Ethan Scheiner

Ethan Scheiner
University of California, Davis | UCD · Department of Political Science

About

44
Publications
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1,153
Citations

Publications

Publications (44)
Chapter
The 2017 general election played out in very similar ways to 2014. Turnout remained low, and the coalition of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and Kōmeitō retained its two-thirds majority. The big story of the election was a schism within the opposition and the formation of two new parties, the Party of Hope and the Constitutional Democratic Part...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the 2017 general election in Japan, and introduces the contents of the volume.
Book
This third volume in the Japan Decides series remains the premier venue for scholarly research on Japanese elections. Putting a spotlight on the 2017 general election, the contributors discuss the election results, party politics, coalition politics with Komeito, the cabinet, constitutional revision, new opposition parties, and Abenomics. Additiona...
Article
Nearly all systematic empirical work on the effect of social diversity on the number of parties suggests that there is an interaction between rules and diversity. Most analyses make a strong case that social heterogeneity leads to party fragmentation under permissive electoral rules, but that a psychological effect mitigates the power of social for...
Article
We present theoretical and empirical analyses of candidates’ platforms in the 2003 and 2009 Japanese House of Representatives elections, in an effort to understand candidates’ strategic decisions to emphasize policy debates and to highlight their character-based qualities. Our study highlights the significance of comparative electoral advantages th...
Chapter
On December 14, 2014, Japanese voters turned out in record-low numbers (52.7% of eligible voters) to elect a new House of Representatives (HR). The result was an overwhelming victory by the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and its coalition partner Komeito.
Chapter
Abe’s political brilliance won a smashing 2014 victory for an unpopular party with unpopular policies. Abe won because he succeeded in defining the alternatives — framing the election as a referendum on Abenomics, pursuing a consistent communications strategy, blurring policy differences on other issues — and timing the election brilliantly. The fo...
Chapter
At first glance, the December 14, 2014, Japanese General Election was as dull and meaningless as any in Japanese history. From the moment the election was called, there was no doubt that the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), along with its coalition partner Komeito, would easily win the poll. The campaign itself scarcely raised significant pol...
Article
To address concerns over the applicability of the electoral system literature to new and developing democracies, we present a framework for understanding the interplay between electoral rules and social, economic, and political context. This framework emphasizes that context typically shapes what we call the "behavioral" linkage between electoral r...
Article
In the academic publishing world, where it typically takes a minimum of a year for one’s submitted work to appear in print, scholars who attempt to say something relevant about recent Japanese politics write at their own peril. Just when you think you have things figured out, a big shift alters the landscape. In the 2005 Lower House election, it ap...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract What determines whether interest groups choose to contact politicians or bureaucrats? Despite the importance of this question for policymaking, democracy, and some prominent principal-agent understandings of politics, it is relatively unexplored in the literature. We argue that government stability plays a major part in interest groups’ de...
Article
Political scientists have contributed to the world of electoral systems as scientists and as engineers. Taking stock of recent scientific research, we show that context modifies the effects of electoral rules on political outcomes in specific and systematic ways. We explore how electoral rules shape the inclusion of women and minorities, the depth...
Article
Full-text available
Political scientists have contributed to the world of electoral systems as scientists and as engineers. Taking stock of recent scientific research, we show that context modifies the effects of electoral rules on political outcomes in specific and systematic ways. We explore how electoral rules shape the inclusion of women and minorities, the depth...
Chapter
On 16 December 2012, Japan’s Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), which had been swept from power in August 2009 after more than half a century of dominance, roared back with a landslide of its own. Entering the election with only 118 of 480 seats in the House of Representatives (HR), the lower house of the National Diet, the LDP emerged with a stomping...
Article
In 2009, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) brought an end to the long reign of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). However, despite high expectations, this politically transformative event has not unleashed significant policy change in Japan. We highlight five electoral factors that have acted as important constraints on policy change under DPJ r...
Article
Japan's electoral system, which emphasizes first-past-the-post, singlemember district rules, has led the country's party system to become consolidated around the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ). At the same time, Japan's electoral rules also made it likely that the two parties would not differ markedly in their po...
Article
The loss of power by the Liberal Democratic Party after more than half a century of dominance was the most obvious outcome of Japan’s 2009 election, but together the 2005 and 2009 elections demonstrate significant shifts in both the foundations of party support and the importance of national swings in support for one party or another. Since 2005, u...
Article
In 1993, after 38 years of single-party control, more than 20% of Japan’s ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) House of Representatives members left the party to form new alternatives and create an anti-LDP coalition government. However, despite substantial popular support, the new parties attracted few subnational politicians. The effect of this...
Chapter
During the 1980s and into the 1990s, citizens in Italy and Japan grew fed up with the politics of their country. The elite politician class of both countries faced problems of accountability and corruption. Finally, news of scandals in both countries in the early 1990s provided the impetus for substantial institutional change. By 1994, both Italy a...
Article
Using Cox's ’SF-ratio’ (the ratio of the vote won by the ’second loser’ to that of the ’first loser’), we examine strategic voting in mixed-member electoral systems in ten countries and a total of 35 elections. The SF-ratio is a useful indicator of strategic defection from less competitive to more competitive electoral options that is comparable ac...
Article
Electoral Systems and Political Context illustrates how political and social context conditions the effects of electoral rules. The book examines electoral behavior and outcomes in countries that use “mixed-member” electoral systems – where voters cast one ballot for a party list under proportional representation (PR) and one for a candidate in a s...
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Full-text available
What shapes politicians' strategies in political systems where pork, rather than programmatic platforms, wins elections? We argue that resource control provides much of the answer, as politics in pork-centric systems will in large part be organized around actors who control access to pork. We use new national and subnational data from Brazil and Ja...
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Full-text available
In the early 1990s, popular discontent with politics in Italy, New Zealand, and Japan led to the enactment of new electoral systems in all three countries. The results of the reforms have been mixed, as they have dramatically altered politics in some cases but in others have been a great disappointment to many observers. This essay examines the ref...
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Full-text available
In the 1980s, a wave of new–extremely clever and detailed–studies revolutionized the Japanese politics field. The empirical findings of this ‘new paradigm’ literature remain the conventional wisdom on Japanese policy-making patterns under the ‘1955 System’. In this paper, we offer a critical reinterpretation of the new paradigm literature. We do no...
Article
Full-text available
Japan's electoral system has long been held to be a primary shaper of party success and failure in Japanese politics. This paper offers a counterfactual simulation of electoral outcomes under Japan's long used SNTV/MMD electoral system. Because of features particular to the SNTV/MMD system, we are able to simulate party adaptation to alterations in...
Chapter
Japan is (in)famous for its clientelistic politics, for which the country’s electoral institutions are frequently blamed. Indeed, this chapter’s analysis of clientelism in Japan is more sympathetic than the other chapters in this volume to institutional explanations for voter–politician linkages. In Japan, electoral rules have helped protect the cl...
Article
The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has dominated Japanese politics since 1955, and the party’s even greater dominance of subnational level elections is much of the reason why. This article seeks to explain local electoral outcomes in Japan by focusing on two key features of the Japanese political system: the heavy centralization of governmental fin...
Article
This article examines ticket splitting in five different mixed-member electoral systems—Germany, New Zealand, Japan, Lithuania, and RussiA—and indicates the shortcomings inherent in any analysis of such ticket splitting that does not take into account the presence of the personal vote. We find that the personal vote plays a central part in shaping...
Article
Despite its democratic structure, Japan’s government has been dominated by a single party, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) since 1955. This book offers an explanation for why, even in the face of great dissatisfaction with the LDP, no opposition party has been able to offer itself as a credible challenger in Japan. Understanding such failure is...
Article
Utilizing data from 15 countries that employ mixed electoral systems, we provide a cross-national analysis of the defining elements and potentially constraining effects of such systems. Using district level election results, we examine the effects of the proportional representation (PR) and single-member district (SMD) tiers of mixed systems separa...
Article
Full-text available
What shapes a party’s ability to act strategically? We address this question by examining nomination behavior under Japanese SNTV/MMD, a system offering data that overcome the shortcomings of measurement error and static analysis that plague empirical research on party strategy. We run a series of generalized event counts (GEC) to model the number...
Article
Stephen Johnson, Opposition Politics in Japan: Strategies Under a One-Party Dominant Regime, London: Routledge, 2000. - - Volume 2 Issue 1 - Ethan Scheiner
Article
We examine the impact on parties and candidates of Japan's new electoral rules, first used in the 1996 House of Representatives election. We argue that the Japanese rules, which not only permit dual candidacy but also allow votes cast in the single member district (SMD) portion of the race to allocate proportional representation (PR) seats to dual...
Article
Scholars have long held that the urban–rural cleavage has been a critical line of division in Japan. In contrast, recent applications of rational choice to Japan have emphasized political structures over sociological factors. Kohno (1997)utilizes electoral data to indicate the importance of institutional factors, and largely rejects the centrality...

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Project (1)
Project
Analyses of the Japanese election.