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Eulogio Pardo-Iguzquiza

Eulogio Pardo-Iguzquiza
The Geological Survey of Spain · Environmental Geology and geomathematics

Ph D Geostatistics, BSc Geology, Statistics

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240
Publications
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4,167
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Publications

Publications (240)
Article
Full-text available
Renewable energies play a significant role to mitigate the impacts of climate change. In countries like Spain, there is a significant potential of wind energy production which might be a key resource. In this research, we obtain wind power at 80 m height and wind turbine energy (assuming a specific turbine). To achieve this objective we produce an...
Research
Full-text available
Film presentation of the new book published by scientists from the IGME-CSIC. This book talks about the importance of artificial satellites to understand the process of climate change on Earth.
Article
Studies of the roughness of natural surfaces (landscapes) provide useful information for planetary geology. This paper covers the mapping and analysis of the spatial variability of the surface roughness of Martian topography at a high spatial resolution (metre-scale). The methodology provides new images of the Martian surface texture at the metre-s...
Article
Full-text available
Closed depressions are scale-invariant landforms that are the most distinctive and characteristic landform in karst terrains at the millimetre-to-kilometre scales. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first is to raise awareness of the geoheritage and geoeducational asset provided by closed depressions in a high-relief karst massif with the ob...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is expected to increase the occurrence of droughts, with the hydrology in alpine systems being largely determined by snow dynamics. In this paper, we propose a methodology to assess the impact of climate change on both meteorological and hydrological droughts, taking into account the dynamics of the snow cover area (SCA). We also ana...
Article
This paper describes the benefits of using more reliable local climate scenarios to analyse hydrological responses. It assumes that Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations are more reliable when they provide better approximations to the historical basic and drought statistics after applying a bias correction to them. We have investigated whether t...
Article
Full-text available
In Geoparks and other natural protected areas, a geodiversity inventory is essential for the identification, characterization, quantification, and management of geo-heritage. The protection and preservation of geo-sites is essential for the sustainable development of geo-tourism. In this sense, geomorphological diversity is a significant component...
Article
Natural and engineered surfaces can be modelled as fractal objects described by a non-integer dimension (i.e., their fractal dimension). This approach has been used extensively to characterize surface complexity in terms of rugosity or roughness. In this paper, the local fractal dimension is proposed as a means of mapping the spatial variability of...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a methodology for the automatic mapping and spatial analysis of high spatial resolution (metric scale) closed depressions and mounds on Mars landscapes. The proposed automatic procedure requires only a digital elevation model, a sink-filling algorithm and a basic map algebra operation all of which are avai...
Article
Full-text available
Satellites produce valuable information for studying the surface water in wetlands, but in many cases the period covered, the spatial resolution and/or the revisit frequency is not enough to produce long historical series. In this paper we propose a novel method which uses regression models that include climatic and hydrological variables to comple...
Article
Full-text available
The complexity of karst groundwater flow modelling is reflected by the amount of simulation approaches. The goal of the Karst Modelling Challenge (KMC) is comparing different approaches on one single system using the same data set. Thirteen teams with different computational models for simulating discharge variations at karst springs have applied t...
Article
Climate change will modify the spatiotemporal distribution of water resources in the future. Snow availability in alpine systems plays an important role for water dependent ecosystems, water demand supply, tourism, and hydropower. The assessment of the impact climate change (and its uncertainty) on snow is a key subject in determining suitable adap...
Preprint
Full-text available
This work studies the benefit of using more reliable local climate scenarios to analyse hydrological impacts. It assumes that more reliable local scenarios are defined with the statistically corrected Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations when they provide better approximations to the historical basic and drought statistics. The paper analyses i...
Article
Full-text available
There is necessity of considering air temperature to simulate the hydrology and management within water resources systems. In many cases, a big issue is considering the scarcity of data due to poor accessibility and limited funds. This paper proposes a methodology to obtain high resolution air temperature fields by combining scarce point measuremen...
Article
Full-text available
The spatial geological heterogeneity of an aquifer significantly affects groundwater storage, flow and the transport of solutes. In the particular case of coastal aquifers, spatial geological heterogeneity is also a major determining factor of the spatio-temporal patterns of water quality (salinity) due to seawater intrusion. While the hydraulics o...
Article
Closed terrain depressions are geomorphic features that show scale invariance over the wide range of scales on which they occur, from metres to thousands of kilometres. They are also global features that are present on all continents. Morphometric analyses of these depressions are now possible because of the availability of global digital elevation...
Article
Where land surface air temperature data are not available, satellite land surface temperature are used. However, the coarse spatial resolution of satellite‐derived products may yield errors at the local scale. This work shows the differences between the MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (MOD11A1) product and ground measurements at two d...
Article
Cyclostratigraphical analysis of the foraminiferal assemblages from the Early Toarcian at the Mochras Farm Borehole (Wales) was conducted in order to evaluate the incidence of cyclic palaeoenvironmental changes on the foraminiferal community. Different variables such as type of morphogroup, evolutionary strategy, habitat, particular taxa, diversity...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming associated with greenhouse emissions will modify the availability of water resources in the future. Methodologies and tools to assess the impacts of climate change are useful for policy making. In this work, a new tool to generate potential future climate scenarios in a water resources system from historical and regional climate mode...
Article
The snow dynamics in alpine systems play a significant role in the hydrosphere, biosphere, and anthroposphere interfaces of these regions. The storage of water resources as snow is essential for ecosystems, human consumption, tourism, and hydropower in many areas. However, snow data are usually scarce due to poor accessibility, difficulties to main...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to introduce an easy to use but powerful methodology that allows closed terrain depressions on the Mars landscape to be correctly identified and delineated from digital elevation models. Closed terrain depressions have important implications for the geology and geomorphology of Mars where they have been formed by the pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gauges modify wind fields, producing important undercatch in solid precipitation. For this reason, solid precipitation measurements show significant bias with respect to real values, especially under windy conditions. In this work we propose a methodology that combines geostatistical and hydrological models to perform a preliminary assessment of gl...
Book
El karst es un proceso de disolución de rocas que tarda en desarrollarse miles —e incluso millones— de años. Su naturaleza dinámica (compuesta por agua, roca y aire) se alía con el tiempo para crear paisajes que a veces parecen imposibles, una cuarta dimensión de la naturaleza. Con este libro podemos saber cómo es la génesis y el futuro del karst,...
Article
Full-text available
Gauges modify wind fields, producing important systematic errors (undercatching) in the measurement of solid precipitation (Ps), especially under windy conditions. A methodology that combines geostatistical techniques and hydrological models to perform a preliminary assessment of global undercatch and precipitation patterns in alpine regions is pro...
Poster
Full-text available
This study represents the first large scale cave biological inventory of caves in Sierra de las Nieves Natural Park, Andalucía, Spain. We sampled seven caves (three low and four high elevation caves) from 22 June through 01 July 2017. We have preliminarily identified at least 42 morphospecies and 13 coarse-level taxonomic groups (i.e., Order or hig...
Article
Dolines, or closed karst depressions, are the most characteristic feature of karst landscapes. The two main types of doline are those formed by the removal of material by solution and those formed by the geological processes of collapse or suffosion. Solution dolines are most frequently found in carbonate karst in high relief karst massifs. Various...
Chapter
Several climatic cycles in Andalusia (southern Spain) have been identified by using precipitation and temperature data from most of the twentieth and the early twenty-first centuries at 707 meteorological stations. Some of the cycles detected had been recognized in previous studies, such as the 3-year cycle and the 7/8-year cycle, which were the mo...
Article
Full-text available
The Sierra de las Nieves high-relief karst aquifer, which is located in the natural park and UNESCO biosphere reserve of the same name, is an area of great interest due to its geological, geomorphological (both at the surface and underground), hydrogeological, and ecological value. The aquifer is not influenced by pumping and is considered to be a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although karst aquifers represent a widespread groundwater resource in Europe, there is no unified classification and each country has adopted his own typology, taking into account the characteristics of their own karst aquifers. The main objective of the CHAKA (CHAlk and KArst) work package, part of the GeoERA RESOURCE project (http://geoera.eu/pr...
Article
Monitoring and estimation of snow depth in alpine catchments is needed for a proper assessment of management alternatives for water supply in these water resources systems. The distribution of snowpack thickness is usually approached by using field data that come from snow samples collected at a given number of locations that constitute the monitor...
Article
Full-text available
La Península del Yucatán, una de las cinco regiones en las que fisiográficamente se divide la República de México, se encuentra principalmente constituida por rocas carbonatadas de origen sedimentario, por lo que, debido a sus condiciones geológico estructurales, climáticas e hidrogeológicas, acoge importantes procesos de disolución, lo que da luga...
Article
The universality of fractals implies that very different physical processes can give rise to similar complex spatial patterns. Sinkholes (dolines) and galaxies provide a striking example of this universality. If each sinkhole in a karst massif is represented by a point, and each galaxy in a given zone of the sky is represented by a point, and these...
Article
The semivariogram, which measures the spatial variability between experimental data, is generally used as a structural input in all two-point geostatistical procedures. However, in most geoscience applications, experimental semivariograms are usually computed from a limited number of sparsely spaced measurements, which results in uncertainty associ...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo representa el primer inventario, a gran escala, de la biología de las cuevas del Parque Natural de la Sierra de las Nieves, Andalucía, España. Se han muestreado siete cavidades, de las cuales tres se localizan a cota relativamente baja, a una altura media de unos 1000 m.s.n.m., mientras las otras cuatro se localizan a una cota relativa...
Article
Fractal analysis has, for some time, been used to evaluate the roughness of both natural and engineered surfaces. Since the introduction of fractal geometry, evidence of the universality of fractal forms in nature has increased, and many applications have been found for fractal analysis. The purpose of this work is to study the relationships betwee...
Article
Mediterranean high-relief karst areas are very vulnerable to changes in temporal patterns of precipitation and temperature. Understanding climate change in these areas requires current climate trends to be assessed within the context of the variability of rainfall and temperature trends in the recent past. A major difficulty is that the instrumenta...
Article
Full-text available
Under article 17 of the Water Framework Directive the European Union was required to establish a framework to protect groundwater and set criteria for determining its chemical status and define environmental quality standards. Considering the specific characteristics of contaminants in groundwater, it is necessary to use adequate statistical tests....
Article
Full-text available
Many features of a karst massif can either be modelled using fractal geometry or have a fractal distribution. For the exokarst, typical examples include the geometry of the landscape and the spatial location and size-distribution of karst depressions. Typical examples for the endokarst are the geometry of the three-dimensional network of karst cond...
Article
Snow dynamics in alpine systems play an important role in water resources management. One of the main variables that characterises the snowpack is snow cover area. In this paper, we present a novel methodology to assess the impact of climate change scenarios on snow cover area in alpine systems. The methodology calibrates and validates a distribute...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This work represents the first large scale cave biological inventory of caves in Sierra de las Nieves Natural Park, Andalucía, Spain. We sampled seven caves (three low and four high elevation caves) from 22 June through 01 July 2017. We have preliminarily identified at least 42 morphospecies and 13 coarse-level taxonomic groups (i.e., Order or high...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to investigate different methods to generate future potential climatic scenarios at monthly scale considering meteorological droughts. We assume that more reliable scenarios would be generated by using regional climatic models (RCMs) and statistical correction techniques that produce better approximations to the histo...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with the design of optimal spatial sampling of water quality variables in remote regions, where logistics are complicated and the optimization of monitoring networks may be critical to maximize the effectiveness of human and material resources. A methodology that combines the probability of exceeding some particular thresholds with...
Article
A mathematical model of a highly heterogeneous functioning karst aquifer is described. The aquifer is in a high-relief karst massif and, as is common for such locations, data are scarce and there are no borehole, piezometer or pumping-test data. The scarcity of data in this case required a parsimonious approach to ensure that the level of complexit...
Article
Full-text available
El estudio de sedimentos detríticos y de precipitación química en cavidades es una herramienta muy útil como proxy del registro de cambios climáticos pasados y, por tanto, para la reconstrucción e interpretación paleoclimática de una región debido al carácter altamente conservativo de estos. En Sima Engañá (Sierra de las Nieves, SE de la Península...
Article
Epikarst – the shallow, surficial part of a karstic massif – has a significant influence on the spatio-temporal variability of recharge and the hydrodynamic functioning of many karst aquifers. In the Mediterranean morphoclimatic zone, the average thickness of a well-developed epikarst is around ten metres, but the spatial patterns of its degree of...
Article
Full-text available
The timing of climate responses to the Bond cycle is investigated in the western Mediterranean. Periodicities had been previously reported in a marine sediment record from this region spanning the last 20 kyr, and registered by diverse paleoenvironmental proxies, in particular those associated with terrigenous input, redox conditions, productivity,...
Article
During the last years there has been an increasing interest in assessing health risks caused by exposure to contaminants found in soil, air, and water, like heavy metals or emerging contaminants. This work presents a study on the spatial patterns and interaction effects among relevant heavy metals (Sb, As and Pb) that may occur together in differen...
Article
The mean precipitation measurements in a Mediterranean Alpine catchment in Sierra Nevada show an inversion of the gradient with the altitude beyond a certain threshold. Is it due to a real pattern or it can be explained by systematic error of solid precipitation measurement in gauges? Can we assess climatic fields in an alpine catchment from gauge...
Article
In spatial statistics in general, and in geostatistics in particular, the choice between a spatial model with drift and a model with constant global mean is often critical, especially when only a small number of samples are available. A statistical test provides an objective means of making this choice. Among the many available statistical tests, a...
Chapter
Water resources (surface water and groundwater) of Alpine basins are conditioned by the spatiotemporal evolution of the snowpack. In turn, the dynamics of the snowpack depends on stationary parameters (altitude, slope, orientation, …) and non-stationary parameters (rainfall, temperature, wind, …). In this work the influence of climate change has be...
Article
In order to treat and evaluate the available data of water quality and fully exploit monitoring results (e.g. characterize regional patterns, optimize monitoring networks, infer conditions at unmonitored locations, etc.), it is crucial to develop improved and efficient methodologies. Accordingly, estimation of water quality along fluvial ecosystems...
Article
Full-text available
In the present work, spectral analysis has been applied to determine the presence and statistical significance of climate cycles in long-term data series from different rainfall and gauging stations located in the Tramuntana Range, in the north-western sector of the island of Majorca. Climate signals recorded previously in the Mediterranean region...
Article
Full-text available
Groundwater nitrate contamination from agriculture is of paramount environmental interest. A continuous consumption of polluted water as drinking water or for culinary purposes is by no means a minor hazard for people’s health that must be studied. This research presents a new methodology for the spatial analysis of health risk rate from intake of...
Article
This paper provides a solution to the problem of estimating the mean value of near-land-surface temperature over a relatively large area (here, by way of example, applied to mainland Spain covering an area of around half a million square kilometres) from a limited number of weather stations covering a non-representative (biased) range of altitudes....
Article
Snow availability in Alpine catchments plays an important role in water resources management. In this paper we propose a method for an optimal estimation of snow depth (areal extension and thickness) in Alpine systems from point data and satellite observations by using significant explanatory variables deduced from a digital terrain model. It is in...
Article
Given the need to consider the cryosphere in water resources management for mountainous regions, the purpose of this paper is to model the daily spatially distributed dynamics of snow covered area (SCA) by using calibrated cellular automata models. For the operational use of the calibrated model, the only data requirements are the altitude of each...
Chapter
In some hydrogeology applications, the only subsurface geological information available comes from a small number of boreholes from which hydrofacies have been intersected and identified. Geostatistical simulation is a widely used stochastic technique for generating a set of possible hydrofacies images that cover the range of the complexity and het...
Chapter
The identification of systematic small- and intermediate-scale temperature changes (trends) in a time series is of significant importance in the analysis of climate data. This is particularly so in the analysis of local climate change trends and their potential impact on local hydrological cycles. Although many statistical tests have been proposed...
Chapter
The purpose of this work is to present a new methodology for identifying geographical regions within which the climatic behaviour of a meteorological variable is coherent. We have chosen temperature as the variable of interest, and thermal coherence is defined here in the sense of having a strong (negative) correlation between terrain altitude and...
Article
Full-text available
La presencia de As en las aguas subterráneas es un problema prioritario de salud pública e impone serias restricciones en el agua de consumo. Los mapas de probabilidad de superar el umbral permitido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, OMS (10 μg/L) permiten delimitar las áreas que más riesgo presentan en relación con este parámetro. Las técnic...
Article
The Fuente de Piedra lake is a hypersaline wetland of great extension (13.5 km²) and rich in aquatic birds and other species. It became therefore the third Spanish wetland to be included in the Ramsar convention and has been a “nature reserve” since 1984. The lake has an endorheic basin (150 km²) with variable-density flows dominated by complex hyd...
Chapter
The Sierra de las Nieves karst aquifer (Southern Spain) is a Mediterranean high-relief karst with an important geological, geomorphological, hydrogeological and ecological value. It has a spectacular landscape and a well-developed endokarst, as well as a number of important karst springs that are the origin of three important rivers in the region....
Chapter
The main objective of this study is to perform an initial diagnosis of the presence of nitrates in carbonate-rock aquifers in the Iberian Peninsula and identify the likely sources. Geostatistical methods were employed for TOC (Total Organic Carbon) mapping the studied area. The geostatistical method of spatial estimation, known as kriging, takes in...