Esme Fuller-Thomson

Esme Fuller-Thomson
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Social Work

PhD, MSW

About

208
Publications
22,954
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5,290
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 1995 - present
University of Toronto
Position
  • Professor & Sandra Rotman Endowed Chair

Publications

Publications (208)
Article
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Background A burgeoning literature indicates adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poorer adult health outcomes. Most research to date has not focused on the outcomes among Canadian older adults. Methods The objectives of the current study were to identify the prevalence and adjusted odds of 2 mental health and 7 physical health...
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This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with complete mental health (CMH) among a nationally representative sample of Canadians who had contact with child welfare services before age 16. CMH was defined as (1) the absence of suicidality, mental illness, and substance abuse or dependence in the preceding year; (2) happiness...
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Background: Sensory impairments and cognitive impairment are increasing in scope due to the aging population. Objective: To investigate the association between hearing impairment, vision impairment, and dual sensory impairment with cognitive impairment among older adults. Methods: Secondary analysis of a combination of ten consecutive waves (2...
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Despite the mental health and social challenges of ADHD, many adults with ADHD can achieve complete mental health (CMH), which is defined as, (1) the absence of mental illness, substance dependence, and suicidality; (2) the presence of happiness/life satisfaction; and (3) social/psychological well-being. The objective of this study was to compare t...
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Despite the numerous adverse consequences of exposure to parental domestic violence (PDV), some of those with a history of PDV thrive in adulthood and achieve complete mental health (CMH). This study investigates whether lifetime history of mental illness (depression, anxiety, substance use disorder) and social support (social provision scale) medi...
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A burgeoning literature indicates adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with chronic illness. Most research, to date, has not focused on health outcomes among older adults. The objectives of the current study were to identify the prevalence and adjusted odds of two mental health and six physical health conditions among survivors of ch...
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It is unclear whether racial or nativity health disparities exist among older Canadians and what social and economic disadvantages may contribute to these differences. Secondary analysis of data collected from respondents aged 55 and older in the Canadian General Social Survey 27 was performed. The outcome variable was self-reported physical health...
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Background: Numerous studies suggest the prevalence of dementia has decreased over the past several decades in Western countries. Less is known about whether these trends differ by gender or age cohort, and if generational differences in educational attainment explain these trajectories. Objective: 1) To detect temporal trends in the age-sex-rac...
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate Black–White differences associated with hearing loss among older adults living in the United States. Method Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2017 American Community Survey (ACS) with a replication analysis of the 2016 ACS. The ACS is an annual nationally representative survey of A...
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Background Research has identified a link between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between ADHD and GAD, and to identify significant correlates of GAD among those with ADHD. Methods Data were derived from the nationally representative...
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Aim (a) To document the prevalence and odds of (i) alcohol use disorders, (ii) cannabis use disorders, (iii) other drug use disorders and (iv) any substance use disorder (SUD), among young adults with and without ADHD, and (b) to investigate the degree to which the association between ADHD and SUDs is attenuated by socio-demographics, early adversi...
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Objective The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with complete mental health (CMH) among a nationally representative sample of Canadians who had a history of suicide attempts. Methods Data for this study came from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey–Mental Health. A subsample of 796 respondents who had ever attempted sui...
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This study aimed to address knowledge gaps related to the prevention and management of mental health responses among those with a condition that presents risk of severe COVID-19 infection. A scoping review that mapped English and Chinese-language studies (2019-2020) located in MEDLINE (Ovid), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature...
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Research on recovery from drug dependence is largely focused on abstinence without consideration of other aspects of mental health. The present study seeks to identify among Canadians with a lifetime history of illicit drug dependence, the prevalence of, and factors associated with (1) remission, (2) absence of psychiatric disorders (APD), and (3)...
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Objective 1) To examine the relationship between migraine status and complete mental health (CMH) among a nationally representative sample of Canadians; 2) To identify significant correlates of CMH among those with migraine. Methods Secondary analysis of the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health (CCHS-MH) (N=21,...
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Background Few representative studies have examined optimal mental health among those with a history of alcohol dependence (AD). Objectives In a representative sample of Canadians with a history of AD, to determine prevalence of, and factors associated with 1) remission from AD, 2) the absence of Substance Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders (SDP...
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PurposeThis study aimed to address knowledge gaps about post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mid-age and older adults, with particular attention to the relationship of PTSD with nutrition and with ethnicity and immigrant status.Methods Binary logistic regression analysis of weighted comprehensive cohort data from the baseline Canadian Longitudi...
Article
Purpose : The objectives of this study are:1)To identify temporal trends in the age-sex-race/ethnicity adjusted prevalence of vision impairment among Americans aged 65+ from 2008-2017; To determine if these temporal trends in vision impairment differ by 2)gender and age cohort, and 3)race/ethnicity, and; 4)To investigate if improvements in cohort e...
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Aim This study investigated the prevalence and odds of suicide attempts among adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to those without and identified factors associated with suicide attempts among adults with ADHD. Methods Secondary analysis of the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey–Mental Healt...
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The purpose of this study is to investigate Black-White differences in hearing problems among older adults living in the United States. Secondary data analyses were conducted using the 2017 American Community Survey (ACS) with a replication analysis in the 2016 ACS. The ACS is an annual nationally representative survey of Americans living in commun...
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Psychological distress is associated with a range of negative outcomes including lower quality of life and an increased risk of premature all-cause mortality. The prevalence of, and factors associated with, psychological distress among middle-aged and older Canadians are understudied. Using the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) baseline d...
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To the Editor The Original Investigation by Swayambunathan and colleagues¹ is a methodologically rigorous analysis of the Framingham study that indicates that the incidence of hip fractures steeply declined between 1970 and 2010. Despite taking into account all the usual risk factors for hip fracture, including older age, female sex, smoking, heavy...
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Objectives Although obesity remains relatively rare among Vietnamese Americans, the prevalence of diabetes has increased in this population. This study aims to: 1. Estimate the prevalence of diabetes among non-obese Vietnamese American adults compared to non-obese non-Hispanic whites (NHW). 2. Identify factors associated with diabetes among non-obe...
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This study examined the prevalence and social determinants of depression among refugee and non-refugee adults aged 45–85 in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Bivariate analyses and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. The prevalence of depression was higher in a sample of 272 refugees (22.1%) and 5059 non-refuge...
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Targeted screening for sexual abuse is needed for social workers to accurately identify those at risk. Drawing on a cumulative disadvantage framework, this study investigates how parental addictions, parental mental illness, and exposure to domestic violence, both individually and cumulatively, are associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Two...
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Objective To investigate: 1) whether baseline non-flourishing mental health is associated with a higher probability of all-cause mortality over 18-year follow-up after controlling for many risk factors for premature mortality; and 2) what other factors, independent of mental health status, are associated with all-cause mortality after adjustment fo...
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Objectives Later-life cognitive impairment is an important health issue; however, little is known about the condition among diverse groups such as immigrants. This study aims to examine whether the healthy immigrant effect exists for verbal fluency, an indicator of cognitive functioning, among anglophone middle-aged and older adults in Canada. Met...
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Background Despite many negative health and social consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), some of those with a history of adversity manage to thrive in adulthood and achieve complete mental health (CMH). CMH is defined as the absence of mental illness in combination with almost daily happiness and/or life satisfaction, as well as high levels...
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Objectives To examine associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and nutrition factors among Canadian-born and immigrant adults. Methods The sample included participants of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) (n = 27,211; 45–85 years) categorized by ethnicity (native white, native minority, immigrant white, and immigran...
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Objectives: To identify among Canadian adults who have ever been dependent upon cannabis, the prevalence of risk and protective factors associated with (1) cannabis remission, (2) the absence of psychiatric disorders or addictions in the past year (APD), and (3) positive mental health (PMH). Method: Data from Statistics Canada's nationally repre...
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Ideally, the clinical goal for individuals with a history of anxiety disorder is not only to remit from the disorder, but also to reach optimal well-being. This broader concept of recovery aligns with Keyes' concept of complete mental health (CMH), including presence of happiness or life satisfaction, and social and psychological well-being, and ab...
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Background: Psychological distress increases mortality risk; there is little knowledge about its prevelance and contributory factors in older populations. Methods: Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging baseline data (2010-2015) were analyzed to examine the relationship between Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale-K10 and immigrant status (recen...
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The main purpose of this study was to compare the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders among foreign-born and Canadian-born adults in middle and later life. Using baseline data of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (2010–2015), multivariable binary logistic regression was conducted to investigate anxiety diagnosis and immigrant status, wh...
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Objectives Diabetes is a prevalent and serious public health problem, particularly among older adults. A robust literature has shown that adverse childhood experiences contribute to the development of health problems in later life, including diabetes. Family member incarceration during childhood is an under-investigated yet increasingly common adve...
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Limbic-predominant Age-related TDP-43 Encephalopathy (LATE) is a disease whose clinical presentation mimics that of Alzheimer's disease. TDP-43 proteinopathy associated with LATE has been identified in more than 20% of autopsies of community-dwelling adults over the age of 80. It is believed to contribute significantly toward tau-negative dementia....
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This study aimed to document the prevalence and factors associated with complete mental health (CMH) among Aboriginal peoples living in Canada. CMH is comprised of three parts: 1) the absence of major depressive episode, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, serious suicidal thoughts, and substance dependence in the past year as measured by the Worl...
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This study’s objective was to identify which factors attenuate refugees’ higher odds of depression. A secondary analysis of 272 refugees and 29,398 non-refugees in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging, a 2012 study of Canadians aged 45 to 85, was conducted. The prevalence of depression was higher among refugees than non-refugees (22.1% vs 15.2%...
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Background: Little is known about depression in middle-aged and older Canadians and how it is affected by health determinants, particularly immigrant status. This study examined depression and socio-economic, health, immigration and nutrition-related factors in older adults. Methods: Using weighted comprehensive cohort data from the baseline Can...
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To the Editor We read with interest the article by Newbury et al¹ on the association of air pollution exposure and psychotic experiences during adolescence. We agree with the authors that the strong association between exposure to nitrogen oxides and psychotic experiences implicates road traffic. We hypothesize that exposure to the extensively stud...
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To explore factors associated with recovery from suicidal ideation among Aboriginal peoples living off reserve in Canada. Recovery is defined as being free of serious suicidal thoughts for the past year. Data for this study came from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, a nationally representative sample of Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are livin...
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Childhood physical abuse can result in serious behavioral, mental health, and physical health conditions. There is a need for improved strategies to identify households in which childhood physical abuse occurs. This article explores three potential correlates of childhood physical abuse: childhood exposure to parental domestic violence, parental ad...
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Objectives: The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) to determine the prevalence of diabetes among nonobese Japanese-Americans and to determine the adjusted odds of diabetes among nonobese Japanese-Americans compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs); (2) to identify the risk factors associated with having diabetes in a large sample of nonobes...
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The objectives of this study were to identify the gender-specific prevalence of suicide attempts among those with migraine and to examine what factors are associated with suicide attempts among migraineurs. This study was a nationally representative analysis of the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH) with 21,744 responde...
Article
Although there have been many studies on the link between chronic pain and suicidality, surprisingly little research has focused on resilience and recovery among those in chronic and disabling pain who have had suicidal thoughts. The objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence and correlates of recovery from suicidal thoughts among tho...
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The objectives of this study were to identify factors that contribute to (1) remission from suicidal ideation, and (2) remission from suicide attempt, among Canadians with a lifetime history of suicide attempt. Data for this study came from Statistics Canada's nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. A sample o...
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Objectives: The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of, and factors associated with, complete mental health (CMH) among stroke survivors aged 50+ years. Method: Bivariate and logistic regression analyses of nationally representative data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey–Mental Health of 11,157 older adults aged 50+ y...
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Background Family doctors are increasingly managing the diabetes care of Korean-Americans. Little is known about the prevalence of diabetes among non-obese Korean-Americans, or the extent to which they receive timely and appropriate diabetes care. The purpose of this investigation is to: (1) identify the prevalence of diabetes and to determine the...
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Factors associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among never-smokers have received little research attention. One potential risk factor for COPD is obesity, which is of particular importance in light of the global obesity epidemic. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between COPD and levels of obesity...
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Factors associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) among never smokers have received little research attention. One potential risk factor for COPD is obesity, which is of particular importance in light of the global obesity epidemic. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between COPD and levels of obesity...
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Objectives: This study investigated the association between cancer and complete mental health (CMH). CMH includes optimal functioning as well as the absence of psychopathology. Methods: Secondary data analyses of the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. This study used bivariate and logistic regression anal...
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Aims: The aim of this paper is to provide population-based data from California on: (a) the prevalence and the odds of diabetes among non-obese South Asian (SA) Americans compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW); (b) to assess the prevalence and odds of optimal medical care including regular eye exams, foot exams, and the monitoring of hemoglobin A1C...
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Introduction: The purpose of this descriptive report is to provide the first representative information on the sociodemographic profile and the prevalence of mental and physical health conditions of two "at-risk" groups of Latino caregivers: solo grandparent caregivers and single parents. Methods: The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Syste...
Article
Lowering the BMI overweight cut point to 23 for Asian Americans (AA) is helpful, but careful monitoring for diabetes across the whole BMI spectrum is still required for AA; One in every 17 AA with a BMI < 23 has diabetes. Twenty one percent of all AA with diabetes has a BMI < 23.
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The science of early childhood development underscores that maltreatment and other adversities experienced during infancy heightens the risk for poor developmental and socio-emotional outcomes. Referrals to supportive services by the child welfare system are particularly critical during infancy given the rapidity of brain development and infants' s...
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Objective: The purpose of the study is to understand the similarities and differences in child welfare involvement for Asian- Canadian (East and Southeast Asian) versus White-Canadian children and families involved in the child welfare system in Canada, and to consider the implications and recommendations for service. This mixed methods study bega...
Article
This study investigated the association between cancer and complete mental health (CMH). CMH has three elements: 1) absence of mental illness, addictions and suicidal thoughts in the past year; 2) almost daily happiness or life satisfaction in the past month; 3) psychosocial well-being. Control variables included socio-demographics, health behaviou...
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The U. S. Census Bureau reports 1.3 million African American (AA) grandparents reside with their grandchildren; nearly half (47%) have full parenting responsibility for their grandchildren’s care. Despite the expanding literature on this family group, more information is needed on “solo grandparents” who are raising their grandchildren on their own...
Article
Several studies have linked specific learning disorders (SLDs) with suicidal ideation, but less is known about the disorders’ association with suicide attempts. This gap in the literature is addressed via the 2012 nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 21,744). The prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts among those with an...
Article
In their article, “Declining Prevalence of Hearing Loss in US Adults Aged 20 to 69 Years,”¹ Hoffman and colleagues concluded that there was a 25% reduction in high-frequency hearing impairment and a 30% reduction in speech frequency hearing impairment in respondents’ worse ear between the 1999 to 2004 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Exam...
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The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among church personnel in North-Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, and (2) to identify socio-demographic factors and health behaviors that are associated with these outcomes. Data for this study were obtained from a sample of 670 pastors and their wives,...
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To the Editor We read with great interest the article in a recent issue of JAMA Internal Medicine by Langa et al, “A Comparison of the Prevalence of Dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012.”¹ This study provides additional support for the emerging evidence that the prevalence and incidence of dementia may have decreased substantially in rece...
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Using administrative child welfare data from the Ontario Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (OCANDS), this study compared the profiles of Asian-Canadian and White-Canadian children and families that experienced a case closure after an investigation instead of being transferred to ongoing child protection services (CPS). Child protection investigat...
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Background Infants are the most likely recipients of child welfare services; however, little is known about infants and families who come into contact with the child welfare system and factors that are associated with service provision. Investigations involving infants and their families present an unparalleled opportunity for the child welfare sec...
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p> OBJECTIVES: Filipino Americans form the second-largest Asian American and Pacific Islanders subgroup. Growing evidence suggests that Filipino Americans have higher rates of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. The key objectives of this study are 1) to determine the prevalence of diabetes in non-obese Filipino Americans compared to non-obese non-H...
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The objective of this study is to document the health profile of 252 African-American grandparents raising their grandchildren solo, compared with 1552 African-American single parents. The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System is used to compare the specific physical and mental health profiles of these two family groups. The findings sugges...
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Parental divorce often includes a disruption in grandchildren's relationships with their paternal grandparents. This study examined the moderating role of family type (i.e., custodial-mother vs. married-parents families) in the relationship between paternal grandmother's involvement, fathers' and mothers' relationships with the paternal grandmother...
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Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate: (1) the prevalence and unadjusted and adjusted odds of 12-month generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among adults with migraine in comparison to those without migraine; (2) If debilitating pain and/or limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are mediators of the migraine-GA...
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This observational epidemiological study investigates sex/gender and racial differences in prevalence of COPD among never-smokers. Data were derived from the 2012 Center for Disease Control’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample consisted of 129,535 non-Hispanic whites and blacks 50 years of age and older who had never smoked. Des...
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Objective This paper builds upon the analyses presented in three companion papers using data from the 2003 and 2008 cycles of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003 and CIS-2008) and the Ontario Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (OCANDS) to examine disproportionality and disparity of child welfare involvement f...
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The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the odds of suicide attempts among those with arthritis compared with those without and to see what factors attenuate this association and (2) to identify which factors are associated with suicide attempts among adults with arthritis. Secondary data analysis of the nationally representative 2012 Ca...
Article
Background: To develop a sociodemographic and health profile of women with self-reported attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison to women without. Methods: Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted on data from the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (2012) compari...
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Background: There are several gaps in the literature on the link between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and substance use, including the impact of less direct forms of abuse, such as witnessing domestic violence, and the role of gender as a moderator of the relationship. Objectives: To estimate associations between three types of ACEs (sex...
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Objectives: To further our understanding of the relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and suicidal behaviour, this study investigates the association between three types of ACEs and lifetime suicide attempts, while considering potential gender-specific and mediating effects. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2012 Canadian...