Esko Keskinen

Esko Keskinen
University of Turku | UTU · Department of Behavioural Sciences and Philosophy

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70
Publications
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2,782
Citations

Publications

Publications (70)
Article
The Goals for Driver Education (GDE) framework represents a conceptual outline of the goals to be satisfied in driver education (Hatakka et al., 2002). We aimed to analyze the implementation of the driver training curriculum in Spain, taking this framework as reference; the Spanish driving instructors was the target population from which to gather...
Article
Full-text available
IATSS Research Vol. 38, no. 1 2014: “Designing Mobility for the Coming Age” Esko Keskinen, University of Turku, Finland Education for older drivers in the future Five presumptions have to be considered when addressing future education for older drivers: 1. Driving a car will continue to be one element of mobility in the future; 2. Older people want...
Article
Poor driving self-assessment skills (e.g., over-confidence) have been pointed out as an important explanatory factor behind young drivers' accident involvement. This paper explores (1) what young drivers miss in their training as drivers in order to analyze whether an assessment of one's own driving skills plays an important role in their desire to...
Article
Different countermeasures have been created to reduce the number of fatalities as well as serious injuries and crashes with only material damage. The main message throughout this chapter is that driving skill may be conceptualized as a broad set of skills that are used according to drivers' goals and motives, and from this arises a need for versati...
Article
The aim of this study was to compare different sounds which can be used in open-plan offices to mask distracting speech. Fifty-four subjects were tested in seven sound conditions: speech, silence and five masked speech conditions. The five masking sounds were filtered pink noise, ventilation noise, instrumental music, vocal music and the sound of s...
Article
Examiners assessed 440,472 successful Finnish driving test candidates' competences before solo driving in traffic. It is well known that novice drivers', especially male novices', early solo driving period is prone to accidents. However, whether the novice drivers' initial competences change or remain the same in the long run is not known. The chan...
Article
Finnish and Austrian driver education models were analysed in order to find out existing and new evidence to support obligatory 2nd phase driver education. Earlier findings showed that the safety benefits of the 2nd phase education courses are contradictory. Furthermore, the goal and the content of the 2nd phase education have changed from simple s...
Article
Open-plan offices are often preferred because of better space efficiency, flexibility and facilitation of communication. However, surrounding speech sounds can become very disturbing and jeopardize confidential conversations. These drawbacks indisputably reduce work performance both directly and indirectly. These drawbacks may prevent the positive...
Article
The aim was to determine how the perceived work environment, especially acoustic environment, and its effects differed in private office rooms and in open-plan offices. The subjects consisted of 31 workers who moved from private office rooms to open-plan offices and who answered the questionnaire before and after the relocation. Private office room...
Article
This study examined novice drivers' overconfidence by comparing their self-assessed driver competence with the assessments made by driving examiners. A Finnish (n=2,739) and a Dutch sample (n=239) of drivers license candidates assessed their driver competence in six areas and took the driving test. In contrast to previous studies where drivers have...
Article
Full-text available
This study focused on driver suicides in Finland. The first aim was to find out what the prevalence of these suicides was during the years 1974-2006. The second aim was to find out whether there were differences between northern and southern Finland in regards to the number of cases and the backgrounds of the drivers who committed suicide this way....
Article
Abstract This study examined how the intelligibility of irrelevant speech, determined with the Speech Transmission Index (STI), affects demanding cognitive task performance. Experiment was carried out in a laboratory that resembled an open-plan office. Three speech conditions were tested corresponding to a private office (STI = 0.10), an acoustical...
Article
Studies of subjective driving skill have usually assessed perceived driving skill in relation to the skills of the average driver. In order to examine whether novice drivers are overconfident with respect to their actual skills, a different method was used in the present study, where specific aspects of perceived driver competence were compared wit...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate how reliably psychology students assessed their professional skills and knowledge. Participants consisted of 117 students and were from three groups, namely: beginners, intermediate and advanced. They were asked to evaluate their skills in different areas of psychology using a questionnaire. Their skills in...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to find out which factors contribute to the decisions of the students when they choose their place of study among the six psychology departments of the Universities in Finland. Design/methodology/approach – The study involved a survey questionnaire. Responses were received from 1,668 people. Findings – It was...
Article
Three prevalent models predict different stimulus intensity effects on RT. These are: the serial-stage model (additivity), the variable criterion model (larger intensity effects with slower responding), and the temporal overlap model (smaller intensity effects with slower responding). The predictions were tested in a dual-response situation includi...
Article
A range of situational and lifestyle-related factors in drink-driving fatal accidents were studied involving young adult and middle-aged male drivers in Finland. Fatal drink-driving accidents were compared to fatal accidents in which the driver had been sober. The study included all 18-to 59-year-old male drivers' fatal car and van accidents invest...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to investigate workers' perceptions of the acoustic environment of offices and study its relations to work performance and well-being. Questionnaire results from 11 companies and 689 respondents were analyzed. Occupants in private rooms and open offices were compared. Noise was the main indoor environmental problem in open...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the implementation of a second phase training program for novice drivers in Spain, which puts the primary focus of the training on the higher hierarchical levels of driver behavior. Two hundred and sixty-three participants took part throughout the study, which was implemented as an experimental design with the test and control...
Article
The study evaluated the accident risk of certain driving circumstances and driving motives among novice drivers. Self-reported exposure and accidents according to driving circumstances and driving motives were compared between young (n = 6,847) and middle-aged (n = 942) male and female novice drivers. For young drivers, self-reported accidents were...
Article
The aim of this study was to find out what are the effects of three different sound environments on performance of cognitive tasks of varying complexity. These three sound environments were 'speech', 'masked speech' and 'continuous noise'. They corresponded to poor, acceptable and perfect acoustical privacy in an open-plan office, respectively. The...
Article
Artikkelissa kuvatussa tutkimuksessa selvitettiin kolmea peruskysymystä: miten esimiehet itse ja heidän alaisensa arvioivat esimiehen johtamista, ovatko nämä arviot keskenään yhtenevät vai yli- tai aliarvioivatko esimiehet omaa johtamistaan alaisten arvioon verrattuna, sekä onko johtamisen arvioiden yhtenevyydellä yhteyttä työyhteisön hyvinvointiin...
Article
The aim of the study was to find out what were citizens' assessments of actual and wished-for frequencies of 12 police activities in two typical Finnish neighbourhoods. Data were collected from 3271 adults and 986 young people with a mail questionnaire. Actual and wished-for frequencies were separately analysed using Homals. Both analyses produced...
Article
This article presents a model for police visibility and people's fear of crime. Survey data were collected from 3,245 adults and 977 teenagers in two typical Finnish neighborhoods. A four-factor model including two visibility factors (patrol-car-related activities and police-on-foot activities) and two fear of crime factors (crimes against property...
Article
Finnish driver training was renewed in 1990 with the inclusion of a compulsory skid training course in the curriculum. The study evaluated the renewal's effect on accidents in slippery road conditions. A questionnaire was sent by mail to 41000 novice drivers who were randomly selected from the official register of driving licences. It included ques...
Article
The motorcar accident pattern of culpable young (18-25 years old) and middle-aged (35-55 years old) male and female drivers was studied in Finland. The aim was to see whether the difference in accident patterns between males and females has remained constant or whether it has changed over a 16-year period. Two different sets of traffic accident dat...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a game understanding test in youth soccer. A video-based test was constructed for basic level soccer and it was applied both for novice (12-14 years, n=49) and expert (12-14 years, n=84) players. The game understanding test consisted of 17 video segments that were simulations of actual 3 vs. 3 s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The BASIC –project is one in a series of studies on driver training co-financed by the European Commission of the European Community. Others include GADGET, DAN, ANDREA and ADVANCED. The TEST- and NovEv- projects are still running and will be completed in 2004. The general aim of these studies and development projects has been to increase safety am...
Article
This study evaluates how the traffic behaviors of young drivers and their attitudes toward traffic regulations have changed over the last 23 years, and particularly, whether the differences in attitudes and behavior between male and female drivers have changed. The study was conducted in 2001, and it replicated a traffic attitude survey administere...
Article
The objective is to formulate guidelines and goals for future development in the area of driver training and education. The content of this paper is not empirical, but merely an analytical summary or review. A four-level descriptive model is presented in which driver behaviour is conceptualised as a hierarchy, in which the goals and motives of the...
Article
The study compared accident and offence rates of 28 500 novice drivers in Finland. The purpose was to study differences in accident and offence rates between male and female novice drivers of different age. The drivers reported in a mailed questionnaire, how many accidents they had been involved in and how much they had driven during their whole dr...
Article
The purpose of this study was to build a model for the public image and visibility of the police. These variables were seen as central to successful community policing. Explanatory variables included were contacts with the police, victimisation and background characteristics of the respondents. Questionnaire data were obtained from a sample of 3271...
Article
The purpose of this study was to build a model for the public image and visibility of the police. These variables were seen as central to successful community policing. Explanatory variables included were contacts with the police, victimisation and background characteristics of the respondents. Questionnaire data were obtained from a sample of 3271...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to report on the development and validation of a game-understanding test procedure in badminton. A basic video-based test was constructed, and primary school children (ages 9-10 and 11-12 years, N = 120) served as participants. An advanced test was designed to detect differences between national level junior badminton p...
Article
To find out the prevalence of suicides and other types of self-destructive behaviour in fatal motor traffic accidents in Finland, all the data on fatal accidents compiled by road accident investigation teams in the years 1987-1988 and 1991-1992 were investigated. The results were compared to an earlier study covering the years 1974-1975 and 1984-19...
Article
The study describes some factors behind fatal loss-of-control accidents of young male and female drivers. These loss-of-control accidents were compared to accidents in which the driver did not lose control of the car. The data comprised all fatal car accidents of young (18-21 years old) drivers in Finland during the years 1978-1991. Only culpable d...
Article
A high percentage of older drivers' accidents occur in intersections when entering the traffic or crossing a main road. The problems may be in perception or attention, motor performance or inadequate interaction with other road users. Attempts to explain older drivers' problems have mostly focused on the properties and behaviour of the older driver...
Article
To find out the prevalence of suicides and other types of self-destructive behaviour in fatal motor traffic accidents in Finland, all the data on fatal accidents compiled by road accident investigation teams in the years 1987–1988 and 1991–1992 were investigated. The results were compared to an earlier study covering the years 1974–1975 and 1984–19...
Article
Efforts to make novice drivers drive more safely on slippery roads by means of special courses have mainly failed. In order to understand why the courses have failed, the views of instructors and students on the goals of skid training courses were compared. The importance given to anticipating vs manoeuvring skills was analysed. After completing a...
Article
The association of self-reported hostility with morbidity and mortality due to external causes, including suicidal acts, was analyzed in 10,586 Finnish men and 10,857 Finnish women aged 24 to 59 years. Hostility was assessed from self-ratings on irritability, ease of anger-arousal, and argumentativeness. Three groups, low (33.6% of subjects), inter...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate interindividual variation in acute reactions to ethanol. Six young, healthy female subjects participated in a double-blind experiment consisting of two identical alcohol sessions and one control session where glucose was infused instead of ethanol. Alcohol was infused in a standardized way to reach blood al...
Article
The effects of a simulator flight task on the heart rate variation (HRV) and hemodynamic variables were studied in nine pilots with instrument flight ratings. An electrocardiogram (ECG), phonocardiogram (PCG), and impedance cardiogram (ICG) were recorded continuously during three successive flights. Indices of HRV, power spectra, and autocorrelogra...
Article
Effects of intravenously given alcohol on eye movements were analysed in ten voluntary subjects. Each subject served as his/her own control. Good correlations were found between the changes in saccade variables and subjective evaluations of alertness, eye movement control and intoxication. Interindividually, the subjective evaluation of drunkenness...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of intravenously administered ethanol on visuomotor performance were analyzed in 11 healthy subjects. During the rapid infusion phase the breath alcohol concentration (BRAC) rose to about 0.1% in 1 h and was kept at this level for 90 min by adjusting the infusion rate. Thereafter the infusion was stopped and eye movements were recorded...
Article
The effects of intravenous ethanol on EEG were analyzed in 11 healthy subjects. During the rapid infusion phase the breath alcohol concentration (BRAC) was raised in 1 h to about 1 mg/ml and kept at this level for 90 min by adjusting the infusion rate. Thereafter the infusion was stopped and EEG was monitored for a further hour with falling alcohol...
Article
Four components of 20 degrees horizontal saccadic eye movements, i.e., latency, mean and maximum velocities, and duration were measured in 16 students under the influence of alcohol and also in a control situation. The experimental procedures were standardized and automated as much as possible. Latency (simple eye reaction time) was not influenced...
Article
The acute effect of ethanol upon the NSD (normalized slope descriptors) or Hjorth parameters of EEG were analyzed in 11 students. The maximal blood-alcohol concentration ranged from 1.0--1.7 mg/l. The activity (mean amplitude) increased and the complexity (frequency spread) decreased significantly as a function of time. The same effect was seen in...
Article
.— The explanation of the F'ulfrich stereophe-nomenon has been based on the laws of stereoscopic depth and angular disparity, together with the assumption that the timing of the neural discharges from the retina of the Eltered eye is delayed. If this hypothesis is plausible the stereoscopic effect is at least reduced when the pendulum swings vertic...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of speech varying in intelligibility on cognitive performance and subjective perceptions of sound environment disturbance. 37 subjects performed a series of tasks in three conditions in which speech transmission indexes were 0.10, 0.35 and 0.65. These correspond to cellular office, well-designed open...
Article
Turun yliopisto, psykologian laitos 2 Julkaisija KUVAILULEHTI LIIKENNETURVA Julkaisun päivämäärä 2005 Tekijät Sirkku Laapotti Esko Keskinen Julkaisun laji tutkimusraportti Julkaisun nimi Ehjänä elämässä -liikenneturvallisuusesityksen vastaanotto ja vaikutukset Julkaisun osat Tiivistelmä Liikenneturva järjesti huhti-toukokuussa 2005 lukioissa ja amm...
Article
English summary. - Väitösk. lisäksi 1 irtol. - Tiivistelmä ja 3 muuta julkaisua. Väitösk. -- Turun yliopisto.

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