Evan Kleiman

Evan Kleiman
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey | Rutgers · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

140
Publications
45,862
Reads
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7,111
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2008 - present
George Mason University
Position
  • PhD Student
October 2006 - August 2008
Temple University
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
September 2008 - January 2010
George Mason University
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology
September 2008 - August 2014
George Mason University
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology
September 2004 - May 2008
Temple University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (140)
Article
Two studies examined 2 important but previously unanswered questions about the experience of suicidal ideation: (a) How does suicidal ideation vary over short periods of time?, and (b) To what degree do risk factors for suicidal ideation vary over short periods and are such changes associated with changes in suicidal ideation? Participants in Study...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the hypothesis that depressive symptoms are associated with increased beliefs about perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness identified in the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide and that these beliefs are associated with changes in suicidal ideation. Participants with clinical levels of depressive symptoms (n = 299...
Article
Full-text available
Optimism has been conceptualised variously as positive expectations (PE) for the future , optimistic attributions , illusion of control , and self-enhancing biases. Relatively little research has examined these multiple dimensions of optimism in relation to psychological and physical health. The current study assessed the multi-dimensional nature o...
Article
We examined meaning in life as a suicide resiliency factor. Since meaning in life may be hard to directly modify, we examine gratitude and grit as factors that synergistically confer resiliency to suicide by increasing meaning in life. Using a longitudinal study of 209 college students, we find that gratitude and grit interact such that individuals...
Article
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent and dangerous phenomenon associated with many negative outcomes, including future suicidal behaviors. Research on these behaviors has primarily focused on correlates; however, an emerging body of research has focused on NSSI risk factors. To provide a summary of current knowledge about NSSI risk factors...
Article
Introduction Despite the pressing need for primary care-based suicide prevention initiatives and growing acknowledgement of recruitment difficulties and Institutional Review Board (IRB) challenges in suicide research, we are aware of no illustrative examples describing how IRB decisions in the design of a primary care trial can compound recruitment...
Article
The suicide rate (currently 14 per 100,000) has barely changed in the United States over the past 100 years. There is a need for new ways of preventing suicide. Further, research has revealed that suicidal thoughts and behaviors and the factors that drive them are dynamic, heterogeneous, and interactive. Most existing interventions for suicidal tho...
Article
Cross-sectional studies and prospective studies with long follow-up periods (e.g., years) have shown that lower levels of social support are associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents. This study examined how short-term changes in social support may contribute to NSSI behavior and whether different sources of support (e.g., fr...
Article
The number of college students who need mental health treatment outpaces the resources available to counseling centers to provide these needed services, presenting a need for low-cost, scalable interventions for college populations. We conducted a pilot implementation-effectiveness trial of a scalable treatment package that consisted of a single (t...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare adolescents' reports of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) between ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and a traditional, retrospective interview. Adolescents were recruited following recent discharge from acute psychiatric care for a suicidal crisis (as part of a larger study). Participants com...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine implicit affect toward suicide (i.e., how good/bad suicide is perceived). Some people might be more likely to think about/choose suicide because they perceive it as a good option (to gain relief) relative to available alternatives. Method: Implicit affect toward suicide among adults (N = 72) an...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Consumption of distressing news media, which substantially increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, has demonstrable negative effects on mental health. OBJECTIVE This study examines the proximal impact of daily exposure to news about COVID-19 on mental health in the first year of the pandemic. METHODS A sample of 546 college students co...
Article
Full-text available
There has been growing interest in using wearable physiological monitors to passively detect the signals of distress (i.e., increases in autonomic arousal measured through increased electrodermal activity [EDA]) that may be imminently associated with suicidal thoughts. Before using these monitors in advanced applications such as creating suicide ri...
Article
Full-text available
Background Stressful life events are a common antecedent of suicidal thoughts. However, not all stressful events lead to increased suicidal thinking, even among those who frequently have suicidal thoughts. In this study, we examined whether the ways that individuals regulate their emotions moderates the association between stressful events and suic...
Article
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) are major public health concerns among adolescents, and research is needed to identify how risk is conferred over the short term (hours and days). Sleep problems may be associated with elevated risk for STBs, but less is known about this link in youth over short time periods. The current study utilized a multi...
Article
This randomized clinical trial aimed to determine feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of brief Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) skills videos in reducing psychological distress among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Over six weeks, 153 undergraduates at a large, public American university completed pre-assessment, inter...
Article
Advancements in the understanding and prevention of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) are urgently needed. Intensive longitudinal data collection methods—such as ecological momentary assessment—capture fine-grained, “real-world” information about SITBs as they occur and thus have the potential to narrow this gap. However, collecting rea...
Article
Full-text available
We still have little understanding of short-term predictors of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). Prior research links increased negative affect to STBs, but the vast majority of earlier work is limited by measuring negative affect at one time point and aiming to predict STBs months or years in the future. Recently, intensive longitudinal stud...
Article
Objective Interpersonal negative life events (NLEs) have been linked to risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. However, little is known about how this risk is conferred over the short term and the mechanisms linking interpersonal NLEs to suicide risk, particularly in adolescents. This study used an intensive longitudinal design to examine thwart...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Brief interventions, such as mental health apps and single-session interventions, are increasingly popular, efficacious and accessible delivery formats that may be beneficial for college students whose mental health needs may not be adequately met by college counseling centers. However, no studies so far have examined the effectiveness o...
Article
Background: Brief interventions such as mental health apps and single-session interventions are increasingly popular, efficacious, and accessible delivery formats that may be beneficial for college students whose mental health needs may not be adequately met by college counseling centers. However, no studies so far have examined the effectiveness...
Article
The practice of therapeutic skills outside of sessions in which they are learned is one presumed key component of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Yet, our understanding of how skills practice relates to clinical outcomes remains limited. Here, we explored patients’ emotional responses to CBT skills practices in a pilot study pairing smartphone...
Article
Researchers, clinicians and patients are increasingly using real-time monitoring methods to understand and predict suicidal thoughts and behaviours. These methods involve frequently assessing suicidal thoughts, but it is not known whether asking about suicide repeatedly is iatrogenic. We tested two questions about this approach: (a) does repeatedly...
Article
Background The hopelessness theory is one of the most studied cognitive vulnerability theories of depression. It proposes that risk for depression is conferred by attributing the causes of negative events to global, internal, stable causes and inferring future negative consequences and negative characteristics about oneself from these events. Nearl...
Article
Despite functional models of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) helping to explain why people engage in this perplexing behavior, we still lack an understanding of some of the key properties of NSSI functions. Here, we address three unanswered questions about NSSI functions: how much do distinct NSSI functions (1) vary between people over time, (2) va...
Article
Suicide rates among military-connected populations have increased over the past 15 years. Meta-analytic studies indicate prediction of suicide outcomes is lacking. Machine-learning approaches have been promoted to enhance classification models for suicide-related outcomes. In the present study, we compared the performance of three primary machine-l...
Article
Full-text available
There is concern that the COVID-19 pandemic may cause increased risk of suicide. In the current study, we tested whether suicidal thinking has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and whether such thinking was predicted by increased feelings of social isolation. In a sample of 55 individuals recently hospitalized for suicidal thinking or behavior...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: The weeks following discharge from psychiatric hospitalization are the highest-risk period for suicide attempts. Real-time monitoring of suicidal thoughts via smartphone prompts may be more indicative of short-term risk than a single, cross-sectional assessment. Objective: To test whether modeling dynamic changes in real-time suicida...
Article
(248 words) Introduction There is public concern about potential associations between adolescent social media/smartphone use and risk for suicide. However, no prior studies leverage qualitative methods to explore the experiences of adolescents currently at-risk for suicide. Methods This study examined social technology use from the perspectives o...
Article
The use of machine learning is increasing in clinical psychology, yet it is unclear whether these approaches enhance the prediction of clinical outcomes. Several studies show that machine-learning algorithms outperform traditional linear models. However, many studies that have found such an advantage use the same algorithm, random forests with the...
Preprint
The suicide rate has not changed in the United States over the past 100 years and there is a need for new ways of preventing suicide. Research has revealed that suicidal thoughts and behaviors and the factors that drive them are dynamic, heterogeneous, and interactive. Most existing interventions are infrequent (e.g., weekly sessions), not accessib...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Digital monitoring technologies (e.g., smart-phones and wearable devices) provide unprecedented opportunities to study potentially harmful behaviors such as suicide, violence, and alcohol/substance use in real-time. The use of these new technologies has the potential to significantly advance the understanding, prediction, and prevention...
Preprint
Full-text available
Researchers, clinicians, and patients are increasingly using real-time monitoring methods to understand and predict suicidal thoughts and behaviors. These methods involve frequently assessing suicidal thoughts, but it is unknown if asking about suicide repeatedly is iatrogenic. We tested two questions about this approach: (1) does repeatedly assess...
Article
Researchers are increasingly using objective methods to study constructs related to suicidal thoughts and behavior (STB; e.g., self-identification with suicide), such as via behavioral tasks and brain imaging. Although promising, such approaches often are limited by the use of overly general stimuli (e.g., images, words) to represent constructs und...
Article
Objective: The study purpose was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of intensive ecological momentary assessment (EMA) among high-risk adolescents with suicidal thoughts and behaviors following discharge from acute psychiatric care. Method: Fifty-three adolescents, 12–18 years old, and their parents, were recruited following discharge fro...
Article
Despite decades of suicide research, our ability to predict suicide has not changed. Why is this the case? We outline the unique challenges facing suicide research. Borrowing successful strategies from other medical fields, we propose specific research directions that aim to translate scientific findings into meaningful clinical impact.
Article
Objective: Gratitude, or thankfulness for positive aspects of life, is related to psychosocial well-being and decreased psychopathology, and may reduce suicide risk. We explored four potential hypotheses purported to explain the beneficial outcomes of gratitude (schematic, positive affect, broaden-and-build, and coping), hypothesizing that hopeles...
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Full-text available
Background: Cognitive vulnerability theories of depression outline multiple, distinct inferential biases constitutive of cognitive vulnerability to depression. These include attributing negative events to internal, stable, and global factors, assuming that negative events will lead to further negative consequences, and inferring that negative even...
Article
The interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) has been widely studied in adults, but not adolescent populations at acute risk for suicide. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate IPTS clinical utility in a high-risk sample of suicidal adolescent inpatients. We assessed whether constructs of the IPTS (1) are associated with suicidal thoughts and beha...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in real-time monitoring technology make this an exciting time to study risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among youth. Although there is good reason to be excited about these methods, there is also reason for caution in adopting them without first understanding their limitations. In this article, we present several broad futur...
Article
Mnemonic discrimination, the ability to differentiate highly similar old and new entities, is a novel mechanism of interest in anxiety disorders. However, little research has been conducted with individuals experiencing severe anxiety. Mnemonic discrimination was assessed in adults with a wide range of anxiety severity. State affect was manipulated...
Article
Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth worldwide. The purpose of the current review was to examine recent cross‐national trends in suicide mortality rates among 10‐ to 19‐year‐olds. This study extracted suicide mortality data from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Mortality Database for the most recent year (since 2010) from any countr...
Article
Background: Rapid advances in the capability and affordability of digital technology have begun to allow for the intensive monitoring of psychological and physiological processes associated with affective disorders in daily life. This technology may enable researchers to overcome some limitations of traditional methods for studying risk in affecti...
Article
Each year in the United States, suicidal thoughts and behaviors lead to >15 million visits to emergency departments and stays in psychiatric inpatient units. We describe three key areas where advances are needed: (1) more accurate detection of patients at risk for suicide in hospital settings, (2) better use of time and resources with patients whil...
Article
Objective Eating disordered (ED) behaviors (i.e., binge eating, compensatory behaviors, restrictive eating) and nonsuicidal self‐injury (NSSI; intentional and nonsuicidal self‐harm) are highly comorbid and share several similarities, including consequent pain and physical damage. However, whereas NSSI is considered direct self‐harm, ED behaviors ar...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Wearable physiological monitoring devices enable the continuous measurement of human behavior and psychophysiology in the real world. Although such devices are promising, their availability does not guarantee that participants will continuously wear and interact with them, especially during times of psychological distress. Wearable physi...
Article
Background: Wearable physiological monitoring devices enable the continuous measurement of human behavior and psychophysiology in the real world. Although such monitors are promising, their availability does not guarantee that participants will continuously wear and interact with them, especially during times of psychological distress. Objective:...
Article
Single-case experimental design (SCED) is a rigorous method of studying behavior and behavior change. A key characteristic of SCED is repeated, systematic assessment of outcome variables, which is critical to achieving high internal validity, collecting a sufficient number of observations to conduct adequately powered statistical analyses, capturin...
Article
Decades of research suggest that social support is an important factor in predicting suicide risk and resilience. However, no studies have examined dynamic fluctuations in day-by-day levels of perceived social support. We examined such fluctuations over 28 days among a sample of 53 adults who attempted suicide in the past year (992 total observatio...
Article
Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) prospectively predicts suicidal thoughts and behaviors in civilian populations. Despite high rates of suicide among US military members, little is known about the prevalence and course of NSSI, or how NSSI relates to suicidal thoughts and behaviors, in military personnel. Methods We conducted secondary an...
Article
Patients suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) are at elevated risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), but this well-described and clinically important association is not well-understood. Prior research suggests that STBs often function as an attempt to escape aversive affect, and that people with BPD experience stronger emo...
Article
Background: Theoretical work and clinical observation suggest that many patients experience relief from negative affect after thinking about suicide, which may increase the likelihood of future suicidal thoughts. Accordingly, our objective was to examine whether the occurrence of suicidal thinking was followed by decreased negative affect and incr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We addressed two unanswered questions from prior research, demonstrating a prospective association between frequent religious service attendance and decreased risk for suicide. First, we assessed whether religious service attendance conferred protection from suicide even after accounting for strength of religious affiliation. Second, we...
Chapter
The risk factor of interpersonal dysfunction has been a mainstay of theories and research on psychopathology and suicide for over a century and persists in modern theories such as the interpersonal theory of suicide. Additional interpersonal variables, including loneliness, social isolation, and conflict with others, are also contributors to suicid...
Article
Few risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been identified. This study investigated diminished aversion toward self-injury (i.e., NSSI, suicide/death stimuli) and self-criticism as unique NSSI risk factors. After terminating a treatment study, 154 adults with a recent and frequent NSSI history completed self-report and computer-based...
Article
Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death and a complex clinical outcome. Here, we summarize the current state of research pertaining to suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth. We review their definitions/measurement and phenomenology, epidemiology, potential etiological mechanisms, and psychological treatment and prevention efforts. Resu...
Article
Background: The field is in need of novel and transdiagnostic risk factors for suicide. The National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides a framework that may help advance research on suicidal behavior. Method: We conducted a meta-analytic review of existing prospective risk and protective factors for suicidal th...
Preprint
Although real-time monitoring methodology (also called ecological momentary assessment or experience sampling methodology) has become far more accessible in recent years, the methodologies to analyze data from real-time monitoring studies has not. The goal of this tutorial is to provide an easily-accessible overview of the basic theoretical concept...
Article
Theoretical models of self-harm suggest that high perceived stress and high fatigue (which might affect the ability to cope with stress) may interact to predict the short-term occurrence of suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). We tested 3 approaches to examining this interaction, each of which provided a different understanding of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Suicidal thoughts and behaviors are major public health concerns in youth. Unfortunately, knowledge of reliable predictors of suicide risk in adolescents is limited. Promising research using a death stimuli version of the Implicit Association Test (Death IAT) indicates that stronger identification with death differs between adults with...
Article
One of the greatest challenges to understanding, predicting, and preventing suicide is that we have never had the ability to observe and intervene upon them as they unfold in real-time. Recently developed real-time monitoring methods are creating new opportunities for scientific and clinical advances. For instance, recent real-time monitoring studi...
Article
1 Background To examine whether there are subtypes of suicidal thinking using real‐time digital monitoring, which allows for the measurement of such thoughts with greater temporal granularity than ever before possible. 2 Methods We used smartphone‐based real‐time monitoring to assess suicidal thoughts four times per day in two samples: Adults who...
Article
Although we know much about the effects of violence on victims, we know less about individuals who perpetrate violence. In the present study, we used a large, nationally representative sample of adults (National Comorbidity Study–Replication; n = 9,282) to examine demographics (i.e., age and gender) and social, occupational, and cognitive functioni...
Article
Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Prior research has focused primarily on sociodemographic and psychiatric risk factors with little improvement in the prediction or prevention of suicidal behavior over time. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) may be an especially useful framework for advancing research in this area. This article provi...
Article
There has been a marked increase in research aimed at studying dynamic (e.g., day-to-day, moment-to-moment) changes in mental disorders and related behavior problems. Indeed, the number of scientific papers published that focus on real-time monitoring has been nearly doubling every five years for the past several decades. These methods allow for a...
Article
Full-text available
The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ) is a self-report measure designed to assess the looming cognitive style, a tendency to interpret threats as rapidly approaching and increasing in magnitude. To date, no systematic evaluation on the psychometric properties of the LMSQ across diverse cultural contexts has been done. In the present re...
Article
Full-text available
Depression has been linked with long-term risk for a variety of physical health ailments, including coronary heart disease (CHD). Little is known about resilience factors that may attenuate this relationship. The current study assessed whether social support moderates the long-term risk for CHD associated with this disorder. Data were drawn from th...
Article
Positive and negative trait affect and emotion regulatory strategies have received considerable attention in the literature as predictors of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear whether individuals’ trait affect is associated with responses to state positive affect (positive rumination and dampening) or negative affect (ruminative brooding)...
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Full-text available
Although considerable empirical work has been devoted to identifying risk factors for suicide attempts, most longitudinal research has studied recurrent attempts rather than first lifetime attempts. The present study sought to examine prospective predictors of first lifetime suicide attempts among adults receiving treatment for substance use. Data...
Article
Background: Self-injurious behavior (e.g., nonsuicidal self-injury, suicide attempts) is a serious public health concern. One potentially important but understudied predictor of nonsuicidal and suicidal self-injury involves the behavioral inhibition and activation system (BIS/BAS). Aims: The goal of the current study was to examine the relations...
Article
Full-text available
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) are major public health problems that have not declined appreciably in several decades. One of the first steps to improving the prevention and treatment of STBs is to establish risk factors (i.e., longitudinal predictors). To provide a summary of current knowledge about risk factors, we conducted a meta-analys...
Article
Gratitude and positive humor styles may be important protective factors against suicide ideation that are rarely investigated. This study investigated whether positive humor styles influence the experience of suicide ideation and the identification of reasons for living through levels of gratitude. Participants (N = 166) were undergraduate students...
Article
The current study examined how age of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) onset relates to NSSI severity and suicidality using decision tree analyses (nonparametric regression models that recursively partition predictor variables to create groupings). Those with an earlier age of NSSI onset reported greater NSSI frequency, NSSI methods, and NSSI-relate...