Ezio Rosato

Ezio Rosato
University of Leicester | LE · College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology

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91
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Publications (91)
Chapter
The clock neurons of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have become a useful model for expressing misfolded protein aggregates that accumulate in several human neurodegenerative diseases. One advantage of such an approach is that the behavioral effects can be readily quantified on circadian locomotor rhythms, sleep or activity levels via automat...
Preprint
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Many animals use the Earth magnetic field (geoMF) for navigation. The favored mechanism for magnetosensitivity involves a blue-light (BL) activated electron transfer reaction between flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and a chain of tryptophan (Trp) residues within the photoreceptor protein, CRYPTOCHROME (CRY). The spin-state of the resultant radica...
Article
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Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) is one of a few neurotrophic factors described in Drosophila melanogaster (DmMANF) but its function is still poorly characterized. In the present study we found that DmMANF is expressed in different clusters of clock neurons. In particular, the PDF-positive large (l-LNv) and small (s-LNv) v...
Article
Background: Altered cellular vesicle trafficking has been linked to the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD), a fatal, inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutation of the huntingtin (HTT) protein. The Rab GTPase family of proteins plays a key role in regulation of vesicle trafficking, with distinct Rabs helping specify membrane ide...
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In this paper, we review the role of the norpA-encoded phospholipase C in light and thermal entrainment of the circadian clock in Drosophila melanogaster. We extend our discussion to the role of norpA in the thermo-sensitive splicing of the per 3’ UTR, which has significant implications for seasonal adaptations of circadian behaviour. We use the no...
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Whatever you were doing just before reading this, walking to work, drinking a coffee after lunch or winding down in the evening in your favourite armchair, it is likely you will do it again tomorrow, more or less at the same time. This daily cycle is a reflection of the fact that we live in a 24-hour environment that, through rhythmic changes in li...
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We have used the Cambridge Protein Trap resource (CPTI) to screen for flies whose locomotor rhythms are rhythmic in constant light (LL) as a means of identifying circadian photoreception genes. From the screen of ∼150 CPTI lines, we obtained seven hits, two of which targeted the glutamate pathway, Got1 (Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1) and Gs...
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Drosophila suzukii (Matsumara) also called Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), is an invasive pest species originally from Asia that has now spread widely across Europe and North America. The majority of drosophilids including the best known Drosophila melanogaster only breed on decaying fruits. On the contrary, the presence of a strong serrated oviposi...
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The amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis is a model organism of growing importance in the fields of evolutionary development and regeneration. A small, hardy marine crustacean that breeds year-round with a short generation time, it has simple lab culture requirements and an extensive molecular toolkit including the ability to generate targeted genetic muta...
Article
Neonicotinoids are effective insecticides used on many important arable and horticultural crops. They are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists which disrupt the function of insect neurons and cause paralysis and death. In addition to direct mortality, there are numerous sublethal effects of low doses of neonicotinoids on bees. We hypothesize t...
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With the approach of winter, many insects switch to an alternative protective developmental program called diapause. Drosophila melanogaster females overwinter as adults by inducing a reproductive arrest that is characterized by inhibition of ovarian development at previtellogenic stages. The insulin producing cells (IPCs) are key regulators of thi...
Article
Aphids display life cycles largely determined by the photoperiod. During the warm long‐day seasons, most aphid species reproduce by viviparous parthenogenesis. The shortening of the photoperiod in autumn induces a switch to sexual reproduction. Males and sexual females mate to produce overwintering resistant eggs. In addition to this full life cycl...
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Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a crucial component of the Southern Ocean ecosystem , acting as the major link between primary production and higher trophic levels with an annual predator demand of up to 470 million tonnes. It also acts as an ecosystem engineer, affecting carbon sequestration and recycling iron and nitrogen, and has increasi...
Article
Liang et al. (2017) demonstrate how neuropeptides from two groups of clock cells appear to be responsible for the fly’s circadian neurons becoming active at different times of day. By delaying the activity of their clock cell targets, they give rise to morning and evening behavior.
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Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) is a blue light sensitive protein with a key role in circadian photoreception. A main feature of CRY is that light promotes an interaction with the circadian protein TIMELESS (TIM) resulting in their ubiquitination and degradation, a mechanism that contributes to the synchronization of the circadian clock to the enviro...
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Gene duplication and subsequent divergence can lead to the evolution of new functions and lineage-specific traits. In sticklebacks, the successive duplication of a mucin gene (MUC19) into a tandemly arrayed, multigene family has enabled the production of copious amounts of ‘spiggin’, a secreted adhesive protein essential for nest construction. Here...
Data
Table S1 Primers used for cloning and sequencing. Table S2 List of full‐length spiggin cDNA transcripts. Table S3 List of spiggin gDNA sequences. Fig. S1 Verification of intrachromosomal spiggin chimerics using internal reverse primers. Fig. S2 PCR of spiggin B/ChrIX interchromosomal gene from genomic DNA of three marine (SAL) and three freshwa...
Article
Full-text available
Gene duplication and subsequent divergence can lead to the evolution of new functions and lineage specific traits. In sticklebacks, the successive duplication of the mucin-like gene (MUC19) into a tandemly-arrayed, multi-gene family has enabled the production of copious amounts of 'spiggin', a secreted adhesive protein essential for nest constructi...
Article
Full-text available
The circadian clock provides the temporal framework for rhythmic behavioral and metabolic functions. In the modern era of industrialization, work, and social pressures, clock function is jeopardized, and can result in adverse and chronic effects on health. Understanding circadian clock function, particularly individual variation in diurnal phase pr...
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The blue-light sensitive photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY) may act as a magneto-receptor through formation of radical pairs involving a triad of tryptophans. Previous genetic analyses of behavioral responses of Drosophila to electromagnetic fields using conditioning, circadian and geotaxis assays have lent some support to the radical pair model (RPM...
Article
Objectives To investigate the emergence of biological rhythms in the first months of life in human infants, by measuring age-related changes in core body temperature during night-time sleep, hormones (cortisol and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin) and the expression of a clock-controlled gene H3f3b in oral epithelial cells. Design Observational longitudinal st...
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Background In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, interlocked negative transcription/translation feedback loops provide the core of the circadian clock that generates rhythmic phenotypes. Although the current molecular model portrays the oscillator as cell autonomous, cross-talk among clock neurons is essential for robust cycling behavior. Never...
Article
Background Circadian rhythms are daily rhythms that control every aspect of our behaviour and physiology in a 24 h fashion. They are common to nearly all living organisms from cyanobacteria to plants and from flies to humans. The underlying molecular mechanisms that control circadian rhythms are well understood and flies are an excellent model to s...
Article
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Many higher animals have evolved the ability to use the Earth's magnetic field, particularly for orientation. Drosophila melanogaster also respond to electromagnetic fields (EMFs), although the reported effects are quite modest. Here we report that negative geotaxis in flies, scored as climbing, is disrupted by a static EMF, and this is mediated by...
Article
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Psychoneuroimmunology studies the increasing number of connections between neurobiology, immunology and behaviour. We demonstrate the effects of the immune response on two fundamental behaviours: sleep and memory ability in Drosophila melanogaster. We used the Geneswitch system to upregulate peptidoglycan receptor protein (PGRP) expression, thereby...
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Nest construction is an essential component of the reproductive behavior of many species, and attributes of nests - including their location and structure - have implications for both their functional capacity as incubators for developing offspring, and their attractiveness to potential mates. To maximize reproductive success, nests must therefore...
Preprint
Psychoneuroimmunology studies the increasing number of connections between neurobiology, immunology and behaviour. We establish Drosophila melanogaster as a tractable model in this field by demonstrating the effects of the immune response on two fundamental behaviours: sleep and memory ability. We used the Geneswitch system to upregulate peptidogly...
Preprint
Full-text available
Psychoneuroimmunology studies the increasing number of connections between neurobiology, immunology and behaviour. We establish Drosophila melanogaster as a tractable model in this field by demonstrating the effects of the immune response on two fundamental behaviours: sleep and memory ability. We used the Geneswitch system to upregulate peptidogly...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the diurnal oscillation in abundance of the catalytic α subunit of the sodium/potassium pump (ATPα) in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster. This rhythm is bimodal and is particularly robust in the glia cells of the lamina, the first optic neuropil. We observed loss of ATPα cycling in lamina glia in behaviourally arrhythmic per(01)...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects of aluminum on the model organism - Drosophila melanogaster. The study is especially concerned with the effects of aluminum on the fruit fly's development, life-span and circadian rhythm in rest and activity. Flies were exposed to aluminum in concentrations from 40 to 280 mg/kg in re...
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The high latitudes of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) mean that they have to endure extreme changes in seasonal conditions with autumn and winter characterised by very low food availability, long periods of darkness and a massive expansion of sea ice. How krill adapt to these conditions has yet to be determined and it was the purpose of this st...
Article
Forty years ago, a mutagenesis screening in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, led to the discovery of period, the first gene to be involved in the endogenous 24-h rhythmicity of an organism. Since then circadian clocks have been identified in fungi, cyanobacteria, plants, and other animals. Although the molecular components are not conserved...
Article
Circadian rhythms (~24 h) in biochemistry, physiology and behaviour are found in almost all eukaryotes and some bacteria. The elucidation of the molecular components of the 24 h circadian clock in a number of model organisms in recent years has provided an opportunity to assess the adaptive value of variation in clock genes. Laboratory experiments...
Data
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Biological process level 2 GO annotation of 0051 EST library. A pie chart of Gene Ontology annotations at biological process level 2 of all EST sequences ≥100 bp from the 0051 cDNA library.
Data
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Biological process level 2 GO annotation of 2001 EST library. A pie chart of Gene Ontology annotations at biological process level 2 of all EST sequences ≥100 bp from the 2001cDNA library.
Data
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Biological process level 2 GO annotation of 0600 EST library. A pie chart of Gene Ontology annotations at biological process level 2 of all EST sequences ≥100 bp from the 0600 cDNA library.
Data
All transcripts differentially expressed more than twofold (p < 0.05) relative to C early in each moult cluster group. Each sheet in the file lists transcripts that were differentially expressed more than twofold (B&H adjusted p < 0.05) relative to C early for each moult cluster group. Each transcript is listed with GenBank accession number, contig...
Data
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Quantitative PCR analysis of transcripts selected for validation of microarray data. A table of the mean fold changes in expression of five transcripts in each moult stage cluster group relative to C early, as measured by qPCR.
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Details of EST clustering for each Antarctic krill cDNA library. A table of the number of contigs and singletons generated from clustering of each individual krill cDNA library along with respective GenBank accession numbers.
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Biological process level 2 GO annotation of 0701 EST library. A pie chart of Gene Ontology annotations at biological process level 2 of all EST sequences ≥100 bp from the 0701 cDNA library.
Data
Full-text available
Biological process level 2 GO annotation of 1401 EST library. A pie chart of Gene Ontology annotations at biological process level 2 of all EST sequences ≥100 bp from the 1400 cDNA library.
Data
Primer sequences used for quantitative PCR. A table of primer sequences used in the qPCR validation of five transcripts.
Article
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All crustaceans periodically moult to renew their exoskeleton. In krill this involves partial digestion and resorption of the old exoskeleton and synthesis of new cuticle. Molecular events that underlie the moult cycle are poorly understood in calcifying crustaceans and even less so in non-calcifying organisms such as krill. To address this we cons...
Article
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A change in photoperiod has been implicated in triggering a transition from an active to a quiescent state in Antarctic krill. We examined this process at the molecular level, to identify processes that are affected when passing a photoperiodic threshold. Antarctic krill captured in the austral autumn were divided into two groups and immediately in...
Article
Full-text available
The burrow emergence activity of the wild caught ragworm Nereis virens Sars associated with food prospecting was investigated under various photoperiodic (LD) and simulated tidal cycles (STC) using a laboratory based actograph. Just over half (57%) of the animals under LD with STC displayed significant tidal (approximately 12.4 h) and/or lunar-day...
Article
Full-text available
A change in photoperiod has been implicated in triggering a transition from an active to a quiescent state in Antarctic krill. We examined this process at the molecular level, to identify processes that are affected when passing a photoperiodic threshold. Antarctic krill captured in the austral autumn were divided into two groups and immediately in...
Article
Full-text available
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a keystone species in the southern ocean ecosystem where it is the main consumer of phytoplankton and constitutes the main food item of many higher predators. Both food and predators are most abundant at the surface, thus krill hide in the depth of the ocean during the day and migrate to the upper layers at ni...
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Full-text available
The immune response affects learning and memory in insects. Given this and the known fitness costs of both the immune system and learning, does an evolutionary trade-off exist between these two systems? We tested this by measuring the learning ability of 12 bumble-bee (Bombus terrestris) colonies in a free-flying paradigm. We then tested their immu...
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Parasites can influence different host behaviours including foraging, mate choice and predator avoidance. Several recent papers have shown reduced learning abilities in infected insects. However, it is difficult to separate the effects of the immune response from the direct effects of the parasite. Using a free-flying learning paradigm, this paper...
Article
After a slow start, the comparative analysis of clock genes in insects has developed into a mature area of study in recent years. Brain transplant or surgical interventions in larger insects defined much of the early work in this area, before the cloning of clock genes became possible. We discuss the evolution of clock genes, their key sequence dif...
Article
Full-text available
The circadian mechanism appears remarkably conserved between Drosophila and mammals, with basic underlying negative and positive feedback loops, cycling gene products, and temporally regulated nuclear transport involving a few key proteins. One of these negative regulators is PERIOD, which in Drosophila shows very similar temporal and spatial regul...
Article
Full-text available
Circadian and other natural clock-like endogenous rhythms may have evolved to anticipate regular temporal changes in the environment. We report that a mutation in the circadian clock gene timeless in Drosophila melanogaster has arisen and spread by natural selection relatively recently in Europe. We found that, when introduced into different geneti...
Article
Full-text available
Diapause is a protective response to unfavorable environments that results in a suspension of insect development and is most often associated with the onset of winter. The ls-tim mutation in the Drosophila melanogaster clock gene timeless has spread in Europe over the past 10,000 years, possibly because it enhances diapause. We show that the mutant...
Article
The C-terminus of cryptochrome (CRY) regulates light responses in Drosophila. These include the light-dependent binding of Drosophila dCRY to the clock proteins PERIOD and TIMELESS in a yeast two-hybrid system, which we proved to be a convenient and reliable readout of the behavior of dCRY in vivo. In this study, we present a combination of in sili...
Book
The aim of Circadian Rhythms is to provide a resource that can be adopted by several types of users: those who are new to circadian biology, those who are already active in the field but are interested in learning new techniques and researchers who are considering moving to a new a model system or undertaking comparative studies and would like to c...
Article
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The period gene is a key regulator of biological rhythmicity in Drosophila melanogaster. The central part of the gene encodes a dipeptide Thr-Gly repeat that has been implicated in the evolution of both circadian and ultradian rhythms. We have previously observed that length variation in the repeat follows a latitudinal cline in Europe and North Af...
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The circadian clock percolates through every aspect of behaviour and physiology, and has wide implications for human and animal health. The molecular basis of the Drosophila circadian clock provides a model system that has remarkable similarities to that of mammals. The various cardinal clock molecules in the fly are outlined, and compared to those...
Article
The genetic, molecular and anatomical dissection of the circadian clock in Drosophila and other higher organisms relies on the quantification of rhythmic phenotypes. Here, we introduce the methods currently in use in our laboratories for the analysis of fly locomotor activity rhythms. This phenotype provides a relatively simple, automated, efficien...
Article
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The Drosophila melanogaster circadian clock is generated by interlocked feedback loops, and null mutations in core genes such as period and timeless generate behavioral arrhythmicity in constant darkness. In light-dark cycles, the elevation in locomotor activity that usually anticipates the light on or off signals is severely compromised in these m...
Article
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Errant polychaete worms in the Orders Eunicida (family Eunicidae) and Phyllodocida (families Nereidae and Polynoidae) exhibit a highly developed biorhythmic capability. The Pacific palolo worms are well known for a precisely timed annual breeding event in which mass spawning occurs at a particular time of day, on one day per year, that day having a...