Esther A Croes

Esther A Croes
Trimbos-instituut · Drug Monitoring

MD PhD

About

84
Publications
17,356
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4,529
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Introduction
Esther A Croes works at the department Drug Monitoring and Policy, Trimbos Institute. Her focus is on the epidemiology of addiction, acute and chronic somatic disorders in drug, alcohol and tobacco users, hepatitis and tobacco control.
Additional affiliations
May 2005 - present
Trimbos-instituut
January 2002 - December 2007
Erasmus MC
January 1998 - present

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Smoking is still one of the leading causes of death in the Netherlands and worldwide. The current pandemic has made the importance of smoking cessation even more visible. With the smoking cessation campaign PURE smoke-free (in Dutch: PUUR rookvrij), the Dutch government aims to encourage smokers to quit smoking. Physicians and other healthcare prov...
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Purpose Fentanyl is an analgesic that is frequently prescribed, which resulted in non-intentional as well as intentional misuse and deaths. Here, we present a postmortem case of a patient who clearly died of a fentanyl overdose due to an extensive number of fentanyl patches combined with oral intake of fentanyl and cocaine. We aimed to show how pos...
Article
Serious complications of drug abuse are frequently seen in acute care. When the clinical signs and symptoms of drug use are discordant with the expected clinical features of the intended substance used, it may involve misleading, contaminated and therefore dangerous illicit drugs. In 2014 and 2015, multiple young patients presented to several Dutch...
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Background Few European smokers receive professional counselling when attempting to quit smoking, resulting in suboptimal success rates and poor health outcomes. Healthcare providers in general practice play an important role in referring smokers to smoking cessation counselling. We chose the Netherlands as a case study to qualitatively explore whi...
Article
Smoking cessation yields large health gains, especially in times of COVID-19. Compared to measures to stop COVID-19, tobacco control is lagging behind. We studied smoking-cessation-care in the Netherlands, using qualitative interviews with physicians (N=55) and questionnaires among physicians and other healthcare providers (HCPs; N=883) in 2017. Wh...
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A number of recent studies have found low percentages of smokers among COVID-19 patients, causing scientists to conclude that smokers may be protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection. National and international media were interested in this story and we soon began receiving questions about this topic in general practice. In this article, we shed light...
Article
The 69th World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Health Sector Strategy for Viral Hepatitis, embracing a goal to eliminate hepatitis infection as a public health threat by 2030. This was followed by the World Health Organization's (WHO) global targets for the care and management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. T...
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Introduction: Although recent research shows that smokers respond differently to the COVID-19 pandemic, it offers little explanation of why some have increased their smoking, while others decreased it. In this study, we examined a possible explanation for these different responses: pandemic-related stress. Methods: We conducted an online survey...
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Background: The 69th World Health Assembly approved the Global Health Sector Strategy to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by 2030, which can become a reality with the recent launch of direct acting antiviral therapies. Reliable disease burden estimates are required for national strategies. This analysis estimates the global prevalence of...
Article
In deze tijd waarin de wereld op zijn kop staat door COVID-19 is goede rookstopzorg belangrijker dan ooit. Rokers zijn immers extra gevoelig voor longinfecties en door de herhaalde hand-mondbeweging lopen zij volgens de WHO een extra risico op COVID-19.
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Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionally affected by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In the Netherlands, active HCV transmission in PWID has practically been halted but uptake of HCV testing and linkage to care remains insufficient in this risk group. A national HCV in Addiction Care (HAC) quality improvement project...
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Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are usually asymptomatic for decades, thus targeted screening can prevent liver disease by timely diagnosis and linkage to care. More robust estimates of chronic HBV and HCV infections in the general population and risk groups are needed. Using a modified workbook method, the to...
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s The Netherlands is striving to achieve national elimination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) as one of the first countries worldwide. The favorable HCV epidemiology with both low prevalence and incidence, together with access to care and treatment, present excellent conditions to further build on towards this objective. The Dutch national plan on v...
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Introduction: The use of the new psychoactive substance 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and the number of 4-FA-related intoxications substantially increased in The Netherlands in recent years. We describe two patients with severe 4-FA-related complications and the characteristics of a large sample of 4-FA-intoxicated patients. Methods: Information on...
Article
Background The 69th World Health Assembly approved the Global Health Sector Strategy to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. Although no virological cure exists for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, existing therapies to control viral replication and prophylaxis to minimise mother-to-child transmission make elimination of HBV feasible. We aimed to e...
Book
Full-text available
A synthesis of current facts and figures on the use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and their consequences is reported annually in the National Drug Monitor. Highlights 2017: • The use of the stimulants ecstasy, cocaine and amphetamines increased between 2014-2016, whereas the prevalence of smoking decreased. • The number of registered drug overdos...
Article
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking on premature death in the Netherlands and the difference between causes of death for smokers and non-smokers. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHOD: Data on smoking behaviour were obtained from 40,000 people who participated in the CBS (Statistics Netherlands) health survey between 2001-2...
Article
Background: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is a serious, but underdiagnosed disease that can generally be treated successfully. Therefore, a nationwide HCV awareness campaign was implemented in the Netherlands targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) in addiction care ('PWID intervention') and high-risk groups in the general population ('public...
Article
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the European Union (EU), treatment and cure of HCV with direct-acting antiviral therapies began in 2014. WHO targets are to achieve a 65% reduction in liver-related deaths, a 90% reduction of new viral hepatitis infections, and 90% of pati...
Article
De herziene richtlijn ‘Behandeling van tabaksverslaving en stoppen met roken ondersteuning’ biedt zorgverleners handvatten om evidencebased zorg te verlenen aan rokende patiënten, wat ertoe zal leiden dat de rookprevalentie en de rookgerelateerde morbiditeit en mortaliteit zullen afnemen. De richtlijn is herzien op 4 onderwerpen: gedragsmatige inte...
Article
Objective: To investigate the impact of smoking on premature death in the Netherlands and the difference between causes of death for smokers and non-smokers. Design: Observational cohort study. Method: Data on smoking behaviour were obtained from 40,000 people who participated in the CBS (Statistics Netherlands) health survey between 2001-2006...
Article
Background: The 69th World Health Assembly approved the Global Health Sector Strategy to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by 2030, which can become a reality with the recent launch of direct acting antiviral therapies. Reliable disease burden estimates are required for national strategies. This analysis estimates the global prevalence o...
Article
Methods: Using a modelling approach, the size of the HCV-viraemic population in the Netherlands in 2014 was estimated using available data and expert consensus. The base scenario (based on the current Dutch situation) and different treatment scenarios (with increased efficacy, treatment uptake, and diagnoses) were modelled and the future HCV disea...
Article
- The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adults in the Netherlands is increasing but is still relatively low.- Increasing numbers of young people abroad are experimenting with e-cigarettes but no trend data for the Netherlands are available to date.- Young people who experiment with e-cigarettes are principally those young people who...
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Terneergeslagen zitten ze in de familiekamer van de intensive care. Zojuist is hun vriend overleden aan de gevolgen van een overdosering ecstasy. ‘Ik begrijp het niet, hoe kan dit nou?’, vraagt de vriendin van de overledene zich vertwijfeld af. ‘We zouden met z’n vijven voor een keertje stevig gaan dansen. We hebben alle voorzorgsmaatregelen genome...
Article
Besmetting met het hepatitis C virus (HCV) is een veel voorkomende infectieziekte onder (voormalig) injecterend harddrugsgebruikers. Kenmerkend voor (ex)drugsgebruikers is dat zij laat of niet met klachten in de gezondheidszorg terechtkomen. Ondanks toenemende behandelmogelijkheden wordt hepatitis C onder drugsgebruikers nog niet op grote schaal op...
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Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver related morbidity and mortality. In many countries, there is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological data that are crucial in implementing disease control measures as new treatment options become available. Published literature, unpublished data and expert consensus were used to...
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Morbidity and mortality attributable to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are increasing in many countries as the infected population ages. Models were developed for 15 countries to quantify and characterize the viremic population, as well as estimate the number of new infections and HCV related deaths from 2013 to 2030. Expert consensus wa...
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Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Treatment options are improving and may enhance prevention; however access for PWID may be poor. The availability in the literature of information on seven main topic areas (incidence, chronicity, genotypes, HIV co-infection, diagnosis and treatmen...
Article
In december 2013 ontstond ophef over een rapport van het Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) over de schadelijkheid van de elektronische sigaret (e-sigaret).
Article
Dat roken een belangrijke risicofactor is voor morbiditeit en mortaliteit kan als bekend worden verondersteld. Toch rookt ongeveer een kwart van de volwassen Nederlanders, want roken is een zeer verslavende gewoonte. Dat hoge verslavingspotentieel kan voor een substantieel deel worden toegeschreven aan de stof nicotine. Nicotine is niet de enige st...
Book
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The National Drug Monitor (NDM) is the core publication of drug monitoring in the Netherlands. It provides a current picture of the drug situation in the Netherlands to policymakers at the national and municipal levels, as well as to researchers and professionals in addiction care. The National Drug Monitor gives an overview of policy developments,...
Article
Hepatitis C in addiction care: a call for attention Esther Croes and Clary van der Veen Hepatitis C is a blood-borne viral disease with a high prevalence among (ever injecting) drug users. Many patients have not been traced and are thus a source for further transmission. Besides further transmission, in the end an untreated infection may lead to se...
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International studies show high prevalences of blood-borne infections in prisoners but little is known about infectious diseases in Dutch prisoners. This study assessed the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in Dutch prisoners and contributing risk factors. A cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted among male prisoners...
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Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare transmissible neurodegenerative disorder. An important determinant for CJD risk and phenotype is the M129V polymorphism of the human prion protein gene (PRNP), but there are also other coding and non-coding polymorphisms inside this gene. We tested whether three non-coding polymorphism located inside the PR...
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Injecting drug users (IDU) remain an important population at risk for blood-borne infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the Netherlands, a program is being implemented to offer annual voluntary screening for these infections to opioid drug users (ODUs) screened in methadone ca...
Article
Impaired cognition in later life may result from Alzheimer's disease-related pathology, but also from vascular pathology. We studied to what extent vascular risk explained heritability of cognition in 780 individuals, related in one extended pedigree in a genetically isolated population, in the ERF study. Heritability was estimated using variance c...
Article
Using 930 individuals connected in a single pedigree from an isolated population, participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study, we investigated the heritability of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima media thickness (IMT), and carotid plaque score. PWV was measured between the carotid and femoral arteries as an indic...
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We address the use of two informants in genetic studies and whether familial aggregation is similar for the three phenotypic subtypes of ADHD. Lifetime ADHD was diagnosed in a Dutch isolated population using parents and teachers as informants, creating two subgroups (one or two informants), then further divided into three phenotypic categories (ina...
Article
An international study of the epidemiologic characteristics of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) was established in 1993 and included national registries in France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. In 1997, the study was extended to Australia, Austria, Canada, Spain, and Switzerland. Data were pooled from all partici...
Article
We conducted a meta-analysis to re-evaluate the role of the dopamine D4 receptor gene 48-base-pair- repeat (DRD4) polymorphism in mood disorders. DRD4 allele frequencies were compared between 917 patients with unipolar (UP) or bipolar affective disorder (BP) and 1164 control subjects from 12 samples, using the Cochrane Review Manager. An associatio...
Article
The challenges inherent in diagnosing and treating patients with Alzheimer's disease are increasing. Early diagnosis and modification of risk factors have received growing attention from the media in recent years. As a result, the general public, and patients and family members, are increasingly better informed about the disease, its genetic backgr...
Article
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is one of the human prion disorders. It has a rapid disease course and is invariably fatal. Currently, no therapy is available. The causative agent is thought to be the prion protein, which acquires a pathological isoform through a conformational change and is hardly degradable. Experimental research has identified s...
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A collaborative study of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has been carried out from 1993 to 2000 and includes data from 10 national registries, the majority in Western Europe. In this study, we present analyses of predictors of survival in sporadic (n = 2304), iatrogenic (n = 106) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n = 86) and in...
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The most common familial early onset dementia mutations are found in the genes involved in Alzheimer's disease; the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the presenilin 1 and 2 (PSEN1 and 2) genes; the prion protein gene (PRNP) may be involved. Following identification of a two-octapeptide repeat insertion in PRNP, we conducted a meta-analysis to inv...
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The prion protein gene (PRNP) plays a central role in the origin of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), but there is growing interest in other polymorphisms that may be involved in CJD. Polymorphisms upstream of PRNP that may modulate the prion protein production as well as polymorphisms in the prion-like doppel gene (PRND) have been studied, with inc...
Article
Since homozygosity MM at codon 129 of the prion protein gene is a recognised risk factor in all forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we studied the distribution of codon 129 polymorphism in patients in France and in the UK with CJD transmitted iatrogenically by human growth hormone. The overall frequencies of codon 129 genotypes in these patie...
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We analyzed the PRNP M129V polymorphism in a Dutch population-based early-onset Alzheimer's disease sample. We observed a significant association between early-onset Alzheimer's disease and homozygosity of M129V (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.3; p = 0.02) with the highest risk for V homozygotes (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.4-7.1;...
Article
A variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has had major impact in Europe during the last decade. In this article, we review the aetiology of vCJD and its relation with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Further, treatment of the disease, the strategies focusing on prevention of transmission, future prospects, and the limitations encountered...
Article
A variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakobdisease (vCJD) has had major impact in Europe during the last decade. In this article, we review the aetiology of vCJD and its relation with bovine spongiform.
Article
The cause of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is unknown. Previous studies found a link with a history of surgery but had methodologic problems. To help elucidate medical and associated risk factors for sporadic CJD as part of the 1993 to 1995 European Union collaborative studies of CJD. Medical and associated risk factors from 326 patients...
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A 47 year old man is described who developed pathology proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) 38 years after receiving a low dose of human derived growth hormone (hGH) as part of a diagnostic procedure. The patient presented with a cerebellar syndrome, which is compatible with iatrogenic CJD. This is the longest incubation period described so far f...