Euzebiusz Jamrozik

Euzebiusz Jamrozik
University of Oxford | OX · Wellcome Centre for Ethics and the Humanities

About

62
Publications
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Introduction
Euzebiusz Jamrozik currently works at the Ethox Centre and the Wellcome Centre for Ethics and the Humanities University of Oxford. He is an adjunct member of the Monash-WHO Collaborating Centre for Bioethics, and a clinical fellow of the University of Melbourne Medical School. His current projects include work on vaccination ethics, drug-resistant infection, and vector-borne disease.

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Background: Clinical practice guidelines aim to assist medical practitioners in making efficient evidence-based decisions in daily practice. However, international studies have shown that the majority of recommendations in American and European guidelines are not based on strong evidence. Aims: To review Australian clinical practice guidelines a...
Article
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Introduction or background: Antibiotic resistance raises ethical issues due to the severe and inequitably distributed consequences caused by individual actions and policies. Sources of data: Synthesis of ethical, scientific and clinical literature. Areas of agreement: Ethical analyses have focused on the moral responsibilities of patients to c...
Article
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Vaccination policies have shifted dramatically during COVID-19 with the rapid emergence of population-wide vaccine mandates, domestic vaccine passports and differential restrictions based on vaccination status. While these policies have prompted ethical, scientific, practical, legal and political debate, there has been limited evaluation of their p...
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Moralization is a social-psychological process through which morally neutral issues take on moral significance. Often linked to health and disease, moralization may sometimes lead to good outcomes; yet moralization is often detrimental to individuals and to society as a whole. It is therefore important to be able to identify when moralization is in...
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COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in a number of countries with provisional regulatory approval and public support. This article provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children. Specifically, we present three of the strongest arguments that might justify COVID-19 vaccination of children: (a) an argument from patern...
Preprint
Background There exists no prior systematic review of human challenge trials (HCTs) that focuses on participant safety. Key questions regarding HCTs include how risky such trials have been, how often adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) occur, and whether risk mitigation measures have been effective. Methods A systematic search o...
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This report of a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Kingdom (UK) Health Research Authority (HRA) workshop discusses the ethics review of the first COVID-19 human challenge studies, undertaken in the midst of the pandemic. It reviews the early efforts of international and national institutions to define the ethical standards required f...
Preprint
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Compliance with infectious disease control measures can benefit public health but be burdensome for individuals. This raises ethical questions regarding the value of the public health benefit created by individual and collective compliance. Answering such questions requires estimating the total benefit from an individual's compliance, and how much...
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COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in various high-income countries with regulatory approval and general public support, but largely without careful ethical consideration. This trend is expected to extend to other COVID-19 vaccines and lower ages as clinical trials progress. This paper provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of...
Article
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Vaccination is a cornerstone of global public health. Although licensed vaccines are generally extremely safe, both experimental and licensed vaccines are sometimes associated with rare serious adverse events. Vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) is a type of adverse event in which disease severity is increased when a person who has received the vaccine...
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Although every emerging infectious disease occurs in a unique context, the behaviour of previous pandemics offers an insight into the medium- and long-term outcomes of the current threat. Where an informative historical analogue exists, epidemiologists and policymakers should consider how the insights of the past can inform current forecasts and re...
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Design of human challenge studies balances scientific validity, efficiency, and study safety. This Perspective explores some advantages and disadvantages of “low-dosage” challenge studies, in the setting of testing second-generation vaccines against COVID-19. Compared to a conventional vaccine challenge, a low-dosage vaccine challenge would be like...
Article
Clinical practice guidelines often provide ‘consensus‐based recommendations’ for issues where there is a lack of evidence to support an evidence‐based recommendation, and ‘practice points’ to assist clinicians in various aspects of everyday clinical care. However, Australian clinical practice guidelines often fail to define these terms clearly, and...
Chapter
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This review identified 13 case studies involving primary publications detailing HCS in 5 LMICs published from 1992–2018.
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For members of the public, and perhaps many scientists and ethicists, who may be surprised to learn that HCS involving intentional infection (still) take place, the first ethical question may be whether intentionally infecting healthy volunteers as part of research is ever acceptable.
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Community engagement is ethically important for many types of research. Given that HCS represent a particularly complex, sometimes unfamiliar, and potentially controversial type of research, engagement may be especially warranted in the context of HCS (World Health Organization 2017).
Chapter
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The intentional infection of human beings with pathogens with the aim of achieving benefits (chiefly, the prevention of more severe disease) has occurred for centuries; the (semi-)systematic testing and recording of such methods dates to the 18th Century in England.
Article
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Interactions between microbes and human hosts can lead to a wide variety of possible outcomes including benefits to the host, asymptomatic infection, disease (which can be more or less severe), and/or death. Whether or not they themselves eventually develop disease, asymptomatic carriers can often transmit disease-causing pathogens to others. This...
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In the last six months, a vast amount of clinical and epidemiological data have been generated describing Covid-19 and its propagation in various populations. With the luxury of wealth, low population density, and geographic isolation, Australia and New Zealand have so far avoided the case numbers seen elsewhere, affording our public health agencie...
Book
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This Open Access volume provides in-depth analysis of the wide range of ethical issues associated with drug-resistant infectious diseases. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is widely recognized to be one of the greatest threats to global public health in coming decades; and it has thus become a major topic of discussion among leading bioethicists and...
Chapter
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Drug-resistant bacterial infections constitute a major threat to global public health. Several key bacteria that are becoming increasingly resistant are among those that are ubiquitously carried by human beings and usually cause no symptoms (i.e. individuals are asymptomatic carriers) until a precipitating event leads to symptomatic infection (and...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an overview of the causes and consequences of, and possible policy responses to, the problem of drug resistance. Throughout, we highlight the ways that ethical and conceptual analyses can help to clarify relevant issues and improve policy, especially in public health, broadly conceived. Drug resistant pathogens arise, persist,...
Article
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This report of WHO Working Group for Guidance on Human Challenge Studies in COVID-19 outlines ethical standards for COVID-19 challenge studies. It includes eight Key Criteria related to scientific justification, risk-benefit assessment, consultation and engagement, co-ordination of research, site selection, participant selection, expert review, and...
Article
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COVID-19 poses an exceptional threat to global public health and well-being. Recognition of the need to develop effective vaccines at unprecedented speed has led to calls to accelerate research pathways ethically, including by conducting challenge studies (also known as controlled human infection studies (CHIs)) with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus which cau...
Article
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WHO convened an Advisory Group (AG) to consider the feasibility, potential value and limitations of establishing a closely-monitored challenge model of experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in healthy adult volunteers. The AG included experts in design, establishment and performance of challenges. This report summarizes issues that render...
Article
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Human infection challenge studies (HCS) have been proposed as a means to accelerate SARS-CoV2 vaccine development and thereby help to mitigate a prolonged global public health crisis. A key criterion for the ethical acceptability of SARS-CoV2 HCS is that potential benefits outweigh risks. Although the assessment of risks and benefits is meant to be...
Article
E l 30 de enero la Organización Mundial de la Sa-lud declaró oficialmente que el brote del nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causa de la enferme-dad Covid-19, constituía una emergencia sani-taria de preocupación internacional; el 11 de marzo anunció que el mundo enfrentaba la primera pan-demia de la historia provocada por un coronavirus. ¿Qué problemas...
Article
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Controlled human infection challenge studies (CHIs) involve intentionally exposing research participants to, and/or thereby infecting them with, micro‐organisms. There have been increased calls for more CHIs to be conducted in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs) where many relevant diseases are endemic. This article is based on a research proj...
Preprint
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Background: Human infection challenge studies (HICS) with SARS-CoV-2 are under consideration as a way of accelerating vaccine development. We evaluate potential vaccine research strategies under a range of epidemic conditions determined, in part, by the intensity of public health interventions. Methods: We constructed a compartmental epidemiologica...
Technical Report
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The widespread use of safe and efficacious vaccines for COVID-19 could save many lives, prevent disease, and permit the safe relaxation of other public health measures. There is thus an urgent ethical imperative for well-designed and carefully conducted research aiming to develop such vaccines and increase relevant scientific knowledge regarding SA...
Article
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Development of an effective vaccine is the clearest path to controlling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To accelerate vaccine development, some researchers are pursuing, and thousands of people have expressed interest in participating in, controlled human infection studies (CHIs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus...
Article
COVID-19 poses an extraordinary threat to global public health and an effective vaccine could provide a key means of overcoming this crisis. Human challenge studies involve the intentional infection of research participants and can accelerate or improve vaccine development by rapidly providing estimates of vaccine safety and efficacy. Human challen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Controlled human infection challenge studies (CHIS) involve intentionally infecting research participants with microorganisms. There have been increased calls for more CHIS to be conducted in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) where many relevant diseases are endemic. This article is based on a research project that identified and analyzed eth...
Book
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Online Open Access: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-41480-1 Human infection challenge studies (HCS) involve the intentional infection of research participants with pathogens (or other micro-organisms) with the aim to (i) test (novel) vaccines and therapeutics, (ii) generate knowledge regarding the natural history of infectious dis...
Article
Full-text available
Human infection challenge studies (HCS) involve intentionally infecting research participants with pathogens (or other micro-organisms). There have been recent calls for more HCS to be conducted in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where many relevant diseases are endemic. HCS in general, and HCS in LMICs in particular, raise numerous...
Article
Since Voltaire's 18th Century commentary on smallpox inoculation, enthusiasm for intentional infection has waxed and waned. Faced with the current coronavirus pandemic, some scholars and activists have advocated intentional infection as a contribution to ending this global crisis.
Article
Full-text available
Drug‐resistant bacterial infections constitute a major threat to global public health. Several key bacteria that are becoming increasingly resistant are among those that are ubiquitously carried by human beings and usually cause no symptoms (i.e. individuals are asymptomatic carriers) until and/or unless a precipitating event leads to symptomatic i...
Article
Full-text available
Human infection challenge studies (HCS) involve intentionally infecting research participants with pathogens, often with the ultimate aim of developing new interventions against infectious diseases. Despite ethical concerns about research involving vulnerable populations, there are both scientific and ethical reasons to consider conducting more HCS...
Article
Global health is a continuously evolving eld of study and practice, and learning materials replete with contemporary examples and a cosmopolitan view of health in all human populations are in high demand. Dr Armstrong-Mensah has broadly succeeded with this ambitious task in the form of her recent textbook, drawn from first-hand experience in both t...
Article
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Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health interventi...
Article
Pox parties are a controversial alternative to vaccination for diseases such as chickenpox. Such parties involve parents infecting non-immune children by exposing them to a contagious child. If successful, infection will usually lead to immunity, thus preventing infection later in life, which, for several vaccine-preventable diseases, is more sever...
Article
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Mass vaccination has been a successful public health strategy for many contagious diseases. The immunity of the vaccinated also protects others who cannot be safely or effectively vaccinated—including infants and the immunosuppressed. When vaccination rates fall, diseases like measles can rapidly resurge in a population. Those who cannot be vaccina...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on the risks from infectious diseases whose geographic and epidemiological distribution is evolving with climate change. Major examples with strong evidence of such effects include (i) mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria and the arboviruses, and (ii) diarrhoeal diseases such as cholera and salmonellosis. Yet the burd...
Article
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Malaria currently causes more harm to human beings than any other parasitic disease, and disproportionally affects low-income populations. The ethical issues raised by efforts to control or eliminate malaria have received little explicit analysis, in comparison with other major diseases of poverty. While some ethical issues associated with malaria...
Article
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Background: Population-based studies, as well as clinicians, often rely on self-report and hospital records to obtain a history of stroke. This study aimed to compare the validity of the diagnosis of stroke by self-report and by hospital coding according to their cross-sectional association with prevalent vascular risk factors, and longitudinal as...
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Haplotypes in the promoter region of the prostanoid DP receptor (PTGDR) gene have been shown to functionally influence gene transcription and to be associated with asthma in two previous case-control studies in Caucasians. This study tested the association of PTGDR haplotypes with asthma phenotypes in two large Caucasian-Australian populations. The...
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Inhalation of airborne asbestos fibres causes several diseases. These include asbestosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma as well as pleural effusion, discrete (plaques) or diffuse benign pleural fibrosis and rolled atelectasis. The lag time between exposure and the development of disease may be many decades, thus the health risks of asbestos c...
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The Asia-Pacific region is home to a large heterogeneous population whose respiratory health is influenced by diverse social, economic and environmental factors. Despite this variability, the most prevalent causes of respiratory morbidity and mortality are tobacco smoking, infection, and air pollution. This review aims to summarize current respirat...
Article
Few longitudinal studies have examined the risk factors and natural history of adult-onset asthma. This study assessed the subject characteristics and lifestyle factors that predicted the new diagnosis of asthma in adulthood and how these factors changed over time in those who developed asthma compared with those who do not. The study enrolled 1554...
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Numerous areas of the human genome have previously been associated with asthma and asthma-related phenotypes, but few positive findings have been successfully replicated in independent populations. Initial studies have reported strong associations of variants in the plant homeodomain zinc finger protein 11 (PHF11) gene with serum IgE levels, asthma...

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Projects (8)
Project
Conceptual and empirical meta-research approaches to evidence-based medicine
Project
Policy documents and policy analysis