Ernst H W Koster

Ernst H W Koster
Ghent University | UGhent · Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology

PhD

About

269
Publications
105,115
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14,013
Citations
Citations since 2016
119 Research Items
9116 Citations
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Introduction
Ernst H W Koster currently works at the Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology , Ghent University. Ernst does research in Abnormal Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Cognitive Psychology. Current projects include 'Selective Attention as an Emotional Regulation Mechanism and a Vulnerability Factor to Depression'.
Additional affiliations
October 2000 - present
Ghent University
Education
September 1996 - October 2000
Radboud University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (269)
Preprint
UNSTRUCTURED Depression is a serious and burdensome psychiatric illness that contributes heavily to health expenditures. These costs are partly related to the observation that depression is often not limited to a single episode but can recur or follow a chronic pathway. In terms of risk factors, it is acknowledged that cognitive impairments play a...
Article
Persisting executive functioning (EF) impairments following remission from depression form an important source of disability in daily life. However, little is known regarding how specific aspects of EF relate to residual depressive symptomatology. Using network analysis, the current study investigates unique associations between cognitive-, affecti...
Article
Full-text available
It is increasingly acknowledged that cognitive impairment can play an important role in depression vulnerability. Therefore, cognitive remediation strategies, and cognitive control training (CCT) procedures have gained attention in recent years as possible interventions for depression. Recent studies suggest a small to medium effect on indicators o...
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Background In recent years, cognitive control training (CCT) has gained momentum as an intervention to remediate cognitive impairments and decrease depressive symptoms. One promising operationalization to train cognitive control is the adaptive Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (aPASAT). In this systematic review and meta-analysis of aPASAT train...
Article
Worry, a stream of negative thoughts about the future, is maintained by the poor attention control, and the tendency to attend to negative information (attention bias), and interpret ambiguity negatively (interpretation bias). Memories that integrate negative interpretations (interpretation-memory) may also contribute to worry, but this remains une...
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We present here a unifying framework for affective phenomena: the Human Affectome. By synthesizing a large body of literature, we have converged on definitions that disambiguate the commonly used terms—affect, feeling, emotion, and mood. Based on this definitional foundation, and under the premise that affective states reflect allostatic concerns,...
Data
The International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention [CSEA], 1995) is a set of pictures that is widely used in experimental research on emotion and attention. In this study, the normative ratings of a subset of the IAPS were compared with the ratings from a Flemish sample. Eighty Flemish first-year psychol...
Article
Attention bias modification (ABM) was developed to alleviate anxious symptoms by way of a reduction in anxiety-linked attentional bias to threat. Central to the rational of ABM is a learning-related reconfiguration of attentional biases. Yet, the neuroplastic changes in brain structure that underlie this learning are unresolved. The amygdala, anter...
Article
Background Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a heterogeneous personality disorder. Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and schema modes are two core concepts of schema theory that play an essential role in understanding BPD symptomatology. Methods This study aimed to model the complex associations between key BPD features (e.g., Affective Inst...
Article
Cognitive control training has gained traction as an intervention for reducing anxiety and depression vulnerability in adults. There are, however, a limited number of studies investigating such training interventions for reducing symptomology of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Thus, we aimed to provide a robust review and qualit...
Article
Studies suggest that cognitive control training shows potential as a preventive intervention for depression. At the same time, little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying effects of cognitive control training. Informed by theoretical frameworks of cognitive risk for recurrent depression (De Raedt & Koster, 2010; Siegle et al., 2007), the cu...
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Depression is a heterogeneous mental disorder involving a complex interplay between potential etiological and maintenance factors. The current study examined how depression heterogeneity is related to attentional functioning. Relying on person-specific network models, we explored the associations between symptom centrality (expected influence) and...
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Recent research suggests beneficial effects of cognitive control training (CCT) on repetitive negative thinking (RNT), a key risk factor for internalizing symptomatology. However, relatively little is known regarding predictors of adherence to internet-delivered CCT as well as moderators of treatment effects for this intervention. Answering these q...
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This study explores whether the speech motor system is involved in verbal rumination, a particular kind of inner speech. The motor simulation hypothesis considers inner speech as an action, accompanied by simulated speech percepts, that would as such involve the speech motor system. If so, we could expect verbal rumination to be disrupted by concur...
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Full-text available
Background Reappraisal is an emotion regulation strategy that has been linked to positive emotional and health outcomes. However, the basic cognitive mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of reappraisal remain understudied and not well understood. To address this limitation, the present study examined whether long-term memory processes, including...
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Background Already a major health concern, late-life depression (LLD) is expected to form an increasing problem in the aging population. Moreover, despite current treatments, LLD is associated with a poor long-term prognosis and high rate of chronicity. Treatment provision and treatment accordingly warrant improvement, where add-on treatments might...
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Background Remitted depressed (RMD) individuals form a risk group for developing future depressive episodes. Improving cognitive control may reduce the risk to develop novel depressive symptoms, as beneficial effects of such training were demonstrated in RMD individuals.Method The current study attempted to replicate and extend these results. In th...
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Basic research on emotional memory has given rise to important innovations in research on memory training in the context of psychopathology. In the special issue om memory training research is presented on (1) memory processes in psychopathology; (2) modification of emotional memories in psychotherapy; and (3) procedures to directly target memory p...
Article
Reward enhances stimulus processing in the visual cortex, but the mechanisms through which this effect occurs remain unclear. Reward prospect can both increase the deployment of voluntary attention and increase the salience of previously neutral stimuli. In this study, we orthogonally manipulated reward and voluntary attention while human participa...
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The rise of Instagram has prompted researchers to examine its effects on mental health, yet an overview of the current literature is missing. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarize research investigating the relationship between Instagram use and indicators of mental health such as self-reported well-being, depression, anxiet...
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Full-text available
Reward enhances stimulus processing in the visual cortex, but the mechanisms through which this effect occurs remain unclear. Reward prospect can both increase the deployment of voluntary attention and increase the salience of previously neutral stimuli. In this study we orthogonally manipulated reward and voluntary attention while human participan...
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Attentional deficits as well as attentional biases towards negative material are related to major depression and might maintain chronicity. However, studies investigating attentional deficits and attentional biases in chronic, treatment-resistant depressed are lacking. The aim of the current study was to compare measures of attentional deficits and...
Article
Hopeloosheid is zeer prevalent binnen klinische populaties en speelt een belangrijke rol bij het verklaren en voorspellen van verschillende vormen van psychopathologie. Vandaar is een adequate conceptualisatie van hopeloosheid cruciaal. Het doel van deze studie was om de structuur van hopeloosheid te onderzoeken binnen een klinische steekproef aan...
Article
Previous studies suggest that cognitive control training (CCT) shows potential as a preventive intervention for depression. In this study, the first to examine long-term preventive effects of CCT, we examined effects on (a) task-specific cognitive transfer at 1-year follow-up, (b) recurrence of depression, and (c) functioning over the course of a y...
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Several versions of the dot probe detection task are frequently used to assess maladaptive attentional processes associated with a broad range of psychopathology and health behavior, including eating behavior and weight. However, there are serious concerns about the reliability of the indices derived from the paradigm as measurement of attentional...
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Accumulating evidence suggests that cognitive training may enhance well-being. Yet, mixed findings imply that individual differences and training characteristics may interact to moderate training efficacy. To investigate this possibility, the current paper describes a protocol for a data-driven individual-level meta-analysis study aimed at developi...
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Important individual differences exist in how people respond to major stressors. Despite the key roles attributed to emotion regulation and cognitive control in resilience and vulnerability to stress, relatively few studies have directly investigated these relationships upon confrontation with major stressors, such as unemployment. The current pre-...
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BACKGROUND. Symptoms of depression and anxiety often co-occur in the same individuals. In order to increase our understanding of concurrent depression and anxiety, it may be necessary to define and model psychopathology as a network of symptoms, that actively reinforce (or inhibit) one another. The current study set out to investigate how depressio...
Article
Healthcare workers are at elevated risk to develop symptoms of Post‐Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in response to an outbreak of a highly infectious disease. The current study set‐out to model the complex interrelations between PTSD symptoms during the peak of the COVID‐19 outbreak in 291 Chinese healthcare workers and 291 matched control cases t...
Article
Background and Objectives Individuals with features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly sensitive to social rejection. Working memory (WM) may play a critical role in processing emotional interpersonal information in BPD. Yet, little is known about how emotional WM operations are related to sensitivity to rejection cues and BPD feat...
Article
Previous research showed that mental rumination, considered as a form of repetitive and negative inner speech, is associated with increased facial muscular activity. However, the relation between these muscular activations and the underlying mental processes is still unclear. In this study, we tried to separate the facial electromyographic correlat...
Article
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Background Previous research in the context of depression indicates that Cognitive Control Training (CCT) has the potential to reduce maladaptive emotion regulation, such as rumination. However, as a stand-alone intervention, CCT does not seem to increase adaptive emotion regulation. We examined whether CCT combined with a traditional fear of failu...
Article
A key problem in developing interventions in dementia care is the lack of knowledge about the mental processes and individual dependencies between functional impairments evolving over time. Neuropsychological profiles reflect the impact of the disease on distinctive neuroanatomic networks associated with complex cognitive domains. Recently serious...
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Rates of subclinical symptoms and full-blown depression significantly increase during adolescence. Hence, understanding how multiple cognitive risk factors are related to depression in adolescence is of major importance. For this purpose, we simultaneously considered multiple cognitive vulnerabilities, as proposed by three major cognitive theories...
Article
Low resilience is characterized by impairments in attention and emotion regulation mechanisms that depend on prefrontal cortical activity. The aim of this study was to test whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can augment the effectiveness of a new computerized mouse-based (gaze...
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Background: Major depressive episode (MDE) is worldwide one of the most prevalent and disabling mental health conditions. In cases of persistent non-response to treatment, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective treatment strategy with high response rates. Unfortunately, longitudinal data show low sustained response rates with 6-mo...
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Objective: Cognitive remediation (CR) techniques (interventions to enhance cognitive functioning) have proven moderately effective in improving cognition and daily functioning in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, baseline predictors of treatment response are lacking. The present study aimed to identify factors influencing long-term CR outc...
Article
Facebook and Instagram are currently the most popular Social Network Sites (SNS) for young adults. A large amount of research examined the relationship between these SNS and well-being, and possible intermediate constructs such as social comparison, self-esteem, and repetitive negative thinking (RNT). However, most of these studies have cross-secti...
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Although having a long history of scrutiny in experimental psychology, it is still controversial whether wilful inner speech (covert speech) production is accompanied by specific activity in speech muscles. We present the results of a preregistered experiment looking at the electromyographic correlates of both overt speech and inner speech producti...
Article
Full-text available
Depression is theorized to be caused in part by biased cognitive processing of emotional information. Yet, prior research has adopted a reductionist approach that does not characterize how biases in cognitive processes such as attention and memory work together to confer risk for this complex multifactorial disorder. Grounded in affective and cogni...
Preprint
Previous research showed that mental rumination, considered as a form of repetitive and negative inner speech, is associated with increased facial muscular activity. However, the relation between these muscular activations and the underlying mental processes is still unclear. In this study, we tried to disentangle the facial electromyographic corre...
Chapter
Cognitive biases are theorized to play a critical role in the onset and maintenance of depression. Although these cognitive biases have been investigated extensively, their interplay has received relatively limited conceptual and empirical attention. Yet, recent years have witnessed an important upsurge of empirical studies addressing different asp...
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Full-text available
Given that cognitive control deficits following remission from depression form a risk factor for recurrence, new interventions aimed at improving cognitive control such as cognitive control training are being developed. Previous studies suggest that motivation and engagement can influence the effectiveness of cognitive training. As such, we develop...
Preprint
Studies exploring the relationship between Facebook use and well-being have yielded inconsistent findings. Investigating the underlying mechanisms seems to be of crucial importance to gain insight into the positive and negative consequences of Facebook use. A recent study illustrated the importance of taking into account social comparison and self-...
Preprint
Although having a long history of scrutiny in experimental psychology, it is still controversial whether inner speech (covert speech) production is accompanied by specific activity in speech muscles. We address this question by briefly reviewing previous findings related to inner speech and to the broader phenomenon of motor imagery. We then presen...
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Full-text available
https://www.nature.com/magazine-assets/d41586-019-02776-1/d41586-019-02776-1.pdf
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Individuals with contamination concerns show aberrant interpretational and attentional processes. Yet, it is unclear whether threat-related associations play a causal role in anxiety symptoms and attentional bias. The objective of our study was to investigate if training implicit associations affects stress reactivity and attention in the context o...
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Due to their ability to capture attention, emotional stimuli tend to benefit from enhanced perceptual processing, which can be helpful when such stimuli are task-relevant but hindering when they are task-irrelevant. Altered emotion-attention interactions have been associated with symptoms of affective disturbances, and emerging research focuses on...
Article
Depression is linked to deficits in cognitive control and a host of other cognitive impairments arise as a consequence of these deficits. Despite of their important role in depression, there are no mechanistic models of cognitive control deficits in depression. In this paper we propose how these deficits can emerge from the interaction between moti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hopelessness is a painful state that is related to depression and suicide. In spite of its importance, only unsystematic efforts have been made to specifically target hopelessness in interventions, and no comprehensive review is currently available to guide future clinical studies. Hence, we first analyze the phenomenon of hopelessness, by highligh...
Article
Stress dysregulation is a transdiagnostic marker of emotional disorders, related to biases in attention toward negative information. We adapted a computerized process-based training targeting these attention mechanisms through mouse-based contingency responses and examined its effects on reappraisal and rumination. Forty-one participants were rando...
Article
Previous research showed that individuals who were remitted from a depressive disorder displayed heightened attention towards negative adjectives (e.g., worthless). We tested if this attentional bias (AB) is predictive of future recurrence of depressive episodes and/or having depressive symptoms at 2- and 4-year follow-up. We used a longitudinal ap...
Article
Brooding is considered a maladaptive form of emotion regulation linking adverse events to increases in depressive symptoms. The “Impaired Disengagement Hypothesis” (Koster, De Lissnyder, Derakshan & De Raedt, 2011) proposes that attentional disengagement processes are a main mechanism involved in the emergence and maintenance of brooding responses....
Article
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a challenging problem. Early Maladaptive Schema (EMSs) are considered as important vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of BPD. Literature suggests a complex relationship between BPD and EMSs. The current study employed network analysis to model the complex associations between central B...
Preprint
Various recent studies suggest a negative association between Facebook use and mental health. Yet, empirical evidence for this association is mixed, raising the question under which conditions Facebook use is related to negative outcomes, such as decreased well-being. Our study addresses this question by investigating the relationship between Faceb...
Article
Various recent studies suggest a negative association between Facebook use and mental health. Yet, empirical evidence for this association is mixed, raising the question under which conditions Facebook use is related to negative outcomes, such as decreased well-being. Our study addresses this question by investigating the relationship between Faceb...
Article
This study used a novel eye-gaze contingent attention training (ECAT) to test the prediction that attention regulation is involved in reappraisal and rumination. Sixty-six undergraduates were randomly assigned to either the control or the active training condition of the ECAT. Active ECAT comprised training in allocating attention toward positive w...
Article
Research exploring how cognitive risk- and protective factors relate following remission from internalizing disorders suggests a central role for resilience. However, it remains unclear what constitutes resilience in this context. Furthermore, previous studies have typically relied on cross-sectional data which do not allow to map the temporal dyna...
Preprint
Full-text available
Depression is linked to deficits in cognitive control and a host of other cognitive impairments arise as a consequence of these deficits. Despite of their important role in depression, there are no mechanistic models of cognitive control deficits in depression. In this paper we propose how these deficits can emerge from the interaction between moti...
Article
Background and objectives: Rumination has been shown to prospectively predict the onset of depression. However, it is unclear how rumination and affect in daily life influence the development of depressive symptoms. The present study examined whether the structure of dynamics in rumination and affect could prospectively predict depressive symptoms...
Article
Full-text available
In everyday life, people are exposed to continuous flows of emotional information. The ability to organize and segment this continuous input seems critical to understand what is happening around us. This study investigated whether people are sensitive to subtle statistical regularities embedded in flows of emotional information. Experiment 1 showed...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in the maintenance of depression. We examined attentional bias (AB) for negative and positive adjectives and general threat words in strictly-defined clinical groups of participants with pure Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) without a history of anxiety...
Data
ECT Stimulus words: 16 stimulus words per stimulus type. (DOCX)
Data
Correct pairs, missing pairs and pairs per index in calculating TL-BS per stimulus type per presentation time. (DOCX)
Data
Temporal dynamic AB score per group per index per stimulus type per presentation time; means and standard deviations in milliseconds. (DOCX)
Article
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Introduction: Despite several available evidence-based interventions for major depression relapse rates remain high and relapse prevention programs are still scarce. In order to increase effectiveness, novel techniques that target underlying vulnerability factors may be a promising avenue. Depression is associated with impairments in executive func...
Article
Rumination is considered as a relatively maladaptive form of repetitive thinking that has a marked impact on mood. Individual differences in attentional scope have been proposed as an important mechanism rendering some individuals more prone to ruminate than others. The attentional scope model of rumination posits that rumination is related to a na...
Article
Full-text available
Depressive rumination is an emotion regulation strategy that is considered a major risk factor for depression and other emotional disorders. While well-established measures of trait rumination are available, a psychometrically sound measure of state rumination is lacking. We report on the development and validation of a new self-report measure, the...
Preprint
This study explores whether the speech motor system is involved in verbal rumination. The simulation hypothesis postulates that inner speech is a simulation of overt speech, and would as such involve the motor system. If so, we could expect verbal rumination --as a particular kind of inner speech-- to be disrupted by concurrent involvement of the s...
Article
Background and objectives: The current study set out to investigate whether obsessive beliefs, selective attention, inhibition, and the interaction between selective attention and inhibition can prospectively predict contamination obsessive compulsive (OC) symptoms. Methods: Obsessive beliefs, inhibition, and selective attention were assessed in...
Article
Background: 2007 marks a shift in scientific literature on the cognitive vulnerabilities of depression. Preceded by a vast amount of studies exploring neuroplasticity and cognitive transfer effects, Siegle e.a. (Cognit Ther Res 2007; 31: 235-62) published the findings of a proof-of-principle study in which cognitive control training (cct) was appl...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, there is increasing interest in the causal relationship between attentional breadth and emotion regulation. To test this causal relationship, attentional breadth needs to be manipulated stringently. The aim of the current research was to establish whether visual attentional breadth could be manipulated through experimental training proced...
Article
Background: Temperamental effortful control and attentional networks are increasingly viewed as important underlying processes in depression and anxiety. However, it is still unknown whether these factors facilitate depressive and anxiety symptoms in the general population and, more specifically, in remitted depressed individuals. Methods: We inves...