Espen Walderhaug

Espen Walderhaug
Oslo University Hospital · Departmen of Addiction Treatment

PhD

About

26
Publications
4,818
Reads
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663
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2010 - present
Oslo University Hospital
Position
  • Project Manager
September 2008 - September 2010
Yale University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2008 - September 2008
University of Oslo
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (26)
Article
Full-text available
Serotonin (5-HT) plays a central role in mood regulation and impulsivity. We studied whether healthy men and women react differently on mood and impulsivity measures during acute tryptophan depletion (ATD). We also studied the relative contribution of a functional length triallelic polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter, d...
Article
Full-text available
Dropout from substance use disorder treatment is usually investigated and understood from a perspective of quantitative patient-related factors. Patients’ own perspectives (user perspective) are rarely reported. This study, therefore, aimed to explore patients’ own understanding of their dropout from residential substance use disorder treatment. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Polysubstance use disorder is prevalent in treatment-seeking patients with substance use disorder (SUD), with a higher risk of developing comorbid psychiatric symptoms, more pervasive deficits in cognitive functions, and inferior treatment results. The present study investigates if individuals with polysubstance use disorder who achi...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose There is a need to assess the quality of treatment for Substance Use Disorder (SUD), and document SUD patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The study aims to describe Norwegian SUD patients’ HRQoL as measured by EQ-5D, compared to a general population sample, and discuss the potential usefulness of the EQ-5D to monitor HRQoL for...
Article
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Purpose The Severity Indices of Personality Problems 118 (SIPP-118) is a self-report questionnaire that aims to measure core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning that can change over time. In this study, we aimed to assess the facet strength of the 16 facets across three large clinical samples. Methods Data from Norwegian and Dut...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Treatment completion is the greatest challenge for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs). A previous investigation showed that complementary horse-assisted therapy (cHAT) was associated with higher retention in treatment and completion than standard treatment alone. This randomized controlled trial further explored the benefi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Co-occurrence of substance use disorder and personality disorder (PD) is associated with greater functional impairment and mutual deterioration of the prognosis. More information is needed about the extent of personality problems in substance use disorder patients and when these problems can be assessed in a reliable way. The aim of this...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Combination of drugs is the main cause of fatal overdose, and polydrug use is associated with greater treatment needs. This study investigates the prevalence and registration of multiple substance dependence. MATERIAL AND METHOD Substance dependence diagnoses for 147 inpatients at the Department of Addiction Treatment, Oslo University...
Article
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INTRODUCTION: Dropout from inpatient treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) is an ongoing challenge. The aim of the current study was to identify demographic, substance use, and psychological factors that predict dropout from post-detoxification inpatient SUD treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 454 patients from five inpatient SUD cente...
Article
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This study investigated psychometric properties of a dimensional measure of maladaptive core pathology for personality disorders, the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP). The study analyzed data from 941 respondents in a community sample, 949 psychiatric patients with Personality Disorders (PD), and 413 psychiatric patients without PD i...
Article
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Introduction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbid disorder in patients suffering from substance use disorder (SUD). Individuals with co-occurring SUD and ADHD are more likely than SUD patients without ADHD to have developed SUD at a younger age, be polysubstance users, and need inpatient treatment more often. The pre...
Article
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Introduction: Chronic polysubstance abuse (SUD) is associated with neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes. Neurocognitive impairment tends to affect quality of life, occupational functioning, and the ability to benefit from therapy. Neurocognitive assessment is thus of importance, but costly and not widely available. Therefore, in a busy c...
Article
Full-text available
Background Keeping substance use disorder patients actively engaged in treatment is a challenge. Horse-assisted therapy (HAT) is increasingly used as a complementary therapy, with claimed motivational and other benefits to physical and psychological health. This naturalistic study aimed to assess HAT’s impact on the duration and completion of treat...
Article
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Previous imaging studies have suggested that there is an age-related decline in brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) measures in healthy subjects. This paper addresses whether the availability of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B (5-HT(1B)) is seen to decrease with aging via PET imaging. Forty-eight healthy control subjects (mean age ± SD, 30 ± 10 y...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Objectives. Although serotonergic mechanisms have been implicated in pathological gambling (PG), no ligand-based imaging studies have assessed serotonin receptors in individuals with PG. Given its role in substance addictions and its abundance in brain regions implicated in PG, we evaluated serotonin 1B receptors (5-HT(1B)Rs) in PG. Method...
Article
This pilot study tested whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients with impaired conditioned fear acquisition were refractory to open-label duloxetine treatment. Patients with a differential conditioned fear response at pre-treatment subsequently demonstrated significant reductions in PTSD symptoms. These data provide initial evidence of...
Chapter
The primary addictive substance in tobacco is nicotine (Le Foll and Goldberg, Handb Exp Pharmacol 192:335–367, 2009), although other chemicals also contribute to the reinforcing properties of tobacco smoke (Rose et al, Pharmacol Biochem Behav 23L:289–293, 1985); (Rose and Behm, Pharmacol Biochem Behav 28:305–310, 1987); (Rose and Levin, Br J Addict...
Chapter
Full-text available
Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a major medical and social burden, but little is known about the specific pathophysiology of BPD. The key biogenic amines in the aminergic system include serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and acetylcholine (ACh). By analyzing these neurotransmitters, this chapter highlights three hypotheses in the patho...
Article
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Although there is evidence that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors provide some benefit in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), most meta-analytical reviews have concluded that effect sizes are small and, moreover, that there may be relatively little benefit for some populations (e. g., combat veterans with co-morbid major d...
Article
Reduced serotonergic neurotransmission is implicated in impulsive behavior. We studied the triallelic system of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and acute manipulation of serotonin together to further delineate the mechanisms by which serotonergic neurotransmission affects impulsivity. Fifty-two healthy participan...
Article
Rare apoptosis-promoting functional variants in the apoptosis protease activating factor 1 (APAF1) gene were recently reported to co-segregate with major depression in male members of families from Utah. In order to estimate the impact of these variants on risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) in the general population, we surveyed the frequency...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid tryptophan depletion studies investigate serotonin using amino acid precursor depletion, which transiently reduces the brain level of serotonin. This study compares the effects of serotonin reduction given on the first test day (when the situation is novel) with the effects of serotonin reduction given on the second test day (when the environ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Reduced serotonergic neurotransmission contributes to the pathophysiology of mood disorders, and the majority of modern antidepressants block the serotonin reuptake in the brain. It is also known that people with major depressive disorder are frequently found to have impaired impulse control, and that impulsivity is associated with serotonin. In t...
Article
Full-text available
Reduced serotonergic activity has been associated with impulsive behavior; however, intervention studies have been scarce. To examine whether induced lowering of serotonin (5-HT) levels would increase behavioral measures of impulsivity. Twenty-four healthy young males ingested a mixture of the essential amino acids except for tryptophan in a balanc...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
This prospective survey includes patients starting in inpatient treatment at five clinics within interdisciplinary specialized treatment for substance abuse in Central Norway. With the planned recruitment period of two years (2014-2016), it is estimated that around 600 patients may be recruited to the study. The main aim is to identify factors that predict treatment outcomes for patients receiving inpatient treatment for drug addiction. We will study the impact of different patient characteristics, and investigate whether treatment related factors contribute to explaining variation in treatment outcome. The project focuses on two key outcomes in substance abuse treatment; treatment completion, and relapse. Explanatory variables at patient-level include demographic variables, motivation, severity of dependence, mental health problems and quality of life. The following variables are included as indicators of treatment process; waiting time, treatment intensity, treatment time, patient satisfaction, aftercare and municipal support services. Patients answer a questionnaire at the beginning and end of inpatient stay. Patients are contacted and interviewed three months, and one year,- after discharge from index stay. Data also includes information from medical records. The study may contribute to more and better knowledge of some of the factors that are important for outcomes in inpatient substance use treatment. The results will be relevant to efforts to develop treatment options that best suit patients' complex needs.