Erik Trinkaus

Erik Trinkaus
Washington University in St. Louis | WUSTL , Wash U · Department of Anthropology

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310
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (310)
Article
As part of a reassessment of the Mid Upper Paleolithic human remains from Cro-Magnon (Dordogne, France), a morphological description and paleobiological consideration of the Cro-Magnon lower limb long bone (femoral, tibial and fibular) remains is presented. Following the reassociation of the lower limb remains (Thibeault and Villotte, 2018, J. Arch...
Article
The seventeen human pedal remains from Cro-Magnon (2 tali, 7 subtalar tarsals, 7 metatarsals, and a proximal phalanx) can be grouped into three individual sets of bones, based on articular congruence, symmetry, size, and pathology. They correspond to the previously identified (Thibeault and Villotte, J. Arch. Sci. Rep. 21, 76–86, 2018) Alpha (Cro-M...
Article
The dental and alveolar remains of the Upper Paleolithic early modern humans from the Abri de Cro-Magnon (Dordogne, France) are described and reassessed, building on descriptions since their discovery in 1868. There are four individuals represented; two (Cro-Magnon (CM) 4253 and 4254) are portions of numbered skulls (Cro-Magnon 1 and 2) and two (Cr...
Chapter
Full-text available
As a framework for interpreting Pliocene and Pleistocene hominin footprints, the functional implications of australopith and Homo pedal remains are reviewed. Despite minor variations in pedal proportions and articular morphology, all of these remains exhibit tarsometatarsal skeletons fully commensurate with an efficient (human) striding bipedal gai...
Article
The Cro-Magnon human remains, associated with the Mid Upper Paleolithic (MUP), have been commingled since 1868. Only one comprehensive attempt to reassociate the bones and partial description of them, now more than fifty years old, has been published. This article provides a comprehensive description and reassessment of the adult upper limb remains...
Article
Objectives: The paleontological description and comparative analysis using discrete morphology, morphometrics (linear and geometric) and cross-sectional geometry of three femoral diaphyseal sections from the Middle Pleistocene site of Hualongdong, China. Materials and methods: The material consists of the original Hualongdong femoral fossils and...
Article
The Mid-Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian) karstic Grotte de Cussac (France) contains two areas of human remains in the context of abundant (and spectacular) parietal engravings. The first area (loci 1 and 2) includes the skeleton of a young adult male in a bear nest, rearranged by postdecomposition inundation, and the variably fragmentary remains of a...
Article
Although the adult skeletons discovered in 1868 at the Cro-Magnon site (Dordogne, France) have been studied several times, the immature remains known as Cro-Magnon 5 and exhumed at the same time were only analyzed in detail once, some thirty years ago. Since then, doubts have persisted concerning, in particular, the minimum number of immature indiv...
Article
Objectives: Kranioti, Grigorescu, and Harvati have recently described (PLoS One 2019, 14(7),e0216718) the breakage to the Cioclovina 1 earlier Upper Paleolithic cranium as indicating fatal interhuman blunt trauma. We have reassessed their analysis in terms of the specimen's condition at discovery, its current condition, and the post-discovery hist...
Article
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Wezmeh Cave, in the Kermanshah region of Central Western Zagros, Iran, produced a Late Pleistocene faunal assemblage rich in carnivorans along with a human right maxillary premolar, Wezmeh 1, an unerupted tooth from an 8 ± 2-year-old individual. Uranium-series analyses of the fauna by alpha spectrometry provided age estimates between 70 and 11 ka....
Article
Full-text available
External auditory exostoses (EAE) have been noted among the Neandertals and a few other Pleistocene humans, but until recently they have been discussed primary as minor pathological lesions with possible auditory consequences. An assessment of available western Eurasian late Middle and Late Pleistocene human temporal bones with sufficiently preserv...
Article
Full-text available
Middle to Late Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia has remained controversial regarding the extent of morphological continuity through archaic humans and to modern humans. Newly found ∼300,000-y-old human remains from Hualongdong (HLD), China, including a largely complete skull (HLD 6), share East Asian Middle Pleistocene (MPl) human traits of...
Article
The rich earlier Mid Upper Palaeolithic (Pavlovian) sites of Dolní Vĕstonice I and II and Pavlov I (∼32,000–∼30,000 cal BP) in southern Moravia (Czech Republic) have yielded a series of human burials, isolated pairs of extremities and isolated bones and teeth. The burials occurred within and adjacent to the remains of structures (‘huts’), among dom...
Article
Regourdou is a well-known Middle Paleolithic site which has yielded the fossil remains of a minimum of two Neandertal individuals. The first individual (Regourdou 1) is represented by a partial skeleton while the second one is represented by a calcaneus. The foot remains of Regourdou 1 have been used in a number of comparative studies, but to date...
Article
Although the early postural reconstructions of the Neandertals as incompletely erect were rejected half a century ago, recent studies of Neandertal vertebral remains have inferred a hypolordotic, flat lower back and spinal imbalance for them, including the La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton. These studies form part of a persistent trend to view the...
Article
Diverse developmental abnormalities and anomalous features are evident in the Pleistocene Homo fossil record, varying from minor but rare dental, vertebral, and carpal variants to exceptional systemic disorders. There are currently 75 documented anomalies or abnormalities from 66 individuals, spanning the Pleistocene but primarily from the Late Ple...
Article
Full-text available
Taphonomic, paleopathological, and paleodemographic analyses of human remains from the Mid Upper Paleolithic of western Eurasia are increasingly documenting a diversity of mortuary behaviors among these successful Late Pleistocene foragers. These considerations are joined by three associated pairs of otherwise isolated appendicular remains from the...
Article
Understanding the Palaeolithic emergence of human social complexity opens up a key perspective on later periods of cultural evolution. Palaeolithic mortuary practice is particularly revealing, as it echoes the social statuses of both the living and the dead. The famous Sunghir burials fall at the beginning of this sequence. Bioarchaeological analys...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of Middle and Late Pleistocene eastern Eurasian human crania, the external auditory exostoses (EAE) of the late archaic Xuchang 1 and 2 and the Xujiayao 15 early Late Pleistocene human temporal bones are described. Xujiayao 15 has small EAE (Grade 1), Xuchang 1 presents bilateral medium EAE (Grade 2), and Xuchang 2 exhibits bilateral...
Data
External auditory exostoses in eastern Eurasian humans. (PDF)
Data
External auditory exostoses in recent human samples. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Late Pleistocene European cave bears (Ursus spelaeus) have been considered to be largely vegetarian, although stable isotope data (δ13C and δ15N values) from the Romanian Carpathians has suggested considerable dietary variation. Here we evaluate previous and additional adult cave bear isotopic data from four Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) sites in...
Data
Late Pleistocene European cave bears (Ursus spelaeus) have been considered to be largely vegetarian, although stable isotope data (δ13C and δ15N values) from the Romanian Carpathians has suggested considerable dietary variation. Here we evaluate previous and additional adult cave bear isotopic data from four Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) sites in...
Article
Full-text available
The Late Pleistocene Shanidar 1 older adult male Neandertal is known for the crushing fracture of his left orbit with a probable reduction in vision, the loss of his right forearm and hand, and evidence of an abnormal gait, as well as probable diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. He also exhibits advanced external auditory exostoses in his lef...
Data
The Shanidar 1 abnormalities (PDF)
Data
Neandertal external auditory exostoses. (PDF)
Data
Differential diagnosis. (PDF)
Article
The causes of Neandertal anterior tooth wear patterns, including labial rounding, labial scratches, and differential anterior-posterior wear, have been debated for decades. The most common explanation is the “stuff-and-cut” hypothesis, which describes Neandertals clamping down on a piece of meat and slicing a portion close to their lips. “Stuff-and...
Article
Full-text available
The Middle Pleistocene is a crucial time period for studying human evolution in Europe, because it marks the appearance of both fossil hominins ancestral to the later Neandertals and the Acheulean technology. Nevertheless, European sites containing well-dated human remains associated with an Acheulean toolkit remain scarce. The earliest European ho...
Article
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Two early Late Pleistocene (~105,000- to 125,000-year-old) crania from Lingjing, Xuchang, China, exhibit a morphological mosaic with differences from and similarities to their western contemporaries. They share pan–Old World trends in encephalization and in supraorbital, neurocranial vault, and nuchal gracilization. They reflect eastern Eurasian an...
Article
Human humeral diaphyseal asymmetry in midshaft and mid-distal rigidity is assessed through the Late Pleistocene in samples of late archaic (Neandertal) and early modern humans. It is considered with respect to directionality (handedness), levels of asymmetry, body size and sexual differences. The overall Late Pleistocene sample indicates a right-ha...
Article
In order to assess the antiquity of derived human lateral (lesser) toe morphology, the SKX 16699 Early Pleistocene pedal proximal phalanx from Swartkrans (South Africa) was compared to samples of pedal phalanges attributed to Pliocene/Pleistocene australopithecines, Homo naledi and Late Pleistocene Homo. In contrast to australopith lateral phalange...
Chapter
The hand remains of Pleistocene Homo provide a functional morphological pattern that indicates the full range of recent human manipulative abilities, and the hand remains of Homo naledi closely approximate this pattern. They all have (or appear to have) overall finger length proportions similar to those of recent humans, although the western Eurasi...
Article
Objectives: Whereas variation of modern human adult body size and shape has been widely studied in the context of ecogeographical clines, little is known about the differential growth patterns of transverse and longitudinal dimensions among human populations. Our study explored the ontogenetic variation of those body proportions in modern humans....
Article
Morphological and paleobiological assessments of the Neandertals are improved by appropriate sexual attributions of fossil remains. The La Quina 5 partial Neandertal skeleton has usually been considered as female, despite the absence of its pelvis and recognition of its large and robust facial skeleton. Its sexual affinities were therefore reassess...
Article
Full-text available
Zhiren Cave in southern China is an important site for the study of the origin and the environmental background of early modern humans. The combination of Elephas kiangnanensis, Elephas maximus, and Megatapirus augustus, indicates an early representative of the typical Asian elephant fauna. Previous U-series dating of flowstone calcite has pinpoint...
Poster
Full-text available
Giemsch, L., Feine, S. C., Alt, K. W., Fu, Q., Knipper, C., Krause, J., Nehlich, O., Niess, C., Pääbo, S., Pawlik, A., Richards, M. P., Schünemann, V., Street, M., Thalmann, O., Tinnes, J., Trinkaus, E. & Schmitz, R. W. 2015: “Interdisciplinary investigations of the late glacial double burial from Bonn-Oberkassel”. The late glacial double burial fr...
Article
Full-text available
The earlier Upper Paleolithic site of Sunghir, northern Russia yielded elaborate burials of an adult and of two immature individuals, dug into the sediments below a rich archeological horizon. The faunal remains and the human burials have yielded a series of radiocarbon dates, raising questions as to the age of the site and whether the burials post...
Article
Le diamètre de la tête fémorale de Regourdou 1 a été estimé à partir des dimensions de la portion ischiatique de l’acétabulum. Cette mesure permet d’estimer certaines variables corporelles et apporte ainsi de nouvelles données sur la taille et les proportions corporelles des hommes du Pléistocène supérieur. L’estimation de ce diamètre s’est faite e...
Article
Full-text available
Despite numerous sites of great antiquity having been excavated since the end of the 19th century, Middle Pleistocene human fossils are still extremely rare in northwestern Europe. Apart from the two partial crania from Biache-Saint-Vaast in northern France, all known human fossils from this period have been found from ten sites in either Germany o...
Article
Buccal microwear analysis of the deciduous molars of Sunghir 3 provides a moderate density of striations and suggests a mixed diet. The permanent teeth of Sunghir 1 to 3 present a low density of microwear, in agreement with the minimal occlusal wear of Sunghir 2 but in contrast with the more advanced wear of Sunghir 1 and 3. The Sunghir 1 and 2 scr...
Chapter
As the interface between the body and technology, in all of its myriad forms, the skeletal hand morphology of Late Pleistocene humans has received increasing attention since the work of Sarasin (1932) and especially Musgrave (1970, 1971, 1973), as paleoanthropologists have documented a series of contrasts between archaic Homo and recent human hand...
Chapter
In most presentations of associated human fossil remains, the cranium and the mandible are discussed separately, as though they represent separate entities of human anatomy. However, in a paleobiological assessment of the Sunghir human remains, especially for the associated skeletons of Sunghir 1 to 3, it is more relevant to consider them in terms...
Chapter
The Sunghir humans retain exceptionally complete pedal remains, especially for Sunghir 1 but also in large part for Sunghir 2 and 3 (chapter 4). The Sunghir 1 pedal remains articulate into two quite complete pedal skeletons, principally missing the middle and distal phalanges of the lesser toes. The Sunghir 2 and 3 pedal skeletons are similarly com...
Book
Full-text available
In this latest volume in the Human Evolution Series, Erik Trinkaus and his co-authors synthesize the research and findings concerning the human remains found at the Sunghir archaeological site. It has long been apparent to those in the field of paleoanthropology that the human fossil remains from the site of Sunghir are an important part of the hum...
Chapter
Sunghir 1 to 3 retain substantial portions of their femora, patellae, tibiae, and fibulae, providing overall lengths, diaphyseal dimensions, and varying degrees of epiphyseal morphology. They are joined by the partial femoral diaphysis of Sunghir 4, which principally provides cross-sectional properties. There is also an isolated patella which may d...
Chapter
The three partial skeletons from Sunghir retain substantial portions of their shoulder and arm remains, from the proximal clavicle to the distal radius and ulna. The scapulae, as with most of those from the Pleistocene, retain principally the spine, the glenoid area, the coracoid process, and the axillary border. The left forearm of Sunghir 2 is ab...
Chapter
Considerations of the mortuary behavior at Sunghir concern principally the two elaborate graves, Graves 1 and 2. Although each exhibits patterns evident elsewhere in Mid Upper Paleolithic burials, the combinations of features and the richness of the two graves is truly exceptional. Yet there is additional evidence for mortuary behavior, principally...
Chapter
Assessment of the ages-at-death and the probable sexes of the Sunghir humans provides a baseline for their paleobiological evaluation. The former is particularly important for the comparative analysis of the immature Sunghir 2 and 3 skeletons, given the marked changes in size and shape with development. The latter is more important for the adult Su...
Chapter
The preceding chapters provide extensive information on the context, mortuary rituals, skeletal and dental morphology and morphometrics, dental wear, functional anatomy, paleopathology, and paleochemistry of the human remains from the northern Russian site of Sunghir. The three associated skeletons from Graves 1 and 2 provide the overwhelming volum...
Chapter
During the Mid Upper Paleolithic, the period of Late Pleistocene human existence within the Interpleniglacial, human foraging populations developed an increasingly sophisticated, elaborated, and complicated existence across Eurasia and probably across most of the Old World. This period of the Paleolithic saw the emergence of various forms of elabor...
Chapter
Considerations of the body proportions and estimates of body mass and stature of the Sunghir people provide a general baseline for the assessment of a variety of aspects of their paleobiology. They also furnish some indications by themselves. Some of these aspects have been men­tioned with respect to sexual assessment of the adult remains (especial...
Chapter
In addition to the functional, anatomical, and paleopathological reflections of the biology and behavior of the Sunghir humans, it has been possible to make indirect inferences regarding their average dietary profiles. These considerations derive from the mineral compositions of bone samples from Sunghir 1 to 4 (Kozlovskaya 2000d), carbon and nitro...
Chapter
Throughout the previous chapters detailing and comparing the Sunghir human remains, there have been frequent references to their abnormalities. Some of these unusual features are obvious and sufficiently pronounced as to remove the bones from direct paleobiological consideration (e.g., the Sunghir 1 pollical osteoarthrosis and the Sunghir 3 femoral...
Chapter
Full-text available
The open-air Upper Paleolithic site of Sunghir (Сунгирь; Sungir’) is located along the northeastern edge of the Vladimir urban area, Russia, 192 km north of Moscow (56°10'30"N, 40°30'30"E). It is within the village of Dobrogo, currently absorbed into the city of Vladimir. The site is on the high left bank of the Klyazma River and on the right bank...
Chapter
The pelvis forms the interface between the trunk and the lower limb, as well as supporting the pelvic viscera, and as such its size and morphology reflect a diversity of biological pressures. Aspects of the Sunghir pelvic remains relating to the assessment of sex (pubic morphology, greater sciatic notch shape) and age (auricular surface, epiphyses)...
Chapter
This volume is concerned with the morphology and paleobiology of the human remains from Sunghir. As such, it is intended to contribute to our knowledge and understanding of the occupants of that locale in northern Russia during the Interpleniglacial [marine isotope stage (MIS) 3]. However, the Sunghir human remains take on meaning, and can be prope...
Chapter
The human (and mammalian) facial skeleton is a complex response to the protection, support, and functional demands of a diversity of neurological and physiological processes that must be structurally integrated, and each places limitations on the others. The processes involve respiration (nasal and oral) and mastication (and deglutition), as well a...
Chapter
Sunghir 1, 2, and 3 retain most of their maxillary and mandibular teeth, although those of Sunghir 1 are heavily worn and those of Sunghir 2 and especially Sunghir 3 were developing at the times of their deaths. As a result, the two immature individuals provide extensive data on their dental crown discrete morphology and crown metrics, but there ar...
Chapter
Given their burial positions, on their backs with the trunks and limbs extended, the Sunghir 1 to 3 individuals should have retained major portions of their axial skeletons. This is the case for Sunghir 2 and 3, both of whom retain all of the cervical vertebrae, most of their thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, and major portions of their sacra. Sunghir...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Sunghir human remains originally consisted of the three associated skeletons from the two burials, Sunghir 1, 2, and 3, plus the remains of six other individuals. Sunghir 1 to 3 consist of largely complete skeletons that sustained the inevitable partial crushing, fragmentation, and bone disintegration that accompanies human remains buried in op...
Article
The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of th...
Article
Full-text available
The human distal thumb phalanx from the earlier Upper Paleolithic of Obłazowa Cave, southern Poland, exhibits features of its palmar surface that align it morphologically principally with early modern humans. These aspects include the configurations of the proximal palmar fossa, the flexor pollicis longus tendon insertion, the proximal margin of th...
Article
Full-text available
The Mid Upper Paleolithic immature Sunghir 2 and 3 skeletal remains exhibit non-closure and doubling of several of their cervical vertebral foramina transversaria. Both exhibit non-closure of the atlas (C1) foramina. Sunghir 3 also exhibits foraminal non-closure in her C4 to C5. Sunghir 2 has doubling of the foramen on C4 and C6, whereas Sunghir 3...
Chapter
The Late Pleistocene saw the emergence and establishment of early modern humans, and questions remain as to the reasons for their ultimate success relative to late archaic humans. A reassessment of human paleobiology in its Paleolithic context, in light of changes in perspective, chronology, the fossil record, and paleobiological analyses, indicate...
Article
Full-text available
The proposed dietary pattern of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, 1794) has become controversial, as some authors have suggested that they were strictly vegetarian, whereas others maintain they were omnivores that at times ate large amounts of animal protein. We evaluated these alternatives by compiling stable isotope...
Article
Full-text available
We report here a neurocranial abnormality previously undescribed in Pleistocene human fossils, an enlarged parietal foramen (EPF) in the early Late Pleistocene Xujiayao 11 parietal bones from the Xujiayao (Houjiayao) site, northern China. Xujiayao 11 is a pair of partial posteromedial parietal bones from an adult. It exhibits thick cranial vault bo...
Book
Full-text available
The Pestera cu Oase is a sealed limestone cavern in southwestern Romania which served principally as a hibernation den for Pleistocene cave bears and wolves, but also contained the fossil remains of the earliest modern humans in Europe. Currently inaccessible except through cave diving and rock climbing, the cave preserved its contents undisturbed...
Article
Cet article décrit une branche mandibulaire humaine du Pléistocène supérieur ancien trouvée à Xujiayao (Chine du Nord). La pièce porte des caractères dont la distribution varie parmi les groupes attribués à Homo et issus de l’Ouest de l’ancien monde, mais aussi entre les hommes archaïques du Pléistocène ancien et moyen et les hommes modernes du Plé...