Evan Alexandrou

Evan Alexandrou
Western Sydney University · School of Nursing and Midwifery

About

68
Publications
45,578
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1,320
Citations
Citations since 2017
39 Research Items
1045 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite pervasive need for peripheral intravenous catheters, insertion is often difficult, and approximately two thirds fail prematurely. Midline catheters are an alternative long peripheral catheter, inserted in the upper arm, ideal for patients with difficult access. Aim The aim of this study is to test feasibility of the protocol and...
Article
Introduction After reviewing emergency department presentations for hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and mapping services available to women with HG across one local health district, significant gaps were identified. To address this gap a protocol was developed in consultation with clinicians, researchers and a consumer representative. We aim to examine...
Article
Background Delirium is an acute change in behaviour, characterised by a fluctuating course, inattention, and disorganised thinking. For critically ill adults in the intensive care, the incidence of delirium has been reported to be at least 30% and is associated with both short-term and long-term complications, longer hospital stay, increased risk o...
Article
Full-text available
Background Central venous access devices (CVADs) can have high rates of failure due to dressing-related complications. CVADs placed in the internal jugular vein are at particular risk of dressing failure-related complications, including catheter-associated bloodstream infection and medical adhesive-related skin injury. Application of Mastisol liqui...
Article
Aim: To determine peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) characteristics, complications and risk factors among patients in cancer units. Methods: A secondary analysis of a global, cross-sectional study (127 hospitals in 24 countries). Participants (≥18 years) admitted to cancer units were assessed once for PIVC characteristics and the presence o...
Article
Background Malpositioned central venous access devices (CVADs) can lead to significant patient injury including central vein thrombosis and dysrhythmias. Intra-cavitary electrocardiography (IC ECG) has been recommended by peak professional bodies as an accurate alternative for bedside CVAD insertion, to reduce risk of malposition and allowing immed...
Article
Background: The Bayesian approach to updating scientific knowledge involves using a probability distribution to describe a prior belief concerning an outcome of interest and combines this with some new information to create a posterior probability distribution to describe the updated current knowledge. Aim: To introduce the application of Bayes'...
Article
Full-text available
Needleless connectors are used widely across all types of vascular access devices and provide safe, needleless administration of intravenous fluids and medications. An analysis of patients from an outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy program is presented in which elastomeric pumps had failed to flow due to incomplete tightening of Luer lock...
Article
Aims and Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis reports the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among nurses. Background With a growing body of literature reporting the positive serology for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among healthcare workers, it remains unclear whether staff at the point of direct patient care are more prone to develo...
Article
Background The optimal duration of infusion set use to prevent life-threatening catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is unclear. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and costs of 7-day (intervention) versus 4-day (control) infusion set replacement to prevent CRBSI in patients with central venous access devices (tunnelled cuffed, non-tunn...
Article
Background: Measurement error must always be considered when planning a research project and interpreting its results. The accuracy of some data collected during a study can often be confidently assured, but more than one measurement or observer is needed to assess exposure and outcomes status in cases where clinical measurement is prone to measur...
Article
Full-text available
Background Clinical frailty among older adults admitted to intensive care has been proposed as an important determinant of patient outcomes. Among this group of patients, an acute episode of delirium is also common, but its relationship to frailty and increased risk of mortality has not been extensively explored. Therefore, the aim of this study wa...
Article
Most clinical trials use null hypothesis significance testing with frequentist statistical inference to report P values and confidence intervals for effect estimates. This method leads to a dichotomisation of results as ‘significant’ or ‘non‐significant’. A more nuanced interpretation may often be considered and in particular when the majority of t...
Article
Background: Equivalent clinical outcomes, lower costs, and fewer invasive procedures have resulted in revised recommendations for the removal of peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) from the traditional 72- to 96-hourly removal to removal based upon clinical indication. Problem: Uptake of this evidence-based innovation to health systems is o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background As the population ages clinical frailty among older adults admitted to intensive care has been proposed as an important determinant of patient outcomes. Among this group of frail patients an acute episode of delirium is also common, and both frailty and delirium increase the risk of mortality. However, the complex relationship between fr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Clinical frailty among older adults admitted to intensive care has been proposed as an important determinant of patient outcomes. Among this group of patients an acute episode of delirium is also common, but its relationship to frailty and increased risk of mortality has not been extensively explored. Therefore, the aim of this study wa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: As the population ages clinical frailty among older adults admitted to intensive care has been proposed as an important determinant of patient outcomes. Among this group of patients an acute episode of delirium is also common, but its relationship to frailty and increased risk of mortality has not been extensively explored. Therefore, t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: As the population ages clinical frailty among older adults admitted to intensive care has been proposed as an important determinant of patient outcomes. Among this group of patients an acute episode of delirium is also common, but its relationship to frailty and increased risk of mortality has not been extensively explored. Therefore, t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: As the population ages clinical frailty among older adults admitted to intensive care has been proposed as an important determinant of patient outcomes. Among this group of patients an acute episode of delirium is also common, but its relationship to frailty and increased risk of mortality has not been extensively explored. Therefore, t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Severe sepsis can lead to organ failure and death if immediate treatment, such as intravenous fluids and antibiotics, are not commenced within the first hour. Time - critical initiation of intravenous fluids which in other words is early goal directed fluid resuscitation has not always been given its clinical priority. This qualitative s...
Article
Background Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition with the highest rates among adults receiving intensive care. An acute episode of delirium is associated with morbidity and mortality, as well as a significant psychological sequela. Importantly, an increasing body of evidence supports the benefit of nonpharmacological, nurse-led i...
Article
Purpose: To describe worldwide characteristics, performance and risk factors of peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs), in pediatrics. Design: A secondary, subgroup analysis of pediatric (<18 years) data was undertaken, using a global, cross-sectional study of PIVCs. Practice characteristics included: demographic, diagnostic, utility, manageme...
Article
Full-text available
A cluster of 11 midline catheter failures occurred during a 2-week period in a Hospital in the Home program in an urban tertiary hospital in Australia. These failures prompted a 4-month retrospective audit of patients receiving outpatient antimicrobial therapy between December 1, 2016 and March 1, 2017. Primary outcomes were dwell time and catheter...
Chapter
Full-text available
Selection of the right vascular access device requires assessment using an algorithmic process, as represented in quadrants 1 and 2 of the VHP model, to provide the patient with a tailored device suited to patient-specific clinical conditions. The process of device selection includes a rational assessment of the patient’s needs, vein anatomy and he...
Chapter
Full-text available
Right assessment and selection of the best vein and location is the first stage of the vascular access cycle within quadrant 1 of VHP. This stage begins at the time of admission and continues as diagnosis is established and treatment initiated. Most patients receive their first intravenous device during the assessment in the emergency department, t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Optimal vascular access insertion and management requires clinicians to have appropriate education and skill on the best procedural techniques or be supervised during the process of acquiring the necessary education. The second quadrant of the Vessel Health and Preservation (VHP) model requires a qualified inserter, a clinician who has undertaken a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Health care associated infections (HAI) among adults admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) have been shown to increase length of stay, the cost of care, and in some cases increased the risk of hospital death (Kaye et al., J Am Geriatr Soc 62:306-11, 2014; Roberts et al., Med Care 48:1026-35, 2010; Warren et al., Crit Care Med 34:2084...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) use in health care is common worldwide. Failure of PIVCs is also common, resulting in premature removal and replacement. Objective: To investigate the characteristics, management practices, and outcomes of PIVCs internationally. Design: Setting/patients: Cross-sectional study. Hospitalized p...
Article
Full-text available
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To compare the effectiveness of dressings and securement devices for peripheral arterial catheters.
Article
Full-text available
Background Many patients are admitted to hospital with non-visible or palpable veins, often resulting in multiple painful attempts at cannulation, anxiety and catheter failure. We developed a difficult intravenous pathway at our institution to reduce the burden of difficult access for patients by increasing first attempt success with ultrasound gui...
Article
Introduction Around 30% of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) fail from vascular, infectious or mechanical complications. Patients with cancer are at highest risk, and this increases morbidity, mortality and costs. Effective PICC dressing and securement may prevent PICC failure; however, no large randomised controlled trial (RCT) has c...
Article
Introduction A persistent left superior vena cava is one of the most common thoracic vascular anomalies, present in approximately 0.5% of the general population. The most common presentation is both a right and left superior vena cava, communicating through an innominate vein. In rare cases, complete absence of a right sided superior vena cava may...
Article
Full-text available
Background Health care-associated infections (HAI) have been shown to increase length of stay, the cost of care, and rates of hospital deaths (Kaye and Marchaim, J Am Geriatr Soc 62(2):306–11, 2014; Roberts and Scott, Med Care 48(11):1026–35, 2010; Warren and Quadir, Crit Care Med 34(8):2084–9, 2006; Zimlichman and Henderson, JAMA Intern Med 173(22...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports a study conducted to develop and test the psychometric properties of a brief 5-item Satisfaction with the Oral Viva Assessment Scale. The viva has been increasingly used to gauge students' learning, beyond the traditional written assessments. This assessment approach may pose additional challenges to various student groups. Using...
Article
International standard practice for the correct confirmation of the central venous access device is the chest X-ray. The intracavitary electrocardiogram-based insertion method is radiation-free, and allows real-time placement verification, providing immediate treatment and reduced requirement for post-procedural repositioning. Relevant databases we...
Article
Full-text available
Over a billion peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) are inserted each year in hospitalized patients worldwide. However, international data on prevalence and management of these devices are lacking. The study assessed the prevalence of PIVCs and their management practices across different regions of the world. This global audit involved 14 hospi...
Article
Objectives: Assessment of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and the likelihood of abdominal compartment syndrome using valid and reliable measures is an important tool in the assessment of critically ill patients. The current method of relying on a single IAP per measurement period to determine patient clinical status raises the question: is a single...
Article
Full-text available
To report procedural characteristics and outcomes from a central venous catheter placement service operated by advanced practice nurses. Single-center observational study. A tertiary care university hospital in Sydney, Australia. Adult patients from the general wards and from critical care areas receiving a central venous catheter, peripherally ins...
Article
Full-text available
Background Video sharing networks such as YouTube have revolutionized communication. Whilst access is freely available uploaded videos can contain non peer-reviewed information. This has consequences for the scientific and health care community, when the challenge in teaching is to present clinical procedures that follow empirical methods. Objecti...
Article
Background: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been shown to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality.(1-3) It has been reported to affect between 9 and 27% of intubated patients receiving mechanical ventilation.(4-6) OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysis was undertaken to combine information from publish...
Article
Full-text available
Implications for practice and research: Higher nurse staffing levels for postoperative care of cardiac surgery patients reduces the risk of unplanned re-admission to the intensive care or operating theatre and in-hospital mortality. Larger international studies are needed to assess the effect of nurse staffing levels and risk of hospital-wide adver...
Article
Abstract Introduction: Peripheral venous cannulas are predominantly inserted by nurses and medical practitioners. Placement and related care of such devices are one of the most frequently performed tasks by these staff members. Clinicians in training should be given ample opportunity to practice these skills before patient encounters begin. Aims: T...
Article
Aims: We investigated the opinion of clinical experts and researchers involved in chronic heart failure disease management regarding the ranking of patient, provider and system factors that predict the risk of rehospitalisation. Methods: Item generation for the online survey was informed by a literature review and current risk prediction models....
Article
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement has become an important tool in the assessment of critically ill patients. The World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome consensus guidelines recommend using a maximum volume of 25 mL of sterile saline instilled into the bladder for intermittent IAP measurements. It is postulated that the volume...
Article
Abstract Introduction: Peripheral venous cannulas are predominantly inserted by nurses and medical practitioners. Placement and related care of such devices are one of the most frequently performed tasks by these staff members. Clinicians in training should be given ample opportunity to practice these skills before patient encounters begin. Aims: T...
Article
Full-text available
Nurse-led central venous catheter placement is an emerging clinical role internationally. Procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes is an important consideration in appraisal of such advanced nursing roles. To review characteristics and outcomes of three nurse-led central venous catheter insertion services based in intensive care units in Ne...
Article
Full-text available
Aim and objectives: The aim of this paper was to review published manuscripts on the use of midline catheters, the implications of study findings and recommendations for clinical practice in the acute care setting. Design: Modified integrative literature review Methods: Using key MeSH terms, we searched the electronic databases: CINAHL, Medline, an...
Article
Unplanned admission to the intensive care unit has been shown to significantly increase the risk of inhospital mortality. Medical advances and increased expectations have resulted in a greater number of very elderly patients (80 years and over) being admitted to the ICU. The risk of in-hospital death associated with unplanned admission to the ICU i...
Article
Readmission to intensive care during the same hospital stay has been associated with a greater risk of in-hospital mortality and has been suggested as a marker of quality of care. There is lack of published research attempting to develop clinical prediction tools that individualise the risk of readmission to the intensive care unit during the same...
Article
Full-text available
To compare clinical outcomes of elective central venous catheter (CVC) insertions performed by either a clinical nurse consultant (CNC) or anaesthetic medical staff (AMS). Prospective audit of a convenience sample of consecutive CVC insertions between July 2005 and October 2007 at a metropolitan teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. The sample in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Health care systems promote care models that deliver both safety and quality. Nurse-led vascular access teams show promise as a model to achieve hospital efficiencies and improve patient outcomes. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to discuss the process of establishing a nurse-led central venous catheter (CVC) insertion service in a...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article is to review published studies about central vein cannulation to identify implications for policy, practice and research in an advanced practice nursing role. Modified integrative literature review. Searches of the electronic databases: Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, Embase, and t...
Article
Almost one in every 10 patients who survive intensive care will be readmitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during the same hospitalisation. The association between increasing severity of illness (widely calculated in ICU patients) with risk of readmission to ICU has not been systematically summarized. The meta-analysis was designed to combine i...
Article
Unplanned admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with high mortality, having the highest incidence among patients who are emergency admissions to the hospital. This study was designed to identify factors associated with unplanned ICU admission in emergency admissions to hospital and develop an absolute risk tool to individualise th...
Article
Full-text available
Aims and objectives. The aim of this article is to review published studies about central vein cannulation to identify implications for policy, practice and research in an advanced practice nursing role. Design. Modified integrative literature review. Methods. Searches of the electronic databases: Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Liter...
Article
Background: Almost one in every 10 patients who survive intensive care will be readmitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during the same hospitalisation. The association between increasing severity of illness (widely calculated in ICU patients) with risk of readmission to ICU has not been systematically summarized. Objective: The meta-analysis wa...
Article
Full-text available
Having a dedicated central venous access service can also assist in the reduction of Citification’s through increased specialization and implementation of best practice recommendations. The Central Venous Access Service (CVAS)based in the intensive care unit at Liverpool Hospital, NSW, is coordinated by two advanced practice nurses whose role it is...
Article
The practice of intensive care medicine is increasingly being seen as extending outside the four walls of the intensive care unit (ICU). Systems are operating for the detection and rapid resuscitation of patients at the earliest possible stage, before and after discharge from the ICU. And yet,current scoring systems used for evaluating intensive ca...

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