Eva S Schernhammer

Eva S Schernhammer
Medical University of Vienna | MedUni Vienna · Department of Epidemiology

MD, DrPH

About

339
Publications
62,726
Reads
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20,903
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
September 2015 - present
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Position
  • Adjunct Professor of Epidemiology
September 2015 - present
Harvard Medical School
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2015 - present
Medical University of Vienna
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (339)
Article
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Background Emergence of new coronavirus variants and waning immunity may necessitate regular COVID-19 vaccine boosters, but empirical data on population willingness for regular vaccination are limited. Methods In August 2021, we surveyed 3,067 quota-sampled German-speaking adults residing in the D-A-CH region (Germany, Austria, Switzerland). Using...
Article
Importance: Rotating night shift work is associated with higher mortality. Whether it is also associated with overall health among those who survive to older ages remains unclear. Objective: To examine whether rotating night shift work is associated with healthy aging after 24 years of follow-up in the Nurses' Health Study, a cohort study among...
Article
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Dispositional optimism is a potentially modifiable factor and has been associated with multiple physical health outcomes, but its relationship with depression, especially later in life, remains unclear. In the Nurses´ Health Study (n = 33,483), we examined associations between dispositional optimism and depression risk in women aged 57–85 ( mean =...
Article
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Objective : This paper motivates and justifies the use of antigen tests for epidemic control as distinct from a diagnostic test. Study Design and Setting : We discuss the relative advantages of antigen and PCR tests, summarising evidence from both the literature as well as Austrian schools, which conducted frequent, mass rapid antigen testing duri...
Article
Chronic insomnia is highly prevalent and associates with poor physical and mental health, leading to high societal cost. Data on insomnia from Austria, including help-seeking behaviour, are currently lacking. In 2017 we conducted an online survey in Austrian adults aged between 18 and 67 years. Chronic insomnia was defined based on the 3rd edition...
Article
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Introduction Women are more likely to have chronic kidney disease (CKD), compared to men, yet they are less likely to receive dialysis. Whether this sex disparity, which has predominantly been observed in nephrology-referred or CKD-specific cohorts so far, has a biological root cause remains unclear. Methods We extracted general population data fr...
Article
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Objectives To explore changes in quality of life and perceived productivity, focusing on the effects of working from home during the first COVID-19 50-day mitigation period in Austria. Methods We conducted an Austrian-representative online survey ( N = 1010) of self-reported life- and work-related changes during the first COVID-19 50-day mitigatio...
Article
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Background In aging healthcare professionals, multiple stressors such as night work may affect life and work satisfaction and risk for chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease [CVD]). In this pilot study we compared workability, quality of life (QoL), and CVD risk markers between night shift and day workers. Methods We included 70 hospital em...
Article
Background & Aims Unrestrained eating behavior has been thought to be a proxy for diet frequency, timing, and caloric intake. We investigated the association of unrestrained eating with mortality risk in the Nurses’ Health Study prospectively. Methods During follow-up (1994-2016), 21953 deaths were documented among 63999 eligible participants in a...
Article
The human circadian system consists of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus as well as in peripheral molecular clocks located in organs throughout the body. This system plays a major role in the temporal organization of biological and physiological processes, such as body temperature, blood pressure, hormone secretion,...
Article
Background: Unrestrained eating behavior, as a potential proxy for diet frequency, timing, and caloric intake, has been questioned as a plausible risk factor for digestive system cancers, but epidemiological evidence remains sparse. Objectives: We investigated prospectively the associations between unrestrained eating behavior and digestive syst...
Preprint
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How will the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic develop in the coming months and years? Based on an expert survey, we examine key aspects that are likely to influence COVID-19 in Europe. The future challenges and developments will strongly depend on the progress of national and global vaccination programs, the emergence and spread of vari...
Article
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Background In Brazil, case-fatality from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is high and characterized by wide differences between the various political-economic units, the federated units (FUs). This study was designed to investigate the association between factors at the both FU and individual levels with the risk of dying from VL, after analysing the te...
Article
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COVID-19 has revealed that science needs to learn how to better deal with the irreducible uncertainty that comes with global systemic risks as well as with the social responsibility of science towards the public good. Further developing the epistemological principles of new theories and experimental practices, alternative investigative pathways and...
Article
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Background: With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic surging and new mutations evolving, trust in vaccines is essential. Methods: We explored correlates of vaccine hesitancy, considering political believes and psychosocial concepts, conducting a non-probability quota-sampled online survey with 1007 Austrians. Results: We identified s...
Article
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Previous studies have suggested noise, especially at night time, and light at night (LAN) could cause neuroendocrine disturbance and circadian disruption, which may lead to ovarian follicle atresia and earlier onset of menopause. However, no study to date has directly investigated the associations of exposure to these factors and menopausal age. M...
Article
Sleep impairment is highly prevalent in night shift workers, but evidence on the association of former night shift work (NSW) and its metrics (duration and frequency) in relation to sleep complaints is lacking. We evaluated the association of former and current NSW with chronic insomnia or circadian rhythm sleep disorder in a sample of the general...
Article
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Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of primary and revision total joint arthroplasties (TJA/rTJA) in 2020 compared to 2019. Specifically, the first and the second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated as well as the pre-operative COVID-19 test. A cross-sectional single-center study of our prospectively maintained inst...
Article
Background Shift work is associated with increased cardiometabolic disease risk. This observation may be partly explained by cardiometabolic risk factors having a role in the selection of individuals into or out of shift work. We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses in the UK Biobank (UKB) to test this hypothesis. Methods We used geneti...
Preprint
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Rapid antigen tests detect proteins at the surface of virus particles, identifying the disease during its infectious phase. In contrast, PCR tests detect RNA genomes and sometimes react to a COVID-19 infection before the infectious phase but also to remnants of the virus genome, even weeks after virus replication has ended. Furthermore, the logisti...
Article
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Objective A consensual definition of occupational burnout is currently lacking. We aimed to harmonize the definition of occupational burnout as a health outcome in medical research and reach a consensus on this definition within the Network on the Coordination and Harmonisation of European Occupational Cohorts (OMEGA-NET). Methods First, we perform...
Article
Background The association between total and truncal body fat and kidney stone (KS) remains unclear. Objective To evaluate the association between total and truncal body fat and KS in the US adult population. Design, setting, and participants The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) comprises a series of nationally representa...
Article
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Not 1 year has passed since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since its emergence, great uncertainty has surrounded the potential for COVID-19 to establish as a seasonally recurrent disease. Many infectious diseases, including endemic human coro...
Article
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COVID-19 has been a stress test for our globalized society. The results, thus far, have not been encouraging. While responses and outcomes have varied across regions and countries, the pandemic has also revealed severe weaknesses in coordination at all scales, from local and regional to national and global. There are many reasons for this lack of c...
Article
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Current hypertension guidelines fail to provide a recommendation on when-to-treat, thus disregarding relevant circadian rhythms that regulate blood pressure (BP) level and 24 h patterning and medication pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The ideal purpose of ingestion-time (chronopharmacology, i.e. biological rhythm-dependent effects on the kin...
Article
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Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is less prevalent among men than women, but more men than women initiate kidney replacement therapy. Differences in CKD awareness may contribute to this gender gap, which may further vary by race/ethnicity. We aimed to investigate trends in CKD awareness and the association between individual characteristics...
Article
Objectives Evidence on the association between night work and Parkinson’s disease (PD) is sparse and conflicting, calling for more definitive studies. Methods We included 20 138 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort without PD who at baseline in 1993 and/or 1999 reported their most common current work schedule (day, evening, night, and rotati...
Article
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Although the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wave has peaked with the second wave underway, the world is still struggling to manage potential systemic risks and unpredictability of the pandemic. A particular challenge is the "superspreading" of the virus, which starts abruptly, is difficult to predict, and can quickly escalate into medica...
Article
Background: Chronic intermittent hypoxia resulting from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may activate multiple carcinogenic pathways and lead to cancer development. Methods: We prospectively examined the association between OSA and cancer risk among 65,330 women in the Nurses' Health Study who were free of cancer in 2008 (mean age: 73.3 years). Inc...
Article
Background: The contemporary prevalence and trends of kidney stones are not clear. Objective: To evaluate the gender-specific prevalence and trends in kidney stones among the US population. Design, setting, and participants: Data on self-reported history of kidney stones from 34 749 participants aged ≥20 yr from the National Health and Nutriti...
Article
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To examine associations of healthy lifestyle during pregnancy with body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight or obesity of grandchildren during adolescence and young adulthood. Our study population included 14,001 grandmother–mother–child triads comprised of participants of two ongoing prospective cohort studies of related individuals. We used s...
Article
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Objective: To evaluate the associations between personal use of permanent hair dyes and cancer risk and mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants: 117 200 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of female nurses in the United States. The women were free of cancer at baseline,...
Article
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Early-life development of infants may be critically affected by man-made or natural contaminants including mycotoxins. However, data on the occurrence of food contaminants in breast milk is scarce and prohibits a comprehensive exposure and risk assessment for mothers and their infants.Here, we present a longitudinal exposure assessment over the fir...
Conference Paper
Background Personal use of permanent hair dyes has been discussed and examined as a potential risk factor for a variety of cancers. Epidemiological evidence regarding the relationship between personal use of permanent hair dyes and cancer risk and mortality remains inconclusive. Methods The Nurses' Health Study is an ongoing prospective cohort stud...
Article
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Attitudes and expectations of people towards their lives are essential to future health outcomes. Growing evidence has linked dispositional optimism to beneficial health outcomes, such as exceptional longevity, healthy aging and better sleep quality. We describe the association between dispositional optimism and chronic insomnia, considering potent...
Article
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Objective: Anxiety and depression have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whether anxiety is a risk factor independent from depression, and if associations are limited to specific CVD outcomes remains unclear. Design: Participants (N = 3135) of the prospective Osteoporotic Fracturs in Men Sleep ancillary study were comm...
Article
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Introduction Animal studies suggest that maternal diet during pregnancy influences susceptibility to obesity in the next generation. One-carbon nutrients involved in epigenetic processes represent a possible underlying mechanism. Unfortunately, there is limited research in humans to support animal findings, and the few studies available have been l...
Article
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COVID-19 painfully demonstrates how little resilience our societies have to novel viruses. Societies, decision makers, and scientists lack (1) a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of viral outbreaks and their impact on society; (2) intervention portfolios; and (3) a global crisis and resilience policy, all of which are required to develo...
Article
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Objectives To examine associations of healthy lifestyle during pregnancy with anthropometric characteristics of grandchildren during adolescence and young adulthood. Methods Our study population included 14,001 grandmother-mother-child triads comprised of participants of two ongoing prospective cohort studies of related individuals. We used self-r...
Article
Full-text available
Background Night shift work surrounding pregnancy may contribute to the risk of developing atopic diseases in offspring due to alterations in the prenatal environment, from stress. Objective To examine the association of maternal night shift work surrounding pregnancy and offspring risk of developing atopic diseases from childhood to adolescence....
Article
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Background The use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) was reported to be associated with increased mortality risk and has been proposed as a potential risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. We aimed to assess the impact of PPI use on survival in dementia patients as compared to controls. Methods This register‐based control‐matched cohort study...
Preprint
Full-text available
Early-life development of infants may be critically affected by man-made or natural contaminants including mycotoxins. However, data on the occurrence of food contaminants in breast milk is scarce and prohibits a comprehensive exposure and risk assessment for mothers and their infants. Here, we present a longitudinal exposure assessment over the fi...
Article
Objective: To identify sleep duration trajectories from early to middle adulthood and their associations with incident type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Using a group-based modeling approach, we identified sleep duration trajectories based on sleep duration in ages 20-25, 26-35, 36-45, and 46+ years, which were retrospectively assess...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Shift work is associated with increased cardiometabolic disease risk, but whether this association is influenced by cardiometabolic risk factors driving selection into shift work is currently unclear. We addressed this question using Mendelian randomization (MR) in the UK Biobank (UKB). Methods: We created genetic risk scores (GRS) asso...
Article
Full-text available
Adherence to healthful dietary patterns is associated with lower body mass index (BMI) in adults; however, whether maternal diet quality during peripregnancy is related to a lower overweight risk in the offspring remains to be elucidated. We investigated the associations between the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Alternate Mediterranean Die...
Article
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Background: With three out of four new bladder cancer (BCa) cases occurring in men, an apparent gender disparity exists. We aimed to investigate the role of hormonal and reproductive factors in BCa risk using two large female US prospective cohorts. Methods: Our study population comprised 118 256 and 115 383 female registered nurses who were rec...
Article
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Background: Nightshift work is a plausible risk factor for hematologic cancer, but epidemiological evidence remains sparse, especially for individual subtypes. We prospectively examined the association of rotating nightshift work with hematopoietic cancer risk. Methods: This cohort study included US women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS: n =...
Article
Aim of the study: We conducted a systematic review on existing literature in humans and animals, linking the gut microbiome with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Additionally, we sought to explore the role of the bacterially produced metabolite butyrate as well as of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in these associations. Materials and methods: Fo...
Article
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Objectives To evaluate the associations between birth month, birth season, and overall and cardiovascular disease mortality, and to examine the role of familial and socioeconomic factors in these associations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study, established in 1976, an ongoing prospective cohort study in the United Stat...
Article
Background: Night shift work is associated with cardiovascular disease, but its associations with cardiovascular disease biomarkers are unclear. We investigated these associations in a study of female nurses. Methods: We used data from the Nurses' Health Study II for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotei...
Article
Full-text available
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Prototype). The objectives are as follows: To estimate the effect of years of night shift work exposure on the incidence of the following cancer types: bladder, breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrium, oesophagus, hematologic, kidney, liver, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, skin, stomach, thyroid, a...
Article
Background: We hypothesized that the risk of CRC in night-shift workers might be different according to insulin receptor substrates status. Methods: Among 77,470 eligible women having night work assessed in the Nurses' Health Study, we documented a total of 1,397 CRC cases, of which 304 or 308 had available data on IRS1 and IRS2, respectively. W...
Article
Background China's most recent and ambitious national health-care system development strategies have explicitly emphasized the importance of strengthening traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) health-care services. This study aims to provide new insights into the current situation and challenges in TCM in China by evaluating 10-year trends in the nati...
Article
Background China is facing severe shortage of paediatricians nationwide; however, no formal evaluation has been done of Chinese paediatricians' workload over time. We aimed to characterise the 10-year trend on outpatient workload among paediatricians in China compared with physicians of all other specialties to provide important insight on the seve...
Article
Purpose of review: To delineate the current state of evidence on the impact of night shift work on age at natural menopause. Recent findings: The only direct evidence is from a single observational study, which indicates that women who work night shifts are at moderately higher risk for earlier menopause and that this risk is more pronounced amo...
Article
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Study Objective To assess whether perceived racial discrimination is associated with insomnia among Black women. Methods Data on everyday and lifetime racism and insomnia symptoms were collected from questionnaires administered in the Black Women’s Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort of Black women recruited in 1995 from across the U.S. In...
Article
Objectives Night shift work has been suggested as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the present analysis was to prospectively evaluate the association of rotating night shift work history and MS risk in two female cohorts, the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Methods A total of 83 992 (NHS) and 114 427 (NHSI...
Article
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We investigated the relationship between maternal history of nightshift work before and shift work during pregnancy and offspring risk of depression and anxiety, among mothers participating in the Nurses Health Study II and in their offspring enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study 2 between 2004 and 2013. Case definitions were based on offspring se...
Article
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The research question that will be addressed here is: Which factors contribute to the onset of burnout among workers? The goal of this work is to identify as exhaustively as possible all causal predictors of burnout in adult working population. Once addressed accurately, the evidence gathered will be helpful for identifying and prioritizing prevent...