Erik Selander

Erik Selander
University of Gothenburg | GU · Department of Marine Sciences

Ph.D. Marine Ecology

About

68
Publications
14,940
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1,870
Citations
Introduction
Marine organisms depend on chemo-sensory information to perceive their surroundings. Deciphering the largely unknown but influential chemical "language" of the open ocean is the overarching theme of the research I do.
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - July 2015
University of Gothenburg
Position
  • Associate Senior Lecturer
Description
  • PI for a small research group in pelagic chemical ecology. Teaching on various courses in biology, marine chemical ecology, and marine biology.
March 2009 - March 2011
DTU-Aqua
Position
  • Erik Selander
Description
  • pelagic chemical ecology, dinoflagellate, copepod, zooplankton, top down,
March 2009 - March 2011
Technical University of Denmark
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • PD in Thomas Kiørboes lab, chemical interactions in plankton interactions

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Full-text available
Formation of cell chains in phytoplankton is ecologically important, but no single factor driving the evolution of chain formation has been identified. Chain length in the diatom Skeletonema marinoi declines in response to grazer cues, which reduces grazing losses in simple laboratory incubations. Here we explore a more ecologically relevant scenar...
Article
Full-text available
Interactions among microscopic planktonic organisms underpin the functioning of open ocean ecosystems. With few exceptions, these organisms lack advanced eyes and thus rely largely on chemical sensing to perceive their surroundings. However, few of the signaling molecules involved in interactions among marine plankton have been identified. We repor...
Article
Full-text available
Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is kn...
Article
Full-text available
Chain formation is common among phytoplankton organisms but the underlying reasons and consequences are poorly understood. Here we show that chain formation is strongly impaired by waterborne cues from copepod grazers in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Chains of Alexandrium cells exposed to copepod cues responded by splitting into single...
Article
Full-text available
Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding or induce defensive traits in prey organisms. However, little is known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here we describe the development of a closed loop solid ph...
Article
Full-text available
Phytoplankton induce defensive traits in response to chemical alarm signals from grazing zooplankton. However, these signals are potentially vulnerable to changes in pH and it is not yet known how predator recognition may be affected by ocean acidification. We exposed four species of diatoms and one toxic dinoflagellate to future pCO2 levels, proje...
Preprint
Full-text available
Particle tracking is a fundamental task in digital microscopy. Recently, machine-learning approaches have made great strides in overcoming the limitations of more classical approaches. The training of state-of-the-art machine-learning methods almost universally relies on either vast amounts of labeled experimental data or the ability to numerically...
Preprint
Full-text available
The marine microbial food web plays a central role in the global carbon cycle. Our mechanistic understanding of the ocean, however, is biased towards its larger constituents, while rates and biomass fluxes in the microbial food web are mainly inferred from indirect measurements and ensemble averages. Yet, resolution at the level of the individual m...
Article
Full-text available
We have assessed the effect of copepod chemical cues on the diel feeding rhythms of heterotrophic and mixotrophic marine protists. All phagotrophic protists studied exhibited relatively high diurnal feeding rates. The magnitude of the diel feeding rhythm, expressed as the quotient of day and night ingestion rates, was inversely related to the time...
Article
Full-text available
Harmful algae bloom (HAB) forecasting has developed rapidly over recent decades, but predicting harmful levels of marine biotoxins in shellfish is still a challenge. New discoveries suggest that predator‐prey interactions may be an important driver in the formation of HABs. Key species of harmful algae respond to copepod infochemicals with increase...
Article
Full-text available
• Colony formation is a common feature among nonmotile marine phytoplankton. Several theories exist around the potential benefits of larger colonies. • Here, we test the hypothesis that predation is one of the drivers behind colony formation and chain length plasticity. We exposed cultures of Thalassiosira rotula, Chaetoceros curvisetus, and Chaeto...
Article
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Fishing and translocation of marine species for use in aquaculture is widespread. Corkwing, goldsinny, and ballan wrasse (Symphodus melops, Ctenolabrus rupestris, and Labrus bergylta) are fished on the Swedish west coast for use as cleaner-fish in Norwegian salmon farms. Here, we aim to provide knowledge and recommendations to support ecosystem-bas...
Article
Inducible defences in phytoplankton are often assumed to come at a cost to the organism, but trade-offs have proven hard to establish experimentally. A reason for this may be that some trade-off costs only become evident under resource-limiting conditions. To explore the effect of nutrient limitation on trade-offs in toxin-producing dinoflagellates...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many phytoplankton respond to chemical cues from grazers by upregulating defensive capabilities. Inducible defences like these are often assumed to come at a cost to the organism, but these trade-offs have not been experimentally established. A reason for this may be that costs only become evident under resource limiting conditions. Here, we expose...
Article
Full-text available
Chemical cues and signals mediate resource acquisition, mate finding, and the assessment of predation risk in marine plankton. Here, we use the chemical properties of the first identified chemical cues from zooplankton together with in situ measurements of turbulent dissipation rates to calculate the effect of turbulence on the distribution of cues...
Article
Full-text available
“Infochemicals” (information-conveying chemicals) dominate much of the underwater communication in biological systems. They influence the movement and behavior of organisms, the ecological interactions between and across populations, and the trophic structure of marine food webs. However, relative to their terrestrial equivalents, the wider ecologi...
Article
Bioluminescent dinoflagellates grow at one third the rate of their competitors of equivalent size, such as diatoms [1]. Despite this disadvantage, dinoflagellates successfully persist within phytoplankton communities and even form large blooms during favourable conditions. One explanation for this paradox is that bioluminescence acts as a defence t...
Article
Full-text available
The clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. is a small hydromedusa species known historically from the Swedish west coast but not reported in recent times. This species is thought to be native to the northwest Pacific where it is notorious for causing severe stings in humans and is considered invasive or cryptogenic elsewhere. This year, unlike in the pa...
Article
Full-text available
Fear of predation may influence food webs more than actual predation. However, the mechanisms and magnitude of nonconsumptive predator effects are largely unknown in unicellular-dominated food webs such as marine plankton. We report a general mechanism of chemically induced predator effects in marine plankton. Copepods, the most abundant zooplankto...
Article
Full-text available
Marine zooplankton release chemical cues, which trigger defenses in unicellular phytoplankton, such as increased toxin production and changes of colony sizes. Here, we identify the structure of two novel alarm cues belonging to the group of copepodamides. Similar to the known copepodamides, one of the compounds described is shown to trigger both am...
Article
Grazers can induce toxin (domoic acid, DA) production in diatoms. The toxic response has been observed in two species of Pseudo-nitzschia and was induced by Calanus copepods. In this study, interactions between diatoms and copepods were further explored using different species of diatoms and copepods. All herbivorous copepods induced toxin producti...
Article
Full-text available
Diatoms and copepods are main actors in marine food webs. The prey-predator interactions between them affect bloom dynamics, shape marine ecosystems, and impact the energy transfer to higher trophic levels. Recently it has been demonstrated that the presence of grazers may affect the diatom prey beyond the direct effect of grazing. Here, we investi...
Article
The flow regime around a chemically baited trap is crucial for the trapping process and distribution of bait downstream of traps. We measured the flow field downstream of a trap prototype in flume experiments and mapped the distribution of bait using laser induced fluorescence. The trap produced a downstream wake, where flow recirculated towards th...
Article
Full-text available
Short flashes of blue light (bioluminescence) from dinoflagellates can reduce copepod grazing of light-emitting cells. Other protective strategies against grazing are toxicity, reduced cell chain length and altered swimming patterns in different phytoplankton. Both toxicity and bioluminescence capacity in dinoflagellates decrease in copepod-free cu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Phenotypic plasticity is commonplace and enables an organism to respond to variations in the environment. Plastic responses often modify a suite of traits and can be triggered by both abiotic and biotic changes. Here we analysed the plastic response towards a grazer of two genotypes of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, eva...
Data
Alligned peak list showing intensities (peak area) of all measured compounds Alligned peak list from mass spec data. Peak ID in column A, Compound specific mass@retentiontime in column B, and intensities of each compound for each sample in the following columns. below threshold entries denoted as “1”.
Article
Full-text available
Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding and induce defensive traits in prey organisms. Little is, however, known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here we describe the development of a closed loop solid...
Article
Full-text available
Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding and induce defensive traits in prey organisms. Little is, however, known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here we describe the development of a closed loop solid...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on the recent and emerging research involving chemical defences against herbivory in aquatic primary producers. It provides an overview of plant chemical defence theories and highlights recent research on aquatic primary producers addressing a number of aspects of these theories, concluding with new chemical approaches to tackl...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of studies show the importance of chemical interactions in the aquatic environment. Our understanding of the role of chemical cues and signals in larger crustaceans has advanced in the last decades. However, for copepods, the most abundant metazoan zooplankton and essential for the functioning of the marine food web, much is st...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of predator-prey systems in both aquatic and terrestrial environments have shown that grazers structure the intraspecific diversity of prey species, given that the prey populations are phenotypically variable. Populations of phytoplankton have traditionally considered comprising only low intraspecific variation, hence selective grazing as a...
Article
Full-text available
We monitored the kinetics of grazer-induced responses in the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Chemical cues from each of three calanoid copepods (Calanus sp., Centropages typicus, and Acartia induced increased toxicity and suppressed chain formation in A. tamarense. Both chemical and morphological responses augmented over 3 Toxicity sub...
Article
We show that Skeletonema marinoi suppresses chain formation in response to copepod cues. The presence of three different copepod species (Acartia tonsa, Centropages hamatus, or Temora longicornis) significantly reduced chain length. Furthermore, chain length was significantly reduced when S. marinoi was exposed to chemical cues from caged A. tonsa...
Article
We describe different modes of prey rejection in a filter-feeding appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica. Nonselective prey rejection occurs by intermittent rejection through reversal of the feeding current of all particles when the pharyngeal filter is overloaded, and by accidental loss through the spiracles of all particles that have entered the hous...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetative cells and pellicle cysts of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense Balech were fed to the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin under controlled conditions. Para - lytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were measured in vegetative cells and pellicle cysts prior to feeding and directly after passage through the oyster alimentary cana...
Article
Full-text available
The cosmopolitan marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is known to produce toxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). As has recently been shown, this toxicity can be enhanced by the presence of certain copepod species. Inducible defences are known from a variety of marine organisms, but the associated transcriptomic changes have only...
Article
Full-text available
We report of the first finding of parasitic sea anemone larvae infecting the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic. Parasitic anemone larvae are common in the native habitat of Mnemiopsis, but have not previously been reported from any of the locations where Mnemiopsis has been introduced. General morphology and 18S rRNA...
Article
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum has previously been shown to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in response to waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa. In order to investigate if grazer-induced toxin production is a general or grazer-specific response of A. minutum to calanoid copepods, we exposed two strains of A. minutum to wa...
Article
Full-text available
Two strains of Alexandrium minutum were exposed to waterborne cues from copepod grazers in factorial combinations of nitrate and phosphate concentrations to evaluate the importance of grazer-induced paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production under different nutrient regimes. In nitrate-rich treatments, the presence of waterborne cues from grazers r...
Article
Full-text available
Among the thousands of unicellular phytoplankton species described in the sea, some frequently occurring and bloom-forming marine dinoflagellates are known to produce the potent neurotoxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towa...
Article
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The sedimentation of particulate organic material was investigated in Disko Bay, West Greenland, during June 2001. Post spring-bloom conditions were encountered, with seasonally decreasing phytoplankton biomass associated with the pycnocline. Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis, and C. hyperboreus dominated the zooplankton community, comprising up t...
Article
Full-text available
Community structure of pelagic copepods was investigated in the upper 200 m in the Disko Bay, Western Greenland, during the post-spring bloom period in June, 2001. This was the first study of the copepod community in West Greenland coastal waters sampled using smaller mesh sizes (50 {micro}m as opposed to 200 {micro}m). The mesozooplankton was domi...
Article
Full-text available
Many dinoflagellate species form dormant resting cysts as a part of their life cycle, and in some freshwater species, hatching of these cysts can be delayed by the presence of water-borne signals from grazing zooplankton. Some marine dinoflagellates can form temporary cysts, which may function to resist unfavourable short-term environmental conditi...
Article
Full-text available
We studied allelopathy in the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium by testing the effect of A. tamarense on a natural plankton community from Hopavagen Bay, Trondheimsfjord, Norway, and the effect of toxic and non-toxic strains of A. tamarense and a toxic strain of A. minutum on algal monocultures. Also, a possible relation between the allelopathic eff...
Article
Full-text available
Feeding behaviour of the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura dioica presented with a range of food concentrations (FC, 4-670 mug Cl-1) of the flagellate Isochrysis galbana was observed using video. Simultaneous bottle incubations provided clearance rate estimates. Tail beats per minute (TB), number of tail arrests or pauses (TA) and swimming speeds were re...
Article
Full-text available
Fast growing ephemeral algae are increasingly observed in shallow coastal waters worldwide. This is generally considered a symptom of coastal eutrophication. It has been suggested that the reoccurrence of macroalgal mats, despite ongoing efforts to decrease nutrient loadings, may be explained by the fact that sheltered bays function as self-regener...