Eugen Octav Popa

Eugen Octav Popa
University of Twente | UT · Department of Science, Technology and Policy Studies (STePS)

Doctor of Philosophy

About

17
Publications
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83
Citations
Citations since 2016
16 Research Items
83 Citations
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Introduction
Eugen Octav Popa is a Postdoctoral Research in Responsible Innovation at Wageningen University & Research. He studied Communication and Argumentation Theory at the University of Amsterdam and graduated with a PhD thesis on the reconstruction of complex academic debates. He carried out research in Responsible Innovation at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and as freelancer for various sectors (government, industry and NGOs).

Publications

Publications (17)
Article
Full-text available
Traditional approaches to conflict are oriented towards establishing (or re-establishing) consensus, either in the form of a resolution of the conflict or in the form of an 'agree-to-disagree' standstill between the stakeholders. In this paper, we criticize these traditional approaches, each for specific reasons, and we propose and develop the agon...
Article
Full-text available
R&D collaborations between industry, government, civil society, and research (also known as 'quadruple helix collaborations' (QHCs)) have recently gained attention from R&D theorists and practitioners. In aiming to come to grips with their complexity, past models have generally taken a stakeholder-analytical approach based on stakeholder types. Yet...
Article
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Fallacies are traditionally defined as potentially deceptive failures of rationality or reasonableness. Fallacy theories seek to model this failure by formulating standards of rationality or reasonableness that arguers must observe when engaging in argumentative interaction. Yet it remains relatively easy to reject or avoid fallacy judgments even i...
Article
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Disagreements come in all shapes and sizes, but epistemologists and argumentation theorists have singled out a special category referred to as deep disagreements. These deep disagreements are thought to pose philosophical and practical difficulties pertaining to their rational resolution. In this paper, I start with a critique of the widespread cla...
Article
Full-text available
How do individuals change their minds as a result of argumentation? It is generally assumed the speech act of argumentation can trigger a change of mind in the other party—the perlocutionary act of convincing. This means that a discussant changes her commitment relative to the proposition under scrutiny when the other party presents argumentation t...
Article
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What does it mean to be irresponsible in developing or using a technology? There are two fundamentally different answers to this question and they each generate research strands that differ in scope, style and applicability. To capture this difference, I make use of two mythical creatures of Jewish origin that have been employed in the past to repr...
Chapter
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The inclusion of stakeholders in science is one of the core ideas in the field of responsible innovation. Conspiracists, however, are not your garden-variety stakeholders. As the COVID-19 pandemic has shown, the conflict between conspiracists and science is deep and intractable. In this paper, we ask how the game of responsible innovation can be pl...
Article
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We develop a method for analyzing argumentative discussions centered around the notion of ‘stock issues’, i.e., the field-dependent standard issues addressed by the participants in such discussions. The method yields an overview of the structure and content of complex argumentative discussions with multiple participants, including the activated sto...
Article
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Anticipating the ethical impact of emerging technologies is an essential part of responsible innovation. One such emergent technology is the digital twin which we define here as a living replica of a physical system (human or non-human). A digital twin combines various emerging technologies such as AI, Internet of Things, big data and robotics, eac...
Article
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I highly recommend Hanganu-Bresch and Berkenkotter’s work to anyone who is interested in the vicissitudes of early psychiatric diagnosis, confinement and treatment. The book is well written and well documented. The reader benefits form the authors’ admirable knowledge on the evolution of psychiatry in the 19th century, the social co-creation of the...
Research
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The sharing of farm data is a delicate topic, not only for farmers but also for agtech businesses and researchers. In order to find out how farmers, researchers agtech companies envision the data sharing future, including the conditions for their trust in data sharing, we organized a series of focus groups involving farmers, tech-providers and rese...
Article
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We propose the use of discussion structures as tools for analyzing policy debates in a way that enables the increased participation of lay stakeholders. Discussion structures are argumentation-theoretical tools that can be employed to tackle three barriers that separate lay stakeholders from policy debates: difficulty, magnitude, and complexity. We...
Chapter
To stimulate research and innovation (R&I), to contribute to the solution of societal challenges and to align R&I with societal values, the European Commission has launched the governance framework of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). RRI figures in many high-level EU policies as a means to promote smart growth, and a growing community of...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, I defend two skeptical claims regarding current research on visual arguments and I explain how these claims reflect upon past and future research. The first claim is that qualifying an argument as being visual amounts to a category mistake; the second claim is that past analyses of visual arguments fault on both end of the “productio...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper I develop and defend a form of argumentative nor-mativity that is not based on fundamental principles. I first argue that research agendas that aim to discover (or claimed to have discovered) fundamental principles of 'good' argumentative discourse share one crucial weak spot, viz. circularity. I then argue that this weak spot can be...
Article
Full-text available
A thought experiment is a form of academic interaction in which two or more scholars discuss based on an imaginary scenario the acceptability of an academic claim. The argumentative dimension of thought experiments has been the subject of intense debates: for some scholars, thought experiments are nothing but arguments; for others, they cannot be a...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
DTs are not the future, they are already here and they promise to peak soon. Digital Twins (DTs) are software-based replicas of living organisms. When these living organisms are humans, DTs improve our understanding of personal health risks and help experts tailor-make diagnostics and treatment (Bruynseels et al. 2018). Businesses like Philips and PWC are investing in digital twins; Dassault Systems has developed a digital twin of the human heart; scientists study the use of digital twins for various interventions from lifestyle through to medical and surgical options (Hose et al, 2019); the Dutch Research Council (NWO) launched a public-private research project in health research called MyDigiTwin. These are just a few examples of a socio-technical scenario that has left the domain of science fiction and has become reality. The development of digital twins in health is not only a technical challenge, but also a socio-ethical one (Björnsson et al, 2020; Bruynseels et al. 2018). As disruptive technologies, digital twins bring about issues concerning data protection and individuality (Canoy, 2019) as well as risks concerning discrimination and stigmatization of patients (Maathuis et al, 2019). Furthermore, it is unclear whether digital twins exacerbate or alleviate already-existing constraints for personalized health (Fitzgerald, 2020). The time is therefore ripe to explore and analyze the socio-ethical challenges brought forth by DTs in society so that future technological design and future policy are responsive to these challenges (Latridis and Schroeder 2016; Owen et al. 2012). In our project, we will identify and analyze the socio-ethical challenges of DTs by taking a quadruple helix approach (Ahonen and Hämäläinen 2012; Carayannis and Campbell 2009; McAdam et al. 2018). The quadruple helix approach models socio-technical transition as processes of value creation of four types: research value (scientific helix), market value (business helix), political value (political/legal helix) and societal values (societal helix). The quadruple helix has two advantages in this context: it is more inclusive, since it goes beyond the proverbial ‘citizen on the street’ when investigating the socio-technical transition, and it is attuned to detect conflicts both within one helix and between helixes (Bryson et al. 2006; Cunningham et al. 2018; Garst et al. 2019; Mangematin et al. 2014). The quadruple helix approach will be applied to the use of Digital Twins for health and lifestyle. In order to identify and analyze the socio-ethical issues that can arise in this area, we will combine data from the following data gathering methods: (1) desk research on academic as well as grey literature on the socio-ethical interface between DT and the prevention of health risks. (2) semi-structured interviews (between 30-35) with stakeholders from the four helixes - both at national and at European level - around the perceived socio-ethical themes of interest. The exploration will result in an overview of both known and novel socio-ethical challenges connected to the use of DTs in health and lifestyle. (3) one scenario-building workshop with representative stakeholders from the four helixes to reflect on the findings through anticipatory technology ethics.
Project
How do we include civil society in the innovation process? The challenges we are facing globally are complex and call for setting a new team to find solutions. Traditionally the innovation process has been dominated by the industry, the public sector and research. However, civil society possesses great creative competences too and we need to include these undervalued actors in order to let innovative solutions flourish. By bringing different voices together in new types of collaborations we avoid blind spots because every actor has specific competences and focus points. The RiConfigure project exists to make cross-sectoral collaborations thrive and overcome the challenges that the actors might face. There is a strength in including more diverse voices in the dynamic process, as diversity creates resilience and representativeness. Together we are stronger and can find with more holistic solutions. Solutions which could not have been developed without the active co-creation by civil society.