Esperanza Díaz

Esperanza Díaz
University of Bergen | UiB · Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care

Doctor of Medicine

About

131
Publications
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Publications

Publications (131)
Article
Full-text available
Background Migrants in Norway bear a higher burden of COVID-19 infections and hospitalization as compared to non-migrants. The aim of our study was to understand how migrants perceive their own health risk, how they access information regarding the preventive measures, the degree of trust in this information, in the Norwegian authorities and the ne...
Article
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Background Mental health symptoms among refugees are common, often related to chronic pain disorders, and their management is usually challenging. Studies evaluating the effect of group therapies among adult refugees to improve mental health symptoms are scarce. Aims To assess the effect of Teaching Recovery Techniques (TRT) on mental health and t...
Article
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This cross-sectional study sought to quantify medication use and change in use of prescription-only medications purchased in the past in Syria without medical prescription versus today in Norway in an adult population originating from Syria and living in western Norway. Data on adults born in Syria and living in Norway during December 2019–January...
Article
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Background Vaccination is key to reducing the spread and impacts of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. Migrants, compared to majority populations, tend to have lower vaccination rates, as well as higher infection disease burdens. Previous studies have tried to understand these disparities based on factors such as misinformation, vaccine hesita...
Article
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Introduction As a response to the humanitarian crisis in Syria, the Irish government agreed to accept up to 4000 refugees for resettlement in Ireland in 2016. Prior to their arrival in Ireland, health screening was carried out by the International Organisation for Migration. However, no population-level measurement of the health status or needs tak...
Preprint
Background: Vaccination is key to reduce the spread and impacts of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. Migrants, compared to majority populations, tend to have lower vaccination rates, as well as higher infection disease burdens. Previous studies have tried to understand these disparities based on factors such as misinformation, vaccine hesitan...
Article
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General Practice/Family Medicine is at the forefront of the clinical response to the COVID-19 crisis just as it is known to be a critical component of healthcare systems globally. A large number of COVID-19 related papers have been published and dedicated funding calls were available in many countries and across the European Union. However, General...
Preprint
Introduction: As a response to the humanitarian crisis in Syria, the Irish government agreed to accept up to 4,000 refugees for resettlement in Ireland in 2016. Prior to their arrival in Ireland, health screening was carried out by the International Organisation for Migration. However, no population-level measurement of the health status or needs t...
Article
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Objective Populations of South Asian (SA) origin are at high risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related complications. Analysis of T2D prevention interventions for these populations show that limited attention has been given to facilitating increased physical activity (PA) in a culturally appropriate manner. The aim of this feasibility study was to...
Article
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Background The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and control measures adopted have had a disproportionate impact on workers, with migrants being a group specifically affected but poorly studied. This scoping review aims to describe the evidence published on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical and mental health of migrant workers. Met...
Article
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Objectives Refugees in comparison with non-refugee patients may face higher unmet mental healthcare needs. The mechanisms underlying these disparities are still poorly understood. The general practitioner (GP) plays a vital role in refugees’ mental health (MH), managing complaints within primary care and acting as gatekeeper to specialist services....
Article
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Background: The prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) among adults in the general population is around 5-10 %. Few studies have been conducted on the prevalence among patients who consult their general practitioner. There are also few studies on associations between RLS and other common complaints such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chron...
Article
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Background Refugees in high-income countries face barriers to healthcare access even when they have the same rights and entitlements as the host population. Disadvantages in healthcare access contribute to differences in health outcomes and impact acculturation. This study explores perceived changes in health status and experiences with the Norwegi...
Article
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Objective The aim of this study was to examine the associations between characteristics of physicians working in primary care emergency units (PCEUs) and the outcome of assessments of the medical records. Design Data from a previous case-control study was used to evaluate factors related to medical errors. Setting Ten Norwegian PCEUs were include...
Article
Aims: To provide an overview of published research on migration and health conducted in Norway and identify gaps in the research field. Methods: Applying a scoping review methodology, we searched Medline for articles on migration health in Norway published between 2008 and 2020, and assessed them according to research topic, methodology, user-invol...
Article
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Objectives This study aims to examine associations, predictors and pharmacological treatment of chronic pain and mental health problems among Syrian refugees in a longitudinal perspective. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting We collected survey data among Syrian refugees in Lebanon granted resettlement to Norway (self-administered questionna...
Article
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Newcomers to Canada experience resettlement challenges that affect their mental well-being. Guided by an intersectionality theoretical framework, we sought the perspectives of immigrant service agencies on factors influencing immigrants’ mental health in Alberta, Canada. Data were collected by means of qualitative interviews and focus groups with i...
Article
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Background Norway implemented a regular cervical cancer screening program based on triennial screening in 1995, recommending participation of all women between 25 and 69 years of age. Somali and Pakistani women have the lowest participation in cervical cancer screening in Norway. This study evaluates the effect of a community-based intervention aim...
Article
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Background Understanding the differential utilization of healthcare services is essential to address the public health challenges. Through the migration process, refugees move from one set of health risk factors to another and can face multiple healthcare challenges along their journey. Yet how these changing risk factors influence refugees’ use of...
Article
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The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are amplified among socially vulnerable groups, including international migrants, in terms of both disease transmission and outcomes and the consequences of mitigation measures. Migrants are overrepresented in COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed cases, hospital admissions, intensive care treatment and death statistics...
Article
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Aim Immigrants in Norway have higher COVID-19 notification and hospitalisation rates than Norwegian-born individuals. The knowledge about the role of socioeconomic factors to explain these differences is limited. We investigate the relationship between socioeconomic indicators at group level and epidemiological data for all notified cases of COVID-...
Article
Aims Selected lifestyle interventions proven effective for White‐European populations have been culturally adapted for South Asian populations living in Europe, who are at higher risk of type 2 diabetes. However, a limited theoretical basis underpins how cultural adaptations are believed to augment intervention effectiveness. We undertook a realist...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Hvordan covid-19 rammer ulike demografiske grupper ulikt har betydning både for spredning av smitte og for vurdering av tiltak og tilrettelegging av informasjon og råd både lokalt og nasjonalt. I denne rapporten presenterer vi statistikk som gir et bilde av smittesituasjonen blant utenlandsfødte som bor i Bergen. Koronapandemien har i Norge rammet...
Preprint
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Background: Migrants in Norway bear a higher burden of COVID-19 infections and hospitalization as compared to non-migrants. The aim of our study was to understand migrants’: i) perception of health risk, ii) access to information, iii) degree of trust in and iv) adherence to recommendations. Methods: An online survey was performed between May and J...
Article
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Background Patients’ experiences with health providers and their diagnostic and treatment expectations are shaped by cultural health beliefs and previous experiences with healthcare services in home country. This study explores how Southern European immigrant parents navigate the Norwegian healthcare system, through its focus on how this group mana...
Article
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Background There is little verified information on global healthcare utilization by irregular migrants. Understanding how immigrants use healthcare services based on their needs is crucial to establish effective health policy. We compared healthcare utilization between irregular migrants, documented migrants, and Spanish nationals in a Spanish auto...
Article
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COVID-19 took centre stage in Scandinavian countries in early 2020, requiring a rapid and adaptable response to the pandemic. Countries with available data show higher COVID-19 mortality and morbidity among migrants, resulting in an urgent need to discuss and understand how and why COVID-19 impacts migrants differently. Considering the similarities...
Article
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Chronic pain is common among refugees, and often related to mental health problems. Its management, however, is often challenging. A randomized waitlist-controlled trial was designed to study the effect of group physiotherapy activity and awareness intervention (PAAI) on reducing pain disorders, and secondarily improving mental health, among Syrian...
Article
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Background Forced migrants can be exposed to various stressors that can impact their health and wellbeing. How the different stages in the migration process impacts health is however poorly explored. The aim of this study was to examine changes in self-rated health (SRH) and quality of life (QoL) among a cohort of adult Syrian refugees before and a...
Article
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Background: Patient safety incidents defined as any unintended or unexpected incident that could have or were judged to have led to patient harm, are reported as relatively common. In this study patient complaints have been used as an indicator to uncover the occurrence of patient safety incidents in primary care emergency units (PCEUs) in Norway....
Article
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Objectives Conflict-driven displacement is an indisputable social determinant of health. Yet, data on changes in health along the migration trajectories of refugees are scarce. This study aims to assess the longitudinal changes in somatic and mental health and use of medication among Syrian refugees relocating from a conflict-near transit setting i...
Article
Background Conflict-driven disruption in continuity of care for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is likely to have adverse public health impact. Yet, data on the prevalence and treatment coverage of NCDs among refugees is scarce. In this study we aim to assess the changes in prevalence of NCDs and use of relevant medication among Syrian refugees fr...
Article
Background Refugees in Norway show low levels of physical activity, and have relatively high prevalence of pain disorders and post-traumatic symptoms. Physical inactivity can be both a cause of and a consequence of physical and mental symptoms. In CHART study (Changing Health and health care needs Along the Syrian Refugees' Trajectories to Norway),...
Article
Background Lack of basic infrastructure and poor provision of health services in conflict settings and during flight can have a negative impact on health. The overall health status of refugees seems to improve after arrival at a safe destination. This may be related to a safer environment and better access to health care services, but prior studies...
Article
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Background: There is little verified information on the global health status of undocumented migrants (UMs). Our aim is to compare the prevalence of the main chronic diseases and of multimorbidity in undocumented migrants, documented migrants, and Spanish nationals in a Spanish autonomous community. Methods: Retrospective observational study of...
Article
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Importance Immigrant women have lower participation in cervical cancer screening (CCS) programs. At the same time, some groups of immigrants have higher prevalence of cervical cancer. Targeted interventions are therefore necessary. Objective To determine whether an intervention among general practitioners (GPs) could influence immigrant women’s pa...
Article
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Introduction Millions of women and girls have been exposed to female genital cutting (FGC). The practice of FGC extends beyond countries in Africa and Asia in which it is traditionally practiced. Women living with FGC in Norway have been reported to be in need of healthcare, but there is evidence of suboptimal use of healthcare services among this...
Article
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Background: The health of forcibly displaced individuals changes along their migration path and estimates of disease burden are essential to develop health care policies and practices adequately corresponding to their health care needs. This study aims to describe the health status and use of medication among Syrian refugees in two different migra...
Article
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Background: There is a high prevalence of pain and post-traumatic symptoms among refugees and feasible interventions to manage these are needed. However, knowledge about the effect of physiotherapy and psychological group interventions among refugees is scarce. Our aim is to determine whether two different interventions, the Physiotherapy Activity...
Article
Background Refugees are often exposed to various stressors before, during and after migration that can cause adverse health effects. Prior research indicates that the health status of refugees is a significant factor in determining their success in resettlement. This study aims to assess self-rated health (SRH) and factors associated with SRH among...
Article
Background Refugees display high rates of chronic pain. However, the relationship between refugee-related exposures introduced along their migration trajectories and the development of chronic pain remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of stressors induced at various migration stages on chronic pain in Syrian refugees. Me...
Article
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Background: Thai massage is a highly gendered and culturally specific occupation. Many female Thai masseuses migrate to Norway as marriage migrants and as such are entitled to the same public healthcare as Norwegian citizens. Additionally, anyone who is not fluent in Norwegian is entitled to have an interpreter provided by the public healthcare sy...
Article
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Background: Immigrants face barriers in accessing healthcare services in high-income countries. Inequalities in health and access to healthcare services among immigrants have been previously investigated. However, little is known on the sub-Saharan African immigrants' (SSA) access to the Norwegian healthcare system. Methods: The study had a qual...
Article
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Background: The attendance to cervical cancer screening is low among immigrants in many high-income countries. Although several interventions have been experimentally tested,implementation remains a challenge. Several factors are an impediment, including the lack of methodological descriptions of the development and implementation of such interven...
Article
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Background: Mortality is a robust indicator of health and offers valuable insight into the health of immigrants. However, mortality estimates can vary significantly depending on the manner in which immigrant status is defined. Here, we assess the impact of nationality, country of origin, and length of stay in the host country on mortality estimate...
Article
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Objectives This study examined the barriers and facilitators to community belonging for immigrants in Alberta, Canada. Study design The study used a qualitative descriptive research design. Methods A total of 53 immigrant service providers in the province of Alberta participated in interviews and focus groups. The sample was purposively recruited...
Article
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Background: The effectiveness of any national healthcare system is highly correlated with the strength of primary care within that system. A strong research basis is essential for a firm and vibrant primary care system. General practitioners (GPs) are at the centre of most primary care systems. Objectives: To inform on actions required to increase...
Article
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Objective: To explore health care providers’ (HCPs) experiences regarding cervical cancer screening (CCS) among immigrant women, their strategies to facilitate these consultations and their need for further information. Design: Exploratory qualitative design. Setting: HCPs who perform CCS: general practitioners, midwives and private gynaecologists,...
Article
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Introduction: Immigrants and their offspring constitute 16.3% of the population in Norway. Knowledge about their contraceptive use is important in order to inform adequate family planning services. Prior research has shown less use of contraception among first-generation immigrants as compared to non-immigrant women. Our aim is to compare the use...
Article
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Background The current migration flow into Europe is leading to a growing ethnically diverse population in many European countries. Now more than ever, those populations have different healthcare needs, languages, traditions, and previous level of care. This higher level of diversity is likely to increase health inequalities that might challenge he...
Article
Objectives: South Asian migrant populations have a high risk of non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study is to provide in-depth insight into key success factors and challenges in developing culturally adapted lifestyle interventions to prevent T2D within South Asian migrant populations. Study design: The st...
Article
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Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a great concern, considering all the potential health implications. Use of health care services related to FGM/C by women who have been subjected to FGM/C in Norway remains to be understood. This study aims to explore the health care-seeking patterns for FGM/C-related health care problems, amo...