Ernst Detlef Schulze

Ernst Detlef Schulze
Fielding Graduate University | The Fielding Institute · Biogeochemical Processs

About

375
Publications
72,536
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42,925
Citations
Citations since 2016
21 Research Items
12703 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500

Publications

Publications (375)
Article
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Background There is an urgent need for quantifying the terrestrial carbon sink in the context of global carbon emissions. However, neither the flux measurements, nor the national wood balances fulfil this purpose. In this discussion article we point at various shortcomings and necessary improvements of these approaches in order to achieve a true qu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Standard models of speciation assume strictly dichotomous genealogies in which a species, the ancestor, is replaced by two offspring species. The reality is more complex: plant species can evolve from other species via isolation when genetic drift exceeds gene flow; lineage mixing can give rise to new species (hybrid taxa such as nothospecies and a...
Article
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Optionen für den Beitrag des Waldes zum Klimaschutz verfolgen den Weg des Holzes vom Wald bis zur energetischen Verwertung. Nachhaltig bewirtschafteter Wald kann mit der Bereitstellung von Holz 6 bis 8 Tonnen CO2 ha–1 Jahr–1 Emissionen aus fossilen Brennstoffen vermeiden, während nicht bewirtschafteter Wald durch die Speicherung von Kohlenstoff im...
Article
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Ecosystems play a fundamental role in climate change mitigation by photosynthetically fixing carbon from the atmosphere and storing it for a period of time in organic matter. Although climate impacts of carbon emissions by sources can be quantified by global warming potentials, the appropriate formal metrics to assess climate benefits of carbon rem...
Article
Measuring biological diversity is a crucial but difficult undertaking, as exemplified in oaks where complex patterns of morphological, ecological, biogeographical and genetic differentiation collide with traditional taxonomy, which measures biodiversity in number of species (or higher taxa). In this pilot study, we generated high-throughput sequenc...
Article
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We would like to respond to the letters by Kun et al (this volume) and Booth et al. (this volume) making general comments first, and then adding a few specific remarks to some of their concerns. It seems to us that most comments in these two letters are the result of a misunderstanding of applied spatial and time scales, and maybe also a human dime...
Article
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We compare sustainably managed with unmanaged forests in terms of their contribution to climate change mitigation based on published data. For sustainably managed forests, accounting of carbon (C) storage based on ecosystem biomass and products as required by UNFCCC is not sufficient to quantify their contribution to climate change mitigation. The...
Article
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Forest management aims at obtaining a sustainable production of wood to be harvested to generate products or energy. However, the quantitative influence of forest management and of removals by harvest on biomass stocks has rarely been analysed on a large scale based on measurements. Two hypotheses prevail: management induces a reduction of wood sto...
Article
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The tree of life is highly reticulate, with the history of population divergence emerging from populations of gene phylogenies that reflect histories of introgression, lineage sorting and divergence. In this study, we investigate global patterns of oak diversity and test the hypothesis that there are regions of the oak genome that are broadly infor...
Preprint
The tree of life is highly reticulate, with the history of population divergence buried amongst phylogenies deriving from introgression and lineage sorting. In this study, we test the hypothesis that there are regions of the oak ( Quercus , Fagaceae) genome that are broadly informative about phylogeny and investigate global patterns of oak diversit...
Article
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Aim Information on the amount of carbon stored in the living tissue of tree stems (sapwood) is crucial for carbon and water cycle applications. Here, we aim to investigate sapwood‐to‐stem proportions and differences therein between tree genera and derive a sapwood biomass map. Location Northern Hemisphere boreal and temperate forests. Time period...
Article
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Background: The global decrease in wildlife populations, especially birds, is mainly due to land use change and increasing intensity of land use (Parmesan and Yohe 2003). However, impacts of management tools to mitigate biodiversity loss at regional and global scales are less apparent in forest regions that have a constant forest area, and which di...
Article
We studied the effect of three major forest management types (unmanaged beech, selection beech, and age class forests) and stand variables (SMI d , soil pH, proportion of conifers, litter cover, deadwood cover, rock cover and cumulative cover of woody trees and shrubs) on bryophyte species richness in 1050 forest plots in three regions in Germany....
Article
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Background: Two approaches mark the difference between the “ecological” and “agricultural” view of the biodiversity/growth relation. In ecology the trend is averaged by taking monocultures of all species as baseline to evaluate mixtures. This contrasts the “agricultural” view focusing on the most productive species or species combination as baselin...
Article
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Maintaining a permanent forest canopy cover and eventually harvesting wood in a final harvest according to predefined dimensions is often considered as prototype for future management of deciduous forests. An uneven-aged structure is considered by the public to resemble “natural” conditions, and by forest engineers it is considered as being more re...
Article
This overview of relationships between biodiversity and management focuses on Central European Fagus forests. Present management and conservation activities are embedded in the geographic and historic background of Central European forest flora, including endangered, protected, and plant species for which Germany has taken special responsibility to...
Article
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The impact of historical and present drivers on forest biodiversity is poorly understood. A better understanding is mandatory to ensure conservation and appropriate management of biodiversity and ecosystem functions in the face of climate warming and increasing demand for wood products. Here, we assess forest management strategies for maintaining p...
Article
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Here we investigate the vegetation history and peat accumulation at the eastern boarder of the West Siberian Plain, near the Yenisey River, south of permafrost. In this region, peat started to accumulate 15 000 years ago as gyttja of shallow lakes in ancient river valleys. This peat is older than previously reported, mainly due to separating partic...
Article
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Direct measurements of CO2 fluxes by the eddy covariance method have demonstrated that the examined middle-taiga pine forest, raised bog, true steppe, and southern tundra along the Yenisei meridian (~90° E) are carbon sinks of different capacities according to annual output. The tundra acts as a carbon sink starting from June; forest and bog, from...
Article
Full-text available
Here we investigate the vegetation history and peat accumulation at the eastern boarder of the West Siberian Plain, near the Yenisey River, south of permafrost. In this region, peat started to accumulate 15 000 years ago as gyttja of shallow lakes in ancient river valleys. This peat is older than previously reported, mainly due to separating partic...
Data
Full-text available
Since 70% of global forests are managed and forests impact the global carbon cycle and the energy exchangewith the overlying atmosphere, forest management has the potential to mitigate climate change. Yet, none ofthe land-surface models used in Earth system models, and therefore none of today’s predictions of future climate, accounts for the intera...
Article
Full-text available
Using direct measurements of CO2 fluxes by the method of turbulent pulsations, it was shown that the studied middle-taiga pine forest, raised bog, true steppe, and southern tundra along the Yenisei meridian (approximately 90 degrees E) are stocks of carbon of different capacity in the annual output. The tundra starts to function as a stock of carbo...
Article
Full-text available
Since 70% of global forests are managed and forests impact the global carbon cycle and the energy exchange with the overlying atmosphere, forest management has the potential to mitigate climate change. Yet, none of the land surface models used in Earth system models, and therefore none of today’s predictions of future climate, account for the inter...
Article
Full-text available
Key message Eucalyptus and Acacia species were sur-prisingly similar with respect to variations in d 13 C, d 15 N. Both genera respond with speciation and associ-ated changes in leaf structure to drought. Abstract Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (d 13 C and d 15 N) in leaves of eucalypts (Corymbia and Eucalyp-tus) and Acacia (and some add...
Conference Paper
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A younger age of gases (CO 2 , CH 4) compared to the surrounding peat at the same depth of 500 and 2000 yearshas has been reported from several bo-real and temperate peatlands in North America and Europe (Charman et al., 1994, 1999; Clymo & Bry-ant, 2008). It is suggested that downward transport of younger carbon as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) e...
Article
Aims Functional traits are supposed to play an important role in determining the colonization success of new species into established communities. Short-term experimental studies have documented higher resistance of more diverse grasslands against colonization by new species. However, little is known about which traits colonizers should have to suc...
Article
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In this opinion paper we investigate the effects of forest management on animal and plant biodiversity by comparing protected areas with intensively and extensively managed forests in Germany and in Romania. We want to know the extent to which differences in diversity of Romanian compared to German forests are based on management. The number of tre...
Article
The following overview summarizes observational and experimental approaches to study plant and ecosystem processes, starting from physiological mechanisms up to continental carbon balances mainly based on Eurosiberian data. It is shown that different observational scales are needed to interpret and predict phenomena at various resolutions and that...
Article
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The deposition of strong inorganic acids in forests leads to low pH values and high concentrations of Al3+ in the soil. Forest liming neutralizes acidity and leads to an increase in base cations. Additionally, surface organic layers decay more rapidly and stored nutrients are mobilized. The ground vegetation responds to liming with an increase in n...
Article
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A method to constrain carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from open biomass burning by using satellite observations of co-emitted species and a chemistry-transport model (CTM) is proposed and applied to the case of wildfires in Siberia. CO2 emissions are assessed by means of an emission model assuming a direct relationship between the biomass burning ra...
Article
Presented are the results of the model study of wildfire impact on the spatial distribution of deposition fields of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the regions of Siberia and the Russian Far East. The CHIMERE chemistry transport model was used for computing the deposition fields taking account of pyrogenic emissions specified using satellite measu...
Article
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A new transect approach for sampling forest tree regeneration is developed with the aim to minimize the amount of field measurements, and to produce an accurate estimation of tree species composition and density independent of tree height. This approach is based on the “probability proportional to size” (PPS) theory to assess heterogeneous vegetati...
Article
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Conceptual models suggest that stability and age of organic carbon (OC) in soil depends on the source of plant litter, occlusion within aggregates, incorporation in organo-mineral complexes, and location within the soil profile. Various tools like density fractionation, mineralization experiments, and radiocarbon analyses have been used to study th...
Article
The CHIMERE mesoscale chemistry transport model is used for the quantitative assessment of the contribution of transboundary transport of anthropogenic admixtures from China to the surface concentrations of major suspended pollutants, aerosol PM10, ozone O3, and nitrogen oxides NOx in the Far Eastern region. Analyzed in detail are the time series o...
Article
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In order to predict which ecosystem functions are most at risk from biodiversity loss, meta-analyses have generalised results from biodiversity experiments over different sites and ecosystem types. In contrast, comparing the strength of biodiversity effects across a large number of ecosystem processes measured in a single experiment permits more di...
Article
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We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, using inventory-based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is −342 Tg C yr<sup>−1</sup> from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inventory-based Land Ecosystem Assessment an...
Article
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Forest canopies are characterized by the composition, organization, and location of aboveground biomass and of open spaces among these components, thus providing a wide range of habitats for other organisms. Canopies are also the interface between biomass and atmosphere, and thus affect the distribution of light, atmospheric turbulence, temperature...
Article
Full-text available
Conceptual models suggest that stability and age of organic carbon (OC) in soil depends on the source of plant litter, occlusion within aggregates, incorporation in organo-mineral complexes, and location within the soil profile. Various tools like density fractionation, mineralization experiments, and radiocarbon analyses have been used to study th...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2000–2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balances of Europe following a dual c...
Article
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We determine the carbon balance of Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan using inventory based, eddy covariance, Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and inversion methods. Our current best estimate of the net biosphere to atmosphere flux is −0.66 Pg C yr<sup>−1</sup>. This sink is primarily caused by forests that using two independ...
Article
Trees with sufficient nutrition are known to allocate carbon preferentially to aboveground plant parts. Our global study of 49 forests revealed an even more fundamental carbon allocation response to nutrient availability: forests with high-nutrient availability use 58 ± 3% (mean ± SE; 17 forests) of their photosynthates for plant biomass production...
Article
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The relative role of fire and of climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change i...
Article
West Siberian peatlands store at least 70.2 Pg C and cover ca. 600,000 km2. The region experiences warming faster than the Arctic as a whole, so these peatlands receive large attention in last decades primarily because of their great potential for carbon release to the atmosphere through enhanced CO2 and/or CH4 gas emissions. The release of dissolv...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic emissions over the period 20007–2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance of Europe following a dual constraint appro...
Article
Full-text available
The relative roles of fire and climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of Central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of Eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change in...
Article
Full-text available
Large areas of the German forests are privately owned. Many of these stands are small, to very small in size. In Thuringia, 63% of the private forests are under the proprietorship of woodland owners; contracted areas < 20 ha, covering 22.6% of the Thuringian forest area (BMVEL 2004). This ownership structure results from the division of cooperative...
Article
Winniwarter and colleagues present alternative estimates for several of the nitrogen (N) fluxes provided by Schulze and colleagues. They reason that numeric discrepancies between largely dependent estimates and lack of detail in Schulze's estimates urges caution in interpreting these numbers. In this reply we provide methodological details enhancin...
Article
This paper presents a regional case study of the history of forest use and management in the Hainich-Dün region in the north of Thuringia, Germany, during the 19th century. We examine the timing and causes of changes in forest management from coppice with standards towards age class and selection forests. Changes in forest management were linked to...
Article
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Precise determination of changes in organic carbon (OC) stocks is prerequisite to understand the role of soils in the global cycling of carbon and to verify changes in stocks due to management. A large dataset was collected to form base to repeated soil inventories at 12 CarboEurope sites under different climate and land-use, and with different soi...
Article
Full-text available
Precise determination of changes in organic carbon (OC) stocks is prerequisite to understand the role of soils in the global cycling of carbon and to verify changes in stocks due to management. A large dataset was collected to form base to repeated soil inventories at 12 CarboEurope sites under different climate and land-use, and with different soi...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity is rapidly declining1, and this may negatively affect ecosystem processes, including economically important ecosystem services. Previous studies have shown that biodiversity has positive effects on organisms and processes4 across trophic levels. However, only a few studies have so far incorporated an explicit food-web perspective. In a...
Article
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The long-term carbon balance (NBP) of grasslands is estimated by combining scarce multi-year eddy-covariance observations at ecosystem observation sites where information on carbon inputs and harvesting removals is available. Following accounting for carbon leached to rivers, we estimated grasslands to be net carbon sinks of 74±10 g C m−2 yr−1. Unc...
Article
Overviewing the European carbon (C), greenhouse gas (GHG), and non-GHG fluxes, gross primary productivity (GPP) is about 9.3 Pg yr−1, and fossil fuel imports are 1.6 Pg yr−1. GPP is about 1.25% of solar radiation, containing about 360 × 1018 J energy – five times the energy content of annual fossil fuel use. Net primary production (NPP) is 50%, ter...
Article
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The use of fossil fuels and fertilizers has increased the amount of biologically reactive nitrogen in the atmosphere over the past century. As a consequence, forests in industrialized regions have experienced greater rates of nitrogen deposition in recent decades. This unintended fertilization has stimulated forest growth, but has also affected soi...
Article
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The trend towards more intensive agriculture and logging is likely to make Europe’s land surface a significant source of greenhouse gases. The development of land management policies which aim to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions should be a priority.