time of oviposition until the fully metamorphosed hatchlings emerge from the eggs 15-20 d later. The gelatinous layer surrounding each egg offers no resistance to the exchange of water by the egg, and rates of exchange are determined by micr...
Article
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Newly-metamorphosed individuals of some species of frogs and toads differ from adults in behavior, ecology, and physiology. These differences may be related to broader patterns of the life histories of different species of frogs. In particular, the length of larval life and the size of a frog at metamorphosis appear to be significant factors in pos...
Article
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Sea snakes are unusual reptiles in two respects: (1) They are morphologically and physiologically specialized for marine life. (2) Most species of sea snakes occupy habitats with extremely stable temperatures, and these species probably experience less variation in body temperature during their lives than most terrestrial reptiles undergo daily. We...
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In 4 species of tropical frogs (Colostethus inguinalis, C. nubicola, Dendrobates auratus, Eleutherodactylus coqui), predation on ants and termites was correlated with high aerobic capacity, low anaerobic capacity and high resting metabolism. Dependence on larger, more mobile prey such as orthopterans and coleopterans was associated with low aerobic...
Article
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The forest frog Eleutherodactylus coqui defends specific sites for retreats and nests in the Luquillo Forest, Puerto Rico. The hypothesis that shortages of nest and retreat sites limit population size was tested by placing 100 bamboo frog houses in plots measuring 100 square meters in areas of high frog density. These new sites were readily adopted...
Article
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SYNOPSIS. Viperid snakes have stouter bodies, larger heads, and longer jaws than snakes in other families; there are no major differences between the two subfamilies of vipers in these features. A suite of morphological characters that facilitates swallowing large prey finds its greatest expression among vipers, but certain elapid and colubrid snak...
Article
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Viperid snakes have stouter bodies, larger heads, and longer jaws than snakes in other families; there are no major differences between the two subfamilies of vipers in these features. A suite of morphological characters that facilitates swallowing large prey finds its greatest expression among vipers, but certain elapid and colubrid snakes have co...
Article
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Cardiovascular responses to head-up tilt, acutely graded hemorrhage, and pharmacologic stimulation by principal autonomic drugs were studied in four species of marine snakes, principally Aipysurus laevis (family Hydrophiidae). Arterial pressure varied inversely with tilt angle and blood volume deficit in conscious snakes outside of water, indicatin...
Article
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Studies of exercise physiology of anuran amphibians have led to the suggestion that there is a dichotomy between species that depend upon movement to escape from predators and species that utilize static defenses. This generalization has been based upon a limited taxonomic survey and it contrasts with morphological, ecological, and behavioral studi...
Article
1.1. The apparent efficiency of assimilation of preformed water from both plant and animal diets by the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis increased about 10% between 34 and 40 C.2.2. This increase parallels the increase in apparent digestibility coefficient of food and probably results from an osmotic balance between chyme and the intracellular fluid of...
Article
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Eleutherodactylus antillensis is a climbing frog that is widely distributed in grassy lowland habitats that often become dry between rainstorms. The closely related species E. coqui has an altitudinal range that extends from the same lowland sites occupied by E. antillensis to mountaintops that are almost continually wet. The frogs lose a substanti...
Article
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Following metamorphosis, juvenile toads form dense, heliothermic aggregations on the margins of the ponds from which they emerge. After a period of growth and development, during which body mass increases ten-fold, the juveniles disperse from the pond and assume the solitary, nocturnal habits that characterize adult toads. The dispersal of the toad...
Article
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Eleutherodactylus coqui, an oviparous frog, undergoes internal fertilization. If this mode of fertilization occurs in other species of anurans, interpretations of anuran reproductive strategies based on the assumption of external fertilization must be reviewed.
Article
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Giant crab spiders of the genus Olios are distributed in the same rain forest microhabitats as preadult Eleutherodactylus coqui. Larger frogs survive encounters with spiders more often than smaller frogs because the larger individuals are able to escape after capture by kicking free of the spiders. -from Author
Article
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Cenozoic reptiles are characterized by physiological morphological and ecological systems with low energy requirements compared to those of mammals. Ectothermy and low resting rates of metabolism are the primary physiological adaptations of reptiles that produce low energy demand. Adjustments of the oxygen-transport system to different thermoregula...
Article
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The way of life of amphibians and reptiles, in contrast to that of birds and mammals, is based on low energy flow. Many of the morphological and physiological characteristics of ectothermal tetrapods that are normally considered to be primitive are in fact adaptations that facilitate a life of low energy demand. Their modest energy requirements all...
Article
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Rattlesnake venom injected into live mice before they were swallowed by non-venomous snakes speeded the process of digestion. This effect of venom was more pronounced when digestion was tested at 15°C than at 25°C. The proteolytic activity of viperid venom appears to facilitate the entry of a snake's stomach secretions into the prey's body cavity,...
Article
1.1.In the field, adult fringe-toed lizards (Acanthodactylus erythrusus) had a mean body temperature of 38.8 ± 0.2 (S.E.) °C while subadults maintained a significantly lowr temperature ().2.2.Laboratory measurements of oxygen consumption, ventilation frequency, and heart rate indicate that temperatures above 38°C are stressful to subadults.3.3.Acti...
Article
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The Chihuahuan Desert lizards Uma e. exsul and U. e. paraphygas are morphologically and ecologically less specialized for life on loose aeolian sand than are the other species of the genus. They do not occur in large areas of vegetationless sand, and are probably limited to areas in which rodents can maintain open burrows year-round. Uma exsul use...
Article
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Adult northern water snakes (Natrix s. sipedon) can sustain maximum activity at 25 C for 42 min while newborn snakes are exhausted in 5 min. The increased endurance of large snakes is paralleled by an ontogenetic increase in blood oxygen capacity (BOC) and a decrease in blood oxygen affinity. The effect of these changes is to enhance oxygen transpo...
Article
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Melanin deposits in the heads of both true vipers (Viperinae) and pit vipers (Crotalinae) are concentrated over the dorsal and dorsolateral aspects of the venom glands. This pigment may occur in any or all of six sites which include the epidermis, dermis, tissues covering the venom glands, and the interior of the glands themselves. The extreme loca...
Article
1.1. Oxygen affinity of whole blood of 51 species of lizards from 12 families was measured at the eccritic temperature of each species.2.2. Blood oxygen affinity was lower than that of birds or mammals and increased with increasing body size.3.3. Iguanid lizards were used as a basis for comparisons of other families. Blood oxygen affinity of lizard...
Article
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There is an ontogenetic increase in the time that garter snakes (Thamnophis s. sirtalis) can maintain maximum activity at 25C. Newborn snakes are exhausted by 3–5 min of activity while adults can be active for 20–25 min. The increased endurance of adult snakes results from ontogenetic increases in both aerobic and anaerobic energy generation. At re...
Article
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Rate of evaporation, resistance to drying, temperature selection, and critical thermal maximum were measured for Jamaican Eleutherodactylus acclimated to 20 C and a 12:12 L:D photoperiod. Two introduced species, E. planirostris and E. johnstonei, selected higher temperatures and had higher CTMs than two native species, E. cundalli and E. gossei. Th...
Article
At birth the blood of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) has high oxygen affinity (P50 at 25 degrees C and pH 7.2 = 21 mm Hg), low hematocrit (14%), and a high proportion of inactive hemoglobin (44%). Growth of the snakes is accompanied by a steady decrease in oxygen affinity (P50 = 44 mm Hg in adults), increased hematocrit (to 44%), and decreased...
Article
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A natural population of Ascia monuste studied in Everglades National Park in January 1970 was subjected to intense attack by birds. Of 697 individuals examined, 22.8% had been caught at least once by a bird. Predation intensity was greater in an open habitat (26.8%) than in a wooded one (14.4%). In laboratory experiments female A. monuste are signi...
Article
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Blood oxygen affinity of 15 species of colubrine snakes is related to body size by the equation . Blood oxygen affinity of snakes in six other families did not differ from values predicted for colubrines of the same body size. An ontogenetic decrease in blood oxygen affinity was found in three of four species for which adequate samples were availab...
Article
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The two species of mole salamander that occur in the Ithaca, New York, region (Ambystoma maculatum and A. jeffersonianum) breed in temporary ponds that are formed by accumulation of melted snow and spring rains. Water in many of these pools during the breeding season is acid; pH values as low as 3.5 have been measured. In laboratory experiments A....
Article
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The teiid lizard Ameiva quadrilineata has a nasal salt gland that responds to NaCl loading by increasing excretion of Na+ (from 1.12 to 2.63 M/100 gh), K+ (from 0.14 to 2.43 M/100 gh), and Cl– (from 1.10 to 5.47 M/100 gh). For salt-loaded lizards these values represent 47% of the total excretion of Na+, 35% for K+, and 87% for Cl–.The lizards forag...
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Spotted salamanders breed in temporary pools formed in early spring by melted snow and rain. Many of these pools reflect the low pH of precipitation in the northeastern United States. Egg mortality is low (less than 1 percent) in pools near neutrality, but high (greater than 60 percent) in pools more acid than pH 6. Developmental anomalies and the...
Article
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Oxygen capacity of reptile blood in vitro is temperature sensitive and is reversibly reduced as much as 40% at the extremes of the temperature range that animals normally encounter. In several species of lizards and snakes, blood oxygen capacity is maximum within the species' activity-temperature range. The correlation coefficient between eccritic...
Article
1.1.|We measured temperature resistance and lactic acid production of Notophthalmus viridescens and Plethodon cinerus acclimated to 10, 20 or 30°C.2.2.|Fatigue is responsible for the Loss of Righting Response (LRR) observed when Plethodon are heated and contributes to the LRR of Notophthalmus efts.3.3.|LRR is purely a manifestation of incapacitatio...
Article
Head and body temperatures of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) were monitored as the lizards were heated and cooled. The head heated before the body until head temperatures of 30–36°C were reached, after which the rate of increase of head temperature slowed. The head cooled before the body. Dead lizards had larger head-body temperature differences tha...
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Exposure of newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, to whole body gamma irradiation increased their resistance to high temperatures. The effect increased progressively with increasing exposure from 250 to 2000 r. In the aquatic adult stage of the life cycle, irradiation had its greatest effect on the critical thermal maximum, while the terrestrial sub-ad...
Article
1.1. Electrophoretic analysis of blood proteins was carried out for six subspecies of Lampropeltis getulus.2.2. Patterns of lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase were identical in all specimens.3.3. Five transferrin alleles and four 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase alleles were found, bu...
Article
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Abstract1.We determined the temperatures selected in a complex thermal gradient by salamanders acclimated to 5, 15 and 25°C.2.There was an inverse relationship between acclimation temperature and selected temperature.3.The temperatures selected by salamanders acclimated to 15°C increased from June through August and fell slightly in October.4.Accli...
Article
1.1. Red efts (Notophthalmus viridescens) exposed to daily temperature fluctuations in the field increased their critical thermal maximum (CTM) l°C in 10hr.2.2. Animals kept at a constant 19°C or exposed to field temperatures no higher than 24°C did not show any change in temperature tolerance.3.3. Efts voluntarily exposed themselves to temperature...
Article
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We previously explored automimicry assuming that a species of prey was so unpalatable as to promote conditioned avoidance for a period of time after a predator encountered a single individual (Case 1). In this paper, we assume that the prey is less noxious and that two encounters are required. Case 2 allows the two encounters with unpalatables to b...
Article
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In the families Agamidae, Gerrhosauridae, Iguanidae, and Scincidae, species that weigh more than 300 g are almost all herbivores, whereas those weighing less than 50-100 g are carnivores. Juveniles of large herbivorous species tend to be carnivorous until they reach body weights of 50-300 g. Diet is compared to metabolic expenditure in these lizard...
Article
1.1. The elephant trunk snake (Acrochordus javanicus)is highly adapted morphologically for aquatic life.2.2. Unrestrained snakes spent the day resting quietly on the bottom of their tank; breathing was infrequent and accompanied by pronounced tachycardia.3.3. At night snakes swam continuously; breathing was more frequent and respiratory tachycardia...
Article
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Eastern red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens, Salamandridae) are rarely attacked by leeches. This protection is not shared by related salamandrids or by Ambystoma (Ambystomatidae). Tetrodotoxin is not the repelent. The immunity of Notophthalmus to leech parasitism is probably most significant in its aquatic stages, although the terrestrial...
Article
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The theory of automimicry is explored mathematically on the assumption that predators can learn to avoid noxious prey by sight for some finite period after a single noxious experience. Automimetic advantage is an inevitable consequence of the evolution of an unpalatability dimorphism. An established automimetic situation is analogous to an establis...
Article
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A population of Uma notata inornata Cope near Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California, was studied. Sand lizards are closely confined to aeolian sand deposits. They regularly bury 0.5-4 cm beneath the sand surface to escape predators and, to some extent, to avoid extremes of temperature. They do not bury deep enough to avoid the highest temperature...
Article
1.1. Burrowing lizards (Uma and Callisaurus) were compared with the non-burrowing Disposaurus. All species showed alternating periods of apnea and eupnea. The length of apneic periods increased at low body temperatures.2.2. Bradycardia and tachycardia were associated with apnea and upnea, respectively.3.3. There was a temperature-independent increa...
Article
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1.1. Oxygen affinity of blood of five lizard species was measured at 25, 35 and 40°C and pCO2's of 38 and 76 mm Hg.2.2. At its activity temperature each species had a P50 of 68–72 mm Hg. Oxygen affinity was also related to body size.3.3. There was a seasonal shift in oxygen affinity in Dipsosaurus dorsalis.4.4. There was no difference in oxygen aff...
Article
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Chrysemys picta from islands and the mainland of the northeastern United States show great intrapopulation variation in characters distinguishing C. p. picta from C. p. marginata. There are no significant differences between island and mainland samples. The extent of variation in Chrysemys populations in the northeastern United States precludes mea...
Article
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In the Chiricahua Mountains and San Simon Valley of southeastern Arizona Crotalus s. scutulatus is found in barren parts of the valley while C. atrox is closely confined to the mesquite-tarbush association near the mountains. C. m. molossus was found in the mountains from 4900 to 8800 ft above sea level. It is suggested that increased aridity in th...

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The 11th edition has been completely revised and adds two new authors.
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Published by Sinauer Associates/Oxford University Press.