Erlendur Haraldsson
In memory of

Erlendur Haraldsson
University of Iceland | HI · Faculty of Psychology

PhD, Dipl. Psych.

About

114
Publications
46,974
Reads
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1,243
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1993 - September 1995
July 1973 - May 2015
University of Iceland
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (114)
Article
Full-text available
Summary End-of-Life Experiences: A Survey among Physicians and Nurses in a Hospital for Anthroposophically Extended Medicine Background: The perceptions of dying persons during the last weeks and days of their lives have rarely been investigated. It is known that spirituality becomes more important towards the end of life. In anthroposophy, it is a...
Article
Baffling Phernomena: Differences in the Phenomenolgy of Some Famous Physical Mediumns. On differences in ther- phenomenology of some famous physical mediums, such as D. D. Home, Indridi Indridason, Rudi Schneider and Einer Nielson.
Article
Comparison of physical phenomena among some famous physical mediums.
Book
Investigations of childrens alleged memories of past lives. 289 pages.
Article
Contexto : Há crianças que alegam ter memórias de uma vida passada. Se essas supostas memórias puderem ser verificadas, elas poderão ser bastante relevantes para a questão da relação mente-cérebro. Elas poderão indicar que a memória não está apenas armazenada no cérebro e que a mente pode existir sem um cérebro e ainda assim reter algumas de suas m...
Article
This article tests the consistency and the continuation of alleged "past-life" memories from childhood into adulthood and the possible detrimental effects of such childhood memories on the development into adult life. Twenty-eight adults aged 28 to 56 years who had claimed to have memories of a past life when they were children were interviewed in...
Chapter
Children who claim to have memories of a previous life are sometimes found, particularly in countries with widespread belief in reincarnation. Over 2500 such cases have been investigated in many countries, including some in the USA and Europe. Analysis of the contents of these alleged memories reveals interesting features, such as frequent images/m...
Article
Full-text available
The unexpected return of mental clarity and memory shortly before death in patients suffering from severe psychiatric and neurologic disorders, which we have called "terminal lucidity", has been reported in the medical literature over the past 250 years, but has received little attention. We review a range of terminal lucidity cases in order to enc...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
In 2006 a large-scale representative survey of psychic beliefs and experiences, and various related local folk beliefs and experiences, was conducted in Iceland. Its purpose was to find out whether substantial changes in personal experiences and beliefs had taken place in the population since the same survey was conducted a third of a century earli...
Article
This paper presents two historical cases of remote viewing. The Icelandic medium Indridi Indridason described in Reykjavik in 1905, through a drop-in-communicator, a fire that was burning in Copenhagen. Emanuel Swedenborg described in Gothenburg in 1759 a fire that raged near his home in Stockholm. There are striking similarities between these case...
Article
Personal encounters with the dead are reported by 25% of Western Europeans and 30% of Americans. Three hundred thirty-seven Icelanders reporting such experiences were interviewed at length. Ninety percent of them reported sensory experiences (apparitions) of a deceased person; 69% were visual, 28% auditory, 13% tactile, and 4% olfactory. Fewer than...
Article
Full-text available
Forty-two adults, aged 19 to 49, who claimed memories of a previous life when they were children were interviewed about their alleged memories. Over half of them had lost all these childhood memories but 38% unreservedly affirmed that they still had retained some of their past-life memories. These persons had been interviewed about their memories w...
Article
Full-text available
In 1965 Ian Stevenson wrote: ''Among all the cases which seem to provide impressive evidence of survival, a most important group consists of those in which a communicator appears whose existence neither medium nor sitters know anything about at the time of the manifestation'' (p. 65), a phenomenon he christened ''drop-in'' mediumistic communication...
Article
Full-text available
Distant healing, a form of spiritual healing, is widely used for many conditions but little is known about its effectiveness. In order to evaluate distant healing in patients with a stable chronic condition, we randomised 409 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from 14 private practices for environmental medicine in Germany and Austria in...
Article
Haraldsson, E. Popular psychology, belief in life after death and reincarnation in the Nordic countries, Western and Eastern Europe. Nordic Psychology, 58, 171-180. The European Values Survey explores national differences and similarities, also regarding religious beliefs which express popular assumptions regarding the nature of man and the ontolog...
Article
The principal features of two series of cases suggestive of re- incarnation in Lebanon were compared. The series were investigated about a generation apart by two different investigators. In three important features, the two series were closely similar; in other features they were not similar, prob- ably because of differences in the thoroughness o...
Article
Children who claim to remember fragments of a past life are found in some countries. Various explanations have been put forward as to why the alleged memories develop, ranging from reincarnation to 'therapeutic resource'. This study puts to the test the role of some psychological characteristics and the circumstances in which the children live, suc...
Article
This case concerns a young boy in Baalchmay, Lebanon, who made specific statements before several family members asserting memories of a previous life, such as being a man who carried pistols and hand-gre- nades, having a mute friend, describing a house, having children, living in the village of Quaberchamoun , and being shot by armed people. The c...
Article
The concept of perceptual defensiveness is related to subliminal perception and preconscious processing. Meta-analyses of earlier experiments, 6 in the United States and Holland and 10 in Iceland, on the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT)-ESP relationship had shown significantly higher ESP scoring by less defensive participants. In the present experiment...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Distant healing as a treatment modality is frequently used by patients and healers. Some preliminary evidence suggests possible effects. Since patients suffering from multiple chemical sensitivity and chronic fatigue syndrome have only few effective treatment options, distant healing will be offered as a treatment within a formal trial...
Article
Neðst á síðunni er hægt að nálgast greinina í heild sinni með því að smella á hlekkinn View/Open Rannsókn var gerð með íslenskri þýðingu MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) prófsins. Prófið var lagt fyrir hentugleikaúrtak 130 kvenna og 130 karla á aldrinum 20 - 70 ára. Í ljós kom að meðaltöl og staðalfrávik flestra klínískra kvar...
Article
Personality and mental ability measures were administered to 27 pairs of children in Sri Lanka who did, or did not, claim memories of a previous life. Questionnaires about their behavior, development, and family environment were administered to their parents. Children claiming previous-life memories performed better in school than did their peers a...
Article
In Mahayana Buddhism -especially in Tibetan Buddhism -some children who are chosen to be lamas are considered monks reborn. No such tradition exists in the Theravada Buddhism of Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand, but occasionally a child may appear who claims to have been a monk in a previous life. This report describes an investigation of three cases...
Article
Resúmen.- Se ha propuesto que algunos factores psicológico-normales pueden explicar porqué algunos niños dicen haber tenido un vida anterior. Estos y otros factores psicológicos que pueden detallar mejor nuestra comprensión de aquellos niños que dicen recordar vidas anteriores, fueron el tema de este estudio. Los tests psicológicos fueron administr...
Article
It has been proposed that some normal-psychological factors may explain why some children speak of having had a previous life. Some of these and other psychological factors, which may further our understanding of children claiming prcvious-life memories, =ere ihe siibjeci of this siudy. Psychological tests were administered to 30 children in Sri La...
Article
The possible relationship between characteristics of guessing behavior, such as repetition avoidance, and belief in ESP, was analyzed in the available data of ten experiments on perceptual defensiveness and ESP performance carried out in Iceland between 1977-1991. Several commonly reported characteristics of guessing behavior were defined as variab...
Article
The relation among traditional Christian beliefs, spiritualism, and the paranor- mal was the subject of a factor-analytical study to compare religious-paranor- ma1 belief structures of samples in Iceland and the United States (Louisiana, Virginia, and Illinois). Tobacyk's 25-item Paranormal Belief Scale (Tohacyk and Milford, 1983) was administered...
Article
Young children who claim memories of a previous life can be found in many countries, particularly in Asia. The child frequently states where he/she lived previously, often claims violent death in the previous life and shows phobias/philias, and sometimes has birthmarks or deformities that he/she associates with the previous life. The Gudjonsson Sug...
Article
This study was designed to investigate the cross‐cultural similarity of vocational interests as measured by the Strong Interest Inventory. An Icelandic version of the SII was administered to Icelandic college students studying medicine, business, library science, geology, biology, psychology, theology, and nursing. 290 first year students were test...
Article
The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale was administered to 160 children, 6, 8, 10 and 12 years old with 20 girls and 20 boys in each age group along with a brief version of the Vocabulary subtest of the WISC. Total suggestibility and yield suggestibility descreased with age and children were found to have higher interrogative suggestibility scores tha...
Article
Some measures of religiosity, belief in an afterlife, and belief in psychic phenomena were included in eight forced-choice ESP experiments. Seven of the experiments consisted of 40 trials of clairvoyance as a computer game and 40 trials of precognition in a paper-and-pencil test for each subject; and in one experiment there were 80 trials of clairv...
Article
In several experiments perceptual defensiveness as measured by the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) has been found a useful tool to predict performance in extrasensory perception (ESP) tasks. Subjects with weak perceptual defensiveness have tended to obtain more hits in ESP tests than did subjects with strong defenses. Ten double-blind experiments invo...
Article
This is a report on an investigation of four children in Sri Lanka who claimed to remember a previous life at the early age of two to three years. Detailed written records were made of the statements of three of the children before any attempt was made to examine their claims. In two cases, these statements made it possible to trace a deceased pers...
Article
Full-text available
Three items on personal psychic experiences (PEs), telepathy, clairvoyance, and contact with the dead, were included in a survey on human values that was conducted on 18,607 adults from 13 countries in Europe and from the US. In Europe, the percentage of Ss reporting telepathy was 34%; clairvoyance was reported by 21%, and 25% reported contact with...
Article
In a national survey in Iceland, 3 1 percent of respondents reported "having perceived the presence of a deceased person." A multinational Gallup survey conducted in sixteen western countries showed widespread claims of personal contacts with the dead, as well as, considerable national differences. Such experiences were reported most frequently by...
Article
Data from two kinds of experiments for extrasensory perception were retrospectively analysed for possible relationships with local geomagnetic activity (K-index). ESP scores from 70 Ganzfeld sessions (telepathy-clairvoyance) were found significantly related to high geomagnetic activity of the day prior to the experimental sessions (rs = 0.23, n = 7...
Article
Haraldsson, E. & Eysenck, S. B. G. 1987. A Cross‐Cultural Study of Personality: Icelandic Children and English Children. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 31, 123‐127. 621 boys and 604 girls were given an Icelandic translation of the 97‐item Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Although some items were found inappropriate for use in...
Article
Conducted a double-blind experiment at the University of Iceland to study the relationship between the strength of Ss' defense mechanisms and level of ESP. The 7th in a series of experiments on this relationship, the study involved administration of 2 40-run trials of a clairvoyance computer game to 158 male students enrolled at the university and...
Article
This study looks at the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and personality as measured by the EPQ, perceptual defensiveness and belief in extraordinary and religious phenomena. Suggestibility was found to correlate significantly with the EPQ L scale, the degree of perceptual defensiveness and belief in witchcraft. The Icelandic trans...
Article
Reviews results of national surveys conducted from 1974–1984 in Iceland, the UK, Sweden, the US, and Western Europe, which show widespread belief in the existence of psychic phenomena, although they also reflect national differences. Findings reveal that the majority of the Ss believed in some psychic phenomena and that at least 6 in every 10 Ss in...
Article
577 men and 567 women were given the 101-item version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, translated into Icelandic. Although some items were inappropriate for use in Iceland, a viable scoring key was suggested and all reliabilities, except perhaps for Psychoticism, were satisfactory. Indices of factor comparison showed very clearly identical...
Article
A number of variables were tested for possible relationships with belief in psychical phenomena in three samples of college students (N = 75, 180, 195) and a representative sample of adults (N = 568) in Iceland. None of the obtained correlations were high, but a significant correlation was found with belief in life after death, and significant corr...
Article
A great deal of parapsychological research has investigated the effect, upon extrasensory perception (ESP), of the so-called ‘sheep-goat variable’ (SGV), that is, belief in the existence of ESP, either in the abstract or with respect to one's own psychic ability. However, very little purely psychological research has examined the question of possib...

Projects

Project (1)
Project
I have been comparing the phenomenology of outstnding physical mediums like Idridi Indridason, DD Home, Franek Kluski, Palladino and Willy Schneider. I am also investigate children who insist they remember episodes from a past life.