Eugene W Schupp

Eugene W Schupp
Utah State University | USU · Department of Wildland Resources

Ph.D.

About

130
Publications
20,796
Reads
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10,554
Citations
Citations since 2017
28 Research Items
3296 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
Additional affiliations
September 1992 - present
Utah State University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Professor of Plant Population Ecology and Restoration Ecology
October 1989 - September 1992
Savannah River Ecology Laboratory
Position
  • Alexander Hollander Postdoctoral Fellow
June 1988 - October 1989
Estación Biológica de Doñana
Position
  • NSF-NATO Postdoctoral Fellow
Education
September 1980 - May 1987
University of Iowa
Field of study
  • Biology
September 1977 - June 1981
University of South Florida
Field of study
  • Zoology
September 1970 - June 1977
University of South Florida
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (130)
Article
To investigate the influence of multiple canopy openings on the composition and diversity of recruited saplings in a forest frequently disturbed by typhoons. We conducted tree‐by‐tree censuses (diameter at breast height ≥ 1 cm) and mapped gaps (canopy height < 5 m) in 1993, 2000, 2008, and 2013 in a tropical mountain zonal foothill evergreen broad‐...
Article
Full-text available
Some studies suggest that canopy gaps are not crucial for woody species recruitment in typhoon-disturbed forests because of frequently defoliated forest crowns and invariant high-light levels under the forest canopy. Here we examined this speculation focusing on seedling establishment stages and forest floor light in a forest with annual return fre...
Article
Full-text available
Sagebrush ecosystems of western North America are threatened by invasive annual grasses and wildfires that can remove fire‐intolerant shrubs for decades. Fuel reduction treatments are used ostensibly to aid in fire suppression, conserve wildlife habitat, and restore historical fire regimes, but long‐term ecological impacts of these treatments are n...
Article
Full-text available
Increased fire size and frequency coupled with annual grass invasion pose major challenges to sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem conservation, which is currently focused on protecting sagebrush community composition and structure. A common strategy for mitigating potential fire is to use fuel treatments that alter the structure and amount of burn...
Article
In drylands, there is a need for controlled experiments over multiple planting years to examine how woody seedlings respond to soil texture and the potentially interactive effects of soil depth and precipitation. Understanding how multiple environmental factors interactively influence plant establishment is critical to restoration ecology and in th...
Article
Full-text available
Seed dispersal is critical to the ecological performance of sexually reproducing plant species and the communities that they form. The Mammalian order Carnivora provide valuable and effective seed dispersal services but tend to be overlooked in much of the seed dispersal literature. Here we review the literature on the role of Carnivorans in seed d...
Article
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Mutualism effectiveness, the contribution of an interacting organism to its partner's fitness, is defined as the number of immediate outcomes of the interactions (quantity component) multiplied by the probability that an immediate outcome results in a new individual (quality component). These components form a two-dimensional effectiveness landscap...
Article
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Cultivated plant species often naturalize and enter wild communities in a process known as feralization. To successfully feralize, crops must overcome ecological barriers and may undergo selection on certain traits, diverging phenotypically and genetically from their crop ancestors. In spite of the agronomic and ecological relevance of crop feraliz...
Article
Rangelands provide numerous ecosystem services, including forage for livestock grazing. Effective grazing management requires measuring forage availability, which influences the level of grazing that can be sustained while maintaining healthy ecological conditions. However, spatiotemporal variability makes such determinations of forage quantity dif...
Article
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Fire and fuel management is a high priority in North American sagebrush ecosystems where the expansion of piñon and juniper trees and the invasion of nonnative annual grasses are altering fire regimes and resulting in loss of sagebrush species and habitat. We evaluated 10‐yr effects of woody fuel treatments on sagebrush recruitment and plant functi...
Article
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Domesticated plants can occasionally naturalize, becoming feral elements of natural communities. This is only possible if crops overcome the abiotic and biotic barriers that restrict their dispersal and recruitment. The naturalization of almond trees (Prunus dulcis, (Mill.) D.A. Webb) was recently reported in SE Spain, but the mechanisms driving it...
Article
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There is growing realization that intraspecific variation in seed dispersal can have important ecological and evolutionary consequences. However, we do not have a good understanding of the drivers or causes of intraspecific variation in dispersal, how strong an effect these drivers have, and how widespread they are across dispersal modes. As a firs...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution and abundance of plants across the world depends in part on their ability to move, which is commonly characterized by a dispersal kernel. For seeds, the total dispersal kernel (TDK) describes the combined influence of all primary, secondary, and higher-order dispersal vectors on the overall dispersal kernel for a plant individual,...
Article
Full-text available
Although dispersal is generally viewed as a crucial determinant for the fitness of any organism, our understanding of its role in the persistence and spread of plant populations remains incomplete. Generalizing and predicting dispersal processes are challenging due to context dependence of seed dispersal, environmental heterogeneity, and interdepen...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the critical need to improve degraded herbaceous understory conditions in many semiarid ecosystems, the influence of soil properties on seedling emergence of species seeded in shrubland plant communities is largely unexplored. We evaluated emergence patterns of 6 restoration species in soils from wyomingensis (i.e., Wyoming big sagebrush, A...
Article
Full-text available
As the single opportunity for plants to move, seed dispersal has an important impact on plant fitness, species distributions, and patterns of biodiversity. However, models that predict dynamics such as risk of extinction, range shifts, and biodiversity loss tend to rely on the mean value of parameters and rarely incorporate realistic dispersal mech...
Article
Full-text available
When climatic or environmental conditions change, plant populations must either adapt to these new conditions, or track their niche via seed dispersal. Adaptation of plants to different abiotic environments has mostly been discussed with respect to physiological and demographic parameters that allow local persistence. However, rapid modifications i...
Article
Full-text available
When climatic or environmental conditions change, plant populations must either adapt to these new conditions, or track their niche via seed dispersal. Adaptation of plants to different abiotic environments has mostly been discussed with respect to physiological and demographic parameters that allow local persistence. However, rapid modifications i...
Article
Full-text available
As the single opportunity for plants to move, seed dispersal has an important impact on plant fitness, species distributions and patterns of biodiversity. However, models that predict dynamics such as risk of extinction, range shifts and biodiversity loss tend to rely on the mean value of parameters and rarely incorporate realistic dispersal mechan...
Article
Full-text available
Synzoochory is the dispersal of seeds by seed‐caching animals. The animal partner in this interaction plays a dual role, acting both as seed disperser and seed predator. We propose that this duality gives to synzoochory two distinctive features that have crucial ecological and evolutionary consequences. First, because plants attract animals that ha...
Article
Full-text available
Invasion and dominance of exotic grasses and increased fire frequency threaten native ecosystems worldwide. In the Great Basin region of the western United States, woody and herbaceous fuel treatments are implemented to decrease the effects of wildfire and increase sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to exo...
Article
Full-text available
Roads associated with energy development have fragmented much of the Uinta Basin, the Colorado Plateau in general, and other areas of western North America. Beyond reducing available habitat, spreading exotic species, and creating barriers to dispersal, unpaved roads also increase dust loads on plants and pollinators, which may reduce plant growth...
Article
Full-text available
A core interest in studies of mutualistic interactions is the 'effectiveness' of mutualists in providing benefits to their partners. In plant-animal mutualisms it is widely accepted that the total effect of a mutualist on its partner is estimated as (1) a 'quantity' component multiplied by (2) a 'quality' component, although the meanings of 'effect...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2016) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grou...
Chapter
The factors that determine plant community resistance to exotic annual Bromus species ( Bromus hereafter) are diverse and context specific. They are influenced by the environmental characteristics and attributes of the community, the traits of Bromus species, and the direct and indirect interactions of Bromus with the plant community. Environmental...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2015) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grou...
Article
We investigated fruit set, seed set, and germination requirements of shrubby reed-mustard (Hesperidanthus suffrutescens), an endangered endemic shrub in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah, U.S.A. To determine the degree of self-compatibility, 120 plants received four pollination treatments each for 2 y. Treatments included autogamy, geitonogamy, xenog...
Article
The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Wo...
Article
Full-text available
Current paradigm suggests that spatial and temporal competition for resources limit an exotic invader, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), which once established, alters fire regimes and can result in annual grass dominance in sagebrush steppe. Prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (mowing, tebuthiuron, and imazapic) are used to reduce woody f...
Article
Full-text available
In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of pinon ( ˜ Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resist...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Sagebrush-grassland ecosystems are one of the most imperiled ecosystems in North America. Fire has resulted in large areas instantly losing their shrub component with little hope to regain it soon. The Greater Sage-Grouse is a candidate for endangered species status that selects sagebrush habitat at multiple scales. Sa...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Imazapic, a pre- and post-emergent herbicide that especially targets annual species, is potentially useful in restoration and fuels reduction treatments in shrublands of the arid western U.S. to control invasive annual grasses, but little is known about the long-term efficacy and potential side effects on native vegeta...
Article
Full-text available
If arid sagebrush ecosystems lack resilience to disturbances or resistance to annual invasives, then alternative successional states dominated by annual invasives, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), are likely after fuel treatments. We identified six Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young) locations (1...
Article
There is increasing recognition that both competition and facilitation are important drivers of plant community dynamics in arid and semi-arid environments. Decades of research have provided a litany of examples of the potential for shrubs as nurse plants for establishment of desirable species, especially in water-limited environments. However, int...
Article
Plant spatial patterns critically influence community dynamics, including plant interactions, resource distribution, and community invasibility. Research suggests that resistance of western US plant communities to further invasion by the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum may be linked to the positions of, and spacing between, perennial plants. In...
Article
Full-text available
In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of pi ˜non (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resista...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods Changes in climate interacting with natural and anthropogenic disturbances will alter the resilience and resistance of ecosystems. Managing for sustainable ecosystem services requires knowledge of ecosystem change through time. Long term monitoring is essential to tracking ecosystem change and the establishment of base...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The influence of sagebrush fuels and restoration treatments on Great Basin vegetation dynamics has been well documented but impacts of treatments on the seed bank community has received little attention. Effects of fuels reduction treatments (prescribed fire, tebuthiuron herbicide, and imazapic herbicide) on seed bank...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Human activities including energy development, recreation, and livestock grazing in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado threaten many plant species endemic to the region. One of these plants is Phacelia submutica (DeBeque phacelia), which was listed under the Endangered Species Act as a threatened species in 2011. Ho...
Article
1. Rodents frequently forage in a density-dependent manner, increasing harvesting in patches with greater seed densities. Although seldom considered, seed harvesting may also depend on the species identities of other individuals in the seed neighbourhood. When the seed harvest of a focal species increases in association with another seed species, t...
Article
Ex situ conservation of rare plant species requires an understanding of germination requirements. We report the first successful germination trials for Maguire primrose (Primula cusickiana var. maguirei[L.O. Williams] N.H. Holmgren & S. Kelso), a threatened perennial herb narrowly restricted to a 20-km canyon in northern Utah, USA. Seeds collected...
Article
Granivore foraging decisions affect consumer success and determine the quantity and spatial pattern of seed survival. These decisions are influenced by environmental variation at spatial scales ranging from landscapes to local foraging patches. In a field experiment, the effects of seed patch variation across three spatial scales on seed removal by...
Article
The quantity, composition, and spatial dispersion of seed banks can greatly affect community dynamics. While seed banks of hot deserts have been studied extensively, little is known about seed banks in cold deserts, in particular the relationship between the seed bank and the aboveground vegetation. We investigated the relationship between the seed...
Article
Although plant spatial patterns strongly influence community-structuring processes, few empirical studies have addressed pattern effects on perennial community dynamics. We tested the effects of community- and neighborhood-scale patterns in experimental semi-arid grassland communities comprising the stronger competitor crested wheatgrass (Agropyron...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods Land Managers throughout the Intermountain West are acutely aware of the growing problem of Bromus tectorum invasion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems. Both scientists and managers are searching for ways to combat this problem, and part of the solution is to understand how sites respond to disturbance (whether intended...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Herbicide application is frequently used to control undesired plants in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. However, the detailed responses of various types of non-target vegetation to herbicide application are not thoroughly understood, and the possible additive effects of using multiple herbicides are relatively unexplored...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods In the Great Basin, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion into sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) shrublands has dramatically altered species composition, ecosystem processes and fire regimes. Cheatgrass produces abundant highly flammable fine fuels, creating a cheatgrass-wildfire cycle with cheatgrass promoting...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Energy development on the Colorado Plateau has led to increased fragmentation of open space by roads with negative consequences for native plant species. Roads reduce available habitat, spread exotic species, and create barriers to dispersal. In addition, unpaved roads also increase dust loads on leaves and floral stru...
Article
Full-text available
The Janzen-Connell (J-C) model (Janzen 1970; Connell 1971) has been a dominant yet controversial paradigm for forest community dynamics for four decades, especially in the tropics. With increasing distance from the parent plant, the density of dispersed seeds decreases and, because of a reduced impact of distance- and density-responsive seed and se...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods In arid environments, facilitation is expected to produce patterns of positive association between shrubs and other plants since shrub canopies and below ground architectures often buffer extreme abiotic conditions and improve soil water and nutrients, promoting recruitment, survival, and growth of beneficiary plants oc...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Sagebrush rangelands in the western U.S. are being altered by non-native plants such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). These changes (e.g., altered fire regimes) carry broad ecological and social implications, including wildlife habitat loss. Restoration of natives holds promise for abating this loss, yet effective init...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion into sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) shrublands in the Great Basin has resulted in increased wildfire frequencies and a decline of native ecosystem components. Our research, conducted in Box Elder County, Utah, is aimed at testing methods for re-establishing native, fire-resist...
Article
Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have...
Article
Full-text available
Community-structuring processes continue to be of great interest to plant ecologists, and plant spatial patterns have been linked to processes including disturbance, dispersal, environmental heterogeneity, and plant interactions. Under the assumption that the analysis of the spatial structure of plant communities can help to elucidate the type and...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetation changes associated with climate shifts and anthropogenic disturbance have major impacts on biogeochemical cycling. Much of the interior western United States currently is dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystems. At low to intermediate elevations, sagebrush ecosystems increasingly are influenced by cheatgrass (Bromu...
Article
Full-text available
Resource availability and propagule supply are major factors influencing establishment and persistence of both native and invasive species. Increased soil nitrogen (N) availability and high propagule inputs contribute to the ability of annual invasive grasses to dominate disturbed ecosystems. Nitrogen reduction through carbon (C) additions can pote...
Article
Seed dispersal is qualitatively effective when it increases recruitment probability. A poorly studied factor likely affecting recruitment is the spatial distribution of dispersed seeds. Seed-caching animals are thought to disperse seeds in a way that reduces clumping and density to impede cache pilfering. Furthermore, dispersal might differ dependi...
Article
Full-text available
Growth in seed dispersal studies has been fast-paced since the seed disperser effectiveness (SDE) framework was developed 17 yr ago. Thus, the time is ripe to revisit the framework in light of accumulated new insight. Here, we first present an overview of the framework, how it has been applied, and what we know and do not know. We then introduce th...
Article
Full-text available
The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is a comprehensive, integrated, long-term study that evaluates the ecological effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments designed to reduce fuel and to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities of the Great Basin and surrounding areas. SageSTEP has several features that make it id...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The role of plant interactions (e.g. interference, facilitation) in structuring communities remains uncertain, especially in arid and semi-arid plant communities where debate over the importance of interference persists. While interference has been historically viewed as a distinguishing feature of water-limited communi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods SageSTEP is a regional experiment designed to evaluate several different methods to maintain sagebrush habitat while reducing fire fuel loads in the Great Basin. Land management options, including prescribed fire, mechanical thinning of shrubs and trees, and herbicide application are currently, or have been proposed, as...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods - Recent estimates indicate that only 55% of the sagebrush biome is occupied currently by shrubs of this genus. A significant portion of the remaining area has been displaced by invasive annual grasses, such as Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) following wildfires. Intact sagebrush communities often have interspaces among per...
Article
Aim The exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is fast replacing sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities throughout the Great Basin Desert and nearby regions in the Western United States, impacting native plant communities and altering fire regimes, which contributes to the long-term persistence of this weedy species. The effect of this co...
Article
Biological invasions are one of the greatest threats to native species in natural ecological systems. One of the most successful invasive species is Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass), which is having marked impacts on native plant communities and ecosystem processes. However; we know little about the effects of this invasion on native animal species...
Article
Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is the most widespread invasive weed in sagebrush ecosystems of North America. Restoration of perennial vegetation is difficult and land managers have often used introduced bunchgrasses to restore degraded sagebrush communities. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of 'Vavilov' Siberian wheatgrass (Agropyron f...
Article
Two varieties of sterile annual hybrid (SAH) cereal grasses (Triticum aestivum×Elytrigia elongata and Triticum sp. ×Secale sp.) have been developed as tools for restoration to circumvent problems associated with the use of exotic perennial grasses in wildlands. Recent research has shown that both varieties of SAH grasses performed better than nativ...
Article
Full-text available
Summary • Initial recruitment, or the arrival and establishment of propagules, is the most variable period in the life cycle of long-lived plants, and the extent to which studies of initial recruitment can be used to predict patterns of regeneration remains unresolved. • We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of initial recruitment across fiv...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we assessed the effectiveness of rodents as dispersers of Quercus ilex in a patchy landscape in southeastern Spain. We experimentally followed the fates of 3,200 marked and weighed acorns from dispersal through the time of seedling emergence over three years. Rodents handled about 99% of acorns, and dispersed 67% and cached 7.4% of th...
Book
Fresh concepts in the study of seed dispersal are spurring a host of exciting new questions, new answers to old questions, new methods and approaches, and a reinvigoration of the field.Seed Dispersal: Theory and its Application in a Changing World presents both recent advances and reviews of current knowledge demonstrating the vigour and vibrancy o...
Article
The chapters of this book on seed dispersal are divided into four parts: (1) frugivores and frugivory (8 chapters); (2) seed and seedling shadows (7 chapters); (3) seed fate and establishment (eight chapters); and (4) management implications and conservation (six chapters). The book presents both recent advances and reviews of current knowledge.