Etzel Cardeña

Etzel Cardeña
Lund University | LU · Department of Psychology

Ph. D.

About

388
Publications
229,876
Reads
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7,552
Citations
Citations since 2017
97 Research Items
3056 Citations
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Introduction
Etzel Cardeña holds the endowed Thorsen Chair at the Department of Psychology, Lund University, in Sweden. Professor Cardeña does research in these interconnected areas: neurophenomenology of hypnosis, meditation, and similar techniques; anomalous experiences (including psi phenomena); dissociative and other acute posttraumatic reactions; stream of consciousness.
Additional affiliations
September 2005 - present
Lund University
Position
  • Thorsen Professor
September 2000 - August 2005
University of Texas - Pan American
Position
  • Chair. Director of graduate studies
January 1995 - January 2013
University of Valencia
Position
  • Guest lecturer

Publications

Publications (388)
Article
Full-text available
Background Studies have reported elevated rates of dissociative symptoms and comorbid dissociative disorders in functional neurological disorder (FND); however, a comprehensive review is lacking. Aims To systematically review the severity of dissociative symptoms and prevalence of comorbid dissociative disorders in FND and summarise their biologica...
Article
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Individuals who sleep poorly report spending more time mind wandering during the day. However , past research has relied on self-report measures of sleep or measured mind wandering during laboratory tasks, which prevents generalization to everyday contexts. We used ambulatory assessments to examine the relations between several features of sleep (d...
Article
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Objectives/Aims Dissociation is a potential mechanism in FND. Although scientific studies report elevated rates of dissociative symptoms in FND, a systematic assessment of the biological and clinical correlates of dissociation in FND is lacking. We aimed to systematically review the current evidence describing dissociative symptoms and disorders in...
Article
Objective: Peritraumatic dissociation (PD) and coping strategies (CS) around the time of trauma are significant predictors of acute and long-term posttraumatic symptomatology (PTS), but it is unclear how they relate to each other. The aim of this study was to examine their association using a nationwide, representative sample following the Septemb...
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In this study, we investigate the phenomenology of selftranscendent experiences, in which the usual sense of self is lost. Based on a taxonomy of nine aspects of self and three types of content of consciousness, we compare ten accounts of such experiences acquired through in-depth interviews. Sense of separateness and identification with body and n...
Article
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Playing with the Occam’s razor trope, Nobel laureate Sidney Brenner coined the term Occam’s broom to describe the practice of sweeping under the rug facts that do not support the scientist’s hypothesis. This practice is taken to extremes by some critics of anomalous cognition research (psi), who engage in dismissing inconvenient research data (incl...
Article
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Annotated bibliography of recent works on anomalous experience and cognition.
Article
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Sweden was hit hard in the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic with deaths per capita among the highest in Europe. The pandemic was a stressful time especially for healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients. Various studies have evaluated whether nurses caring for these patients had higher levels of acute stress, but typically with measures tha...
Article
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Accumulating evidence suggests that individuals with greater executive resources spend less time mind wandering. Independent strands of research further suggest that this association depends on concentration and a guilty�dysphoric daydreaming style. However, it remains unclear whether this association is specifc to particular features of executive...
Article
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The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual introduced the diagnosis of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) for acute pathological reactions including dissociative ones, following a traumatic event. Various measures of ASD have been developed, with the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ) being one of the most commonly used...
Article
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Ernest R. Hilgard is not only one of the most important hypnosis theoreticians and researchers in history, but one the most eminent psychologists of the 20th century. This paper starts with a brief summary of his contributions to hypnosis, emphasizing his dissociation theory, and placing it within previous and later dissociation theories of hypnosi...
Chapter
Framework to understand alterations of consciousness.
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has provoked generalized uncertainty around the world, with health workers experiencing anxiety, depression, burnout, insomnia, and stress. Although the effects of the pandemic on mental health may change as it evolves, the majority of reports have been web-based, cross-sectional studies. We performed a study assessing acute s...
Article
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The abeyance of self-consciousness (SC) during hypnosis has been discussed as a central aspect of hypnosis, yet dispositional SC has been very rarely evaluated as a correlate of hypnotizability. In this study (N = 328), the authors administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS), the Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth (ISHD),...
Article
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Introduction to the Journal of Anomalous Experience and Cognition.
Book
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New peer-reviewed journal on anomalous experience and cognition
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Reality shifting (RS) is a trendy mental activity that emerged abruptly following the flare-up of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and seems to be practiced mainly by members of the post-millennial generation. RS, described as the experience of being able to transcend one’s physical confines and visit alternate, mostly fictional, universes, is discuss...
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Annotated bibliography
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Near-death experiences (NDEs) remain opaque to our full understanding. What to make of accounts by some of those who have had brushes with death (sometimes with cessation of recordable brain activity) and "come back" to tell about having left their physical bodies and arrived to timeless realm of pure love and acceptance in which they encounter div...
Article
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Even more than his erudite and punctilious (e.g., Alvarado, 1984) historical contributions and articles contributing to make the study of out-of-body experiences scientifically respectable, I mourn the passing of a warm and generous friend of many decades.
Article
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We conducted a network analysis of measures of dissociation and posttraumatic symptoms (PTS) with a varied sample of adolescents (N = 312), some of them previously exposed to war scenarios. The global measure of dissociation (A-DES) was uniquely linked to the arousal PTS symptom cluster (CRIES-13), in particular sleep problems, but not to the reexp...
Chapter
Contemplative traditions have posited that exceptional abilities can occur in conjunction with meditation. These claims have been often dismissed as mere fantasies, but some have been evaluated experimentally. This chapter reviews historical accounts from Asian and Western traditions about such abilities and summarizes the research on the relation...
Article
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None, as it is a short commentary, but if you need one, here it is. This commentary places Alejandro Parra's very long list of plagiarisms and data missrepresentations within the context of Dante's classification of human foibles. The responses from two Argentinean universities are described, along with continuing examples of Parra's misrepresenta...
Chapter
Throughout history, people have described alterations of consciousness in which they experienced a sense of transcendence, being part of a much larger unity, sometimes encompassing the whole universe, or of being pure awareness. These experiences have been foundational for many religious and spiritual practices, albeit they have sometimes been trea...
Article
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Two experiments involving an international collaboration of experimenters sought to replicate and extend a previously published psi experiment on precognition by Daryl Bem that has been the focus of extensive research. The experiment reverses the usual cause–effect sequence of a standard psychology experiment using priming and reaction times. The p...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments involving an international collaboration of experimenters sought to replicate and extend a previously published psi experiment on precognition by Daryl Bem that has been the focus of extensive research. The experiment reverses the usual cause–e! ect sequence of a standard psychology experiment using priming and reaction times. The p...
Article
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This study explores how Mayan people from Guatemala and Swedes view and behave toward death. Using an interpretative phenomenological analysis, 10 participants from each culture were interviewed to elucidate the most relevant and important emerging themes. The Mayan approach to death is based on a collective perspective in which consultations with...
Article
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The turn from figurative art to the depiction of internal experiences opened the door for artists to represent anomalous experiences and ostensible psi phenomena. Various studies have described how Abstract art was influenced by Occultism, but there were other important influences. They include scientific theories of the ether and hypergeometric di...
Article
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The term “retroactive avoidance” refers to a special class of effects of future stimulus presentations on past behavioral responses. Specifically, it refers to the anticipatory avoidance of aversive stimuli that were unpredictable through random selection after the response. This phenomenon is supposed to challenge the common view of the arrow of t...
Article
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Previous studies have indicated that a sad mood and sleep deprivation increase mind wandering, but it is unclear whether these associations reflect reduced effort in concentrating on the task at hand or diminished cognitive control. In an internet-based experiment, participants completed a sleep disturbance questionnaire followed by a complex span...
Article
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Background Identification of clinical features that might distinguish psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES) is of value for diagnosis, management, and understanding of both conditions. Previous studies have shown that patients' descriptions of their seizures reflect differences in content and delivery. We aimed to co...
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A review of Altered States of Consciousness: Experiences out of Time and Self, by Marc Wittmann.
Article
In a previous experiment with participants high (Highs) and low (Lows) in hypnotizability, psi z scores had moderate to strong correlations with percipients' belief of their success and their previous ostensible psi experiences, experiencing an Altered State of Consciousness and other alterations of consciousness during a non-psi ganzfeld session,...
Article
Introduction: Predictive coding models propose that high hypnotic suggestibility confers a predisposition to hallucinate due to an elevated propensity to weight perceptual beliefs (priors) over sensory evidence. Multiple lines of research corroborate this prediction and demonstrate a link between hypnotic suggestibility and proneness to anomalous p...
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A response to Reber and Alcock's criticism of psi research.
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Discussion of the misinterpretation of the p statistic
Chapter
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Account of my participation in a world-renowned Mexican experimental theatre group.
Preprint
Introduction: Predictive coding models propose that that high hypnotic suggestibility confers a predisposition to hallucinate due to an elevated propensity to weight perceptual priors over sensory evidence. Multiple lines of research corroborate this prediction and demonstrate a link between hypnotic suggestibility and proneness to anomalous percep...
Article
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This commentary on Wooffitt’s lucid article discusses three major implications of the phenomenon of poetic confluences or ESP puns to our understanding of minds and selves. The first reinforces the view of mind as associative and metaphorical, rather than merely computational. The second reviews various strands of evidence, including experimental r...
Article
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Film clips, music, and self-referential statements (termed Velten, after their originator) have been successfully used to temporarily induce sadness and happiness. However, there is little research on the effectiveness of these procedures combined, particularly in internet-based settings, and whether Velten statements contribute to alter mood beyon...
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Introduction and discussion of a supplementary issue on the contributions of the Journal of Parapsychology to the field.
Article
This is the most comprehensive volume to date on the science and history of meditation. Written in an accessible language by world-leading experts, it describes the various meditation practices employed to modify the self, such as concentration, recitation, breathing, and visualisation, and its effects on the mind and body. It includes debates and...
Article
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This study evaluated factors underlying individual differences in spontaneous (unsuggested) experiences during hypnosis. Participants varying in hypnotizability (low, medium, and high) completed a questionnaire about various dimensions of consciousness they would expect to experience at the "deepest level of hypnosis" (expec-tancy), an eyes-closed...
Article
This article summarizes and integrates research on the relation between altered consciousness (including states and traits, as well as procedures and practices to induce them) and enhanced functioning. The latter include improved psychophysiological control as well as enhanced performance in controlled parapsychological experiments. Multiple studie...
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Editorial on the essential role of women in parapsychology.
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In this paper we present a multidisciplinary, developmental analysis of a Dominican Republic Vodou servidor (“Marcos”), from childhood to early adulthood, integrating ethnographic observation, field documentation, and anthropological analysis, with relevant constructs from developmental, personality, and clinical psychology. Marcos transitioned fro...
Article
This article presents a comprehensive integration of current experimental evidence and theories about so-called parapsychological (psi) phenomena. Throughout history, people have reported events that seem to violate the common sense view of space and time. Some psychologists have been at the forefront of investigating these phenomena with sophistic...
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Face recognition occurs when a face is recognised despite changes between learning and test exposures. Yet there has been relatively little research on how variations in emotional expressions influence people’s ability to recognise these changes. We evaluated the ability to discriminate old and similar expressions of emotions (i.e. mnemonic discrim...
Article
Among the founders of French psychology, Pierre Janet (1859–1947) is recognized for both his scientific and institutional roles. The psychology born at the turn of the 20th century was initially partly receptive to, but then engaged in, a battle with the “psychical marvelous,” and Janet was no exception. He was involved in the split between psychol...
Article
The target article's use of core concepts is confused and excessively broad. Two main types of experiences have been described in relation to shamanism: magical flight and mediumship/possession. The first refers to visual and remembered experiences of events in other realms, the second to embodied experiences of ceding mental control and personalit...
Conference Paper
Performance and anomalous experiences.
Article
War-traumatized refugee adolescents are a vulnerable and understudied group. This study of two different groups of war-traumatized youth (N = 77) resettled in Sweden (newly arrived refugee adolescents, n = 42, 13–19 years, and settled students with childhood war experiences, n = 35, 11–18 years) evaluated their war experiences, refugee journey, gen...
Article
Objective: War-traumatized refugee children and adolescents have been overlooked in research on trauma-related dissociation, and whatever research has been conducted has relied almost exclusively on questionnaires. The present study was an exploration of dissociative experiences in multitraumatized war-refugee youth. Method: In this study, we us...
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Responsiveness to hypnotic procedures has been related to unusual eye behaviors for centuries. Kallio and collaborators claimed recently that they had found a reliable index for "the hypnotic state" through eye-tracking methods. Whether or not hypnotic responding involves a special state of consciousness has been part of a contentious debate in the...
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This essay presents the rationale to consider anomalous experiences (AEs, such as synesthesia, lucid dreaming, hallucinations, psi-related experiences, and near-death experiences) as an essential topic in psychology. These experiences depart from the typical or customary characteristics of consciousness (e.g., out-of-body experiences), or from ordi...
Chapter
Exceptional, or anomalous, experiences (AE), including mystical, so-called out-of-body and near-death experiences, have intrigued humanity throughout history. In William James's program for a science of psychology at the end of the 19th century, all experiences, whether usual or exceptional were within its remit, yet the scientific consideration of...
Article
Individuals with unresolved/disorganized representations of childhood trauma (U/d attachment) report more psychological distress than others, but little is known about their everyday mentation. In the present study adults with childhood trauma (N = 45) completed the Berkeley-Leiden Adult Attachment Questionnaire-Unresolved (BLAAQ-U) and the Adult A...
Data
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This cross-sectional study evaluated the self-reported attachment style of 239 Swedish adolescents (ages 13 to 20) and investigated the relation between dissociation, attachment, and potentially traumatic events (PTEs). We had hypothesized that specific PTEs, including family-related emotional and physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse b...
Article
Although most definitions of hypnosis consider inductions as the initial stage in a hypnosis protocol, knowledge of inductions remains poor and uninformed by recent developments in theory and research. It is frequently argued that inductions play a critical role in hypnotic responding or, by contrast, are largely interchangeable and unimportant. Dr...

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Projects (5)
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Project
Research on these two areas singly and relatedly.