Erik Schlangen

Erik Schlangen
Delft University of Technology | TU · Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences (CEG)

PhD
more info on projects, articles, presentations can be found on: www.erikschlangen.net

About

410
Publications
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Introduction
The topics I work on are fracture mechanics, construction materials, self-healing materials, lattice modelling, durability. More info you can find on: http://erikschlangen.wix.com/erikschlangen

Publications

Publications (410)
Chapter
The growing demand towards life cycle sustainability has created a tremendous interest in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) to minimize manufacturing defects and waste, and to improve maintenance and extend service life. Applications of Magnetic Sensors (MSs) in NDE of civil engineering structures have become of great interest in recent years due to...
Article
It has been observed that a trench wall embedded in the soil of the Dead Sea has lost strength and is deteriorating due to brine attack. This phenomenon demonstrates that concrete wall structural stability and durability can be seriously endangered. Yet conventional analysis using macroscopic models is considered an oversimplification, as it neglec...
Article
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Ultra-High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) is, due to its superior mechanical properties and low permeability, a promising material for the restoration and improvement of the mechanical resistance and durability of existing Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures. This paper reviews the strengthening applications of UHPFRC in flexure, sh...
Article
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Extrusion-based 3D concrete printing (3DCP) results in deposited materials with complex microstructures that have high porosity and distinct anisotropy. Due to the material heterogeneity and rapid growth of cracks, fracture analysis in these air-void structures is often complex, resulting in a high computational cost. This study proposes a convolut...
Chapter
Previous research has shown that the material properties of a three-dimensional printed strain hardening cementitious composite (3DP-SHCC) can significantly vary, depending on the printing system with which it is produced. However, limited research has been performed on the reproducibility of hardened mechanical properties under identical printing...
Article
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A good bond between the layers of 3D printed cementitious materials is a prerequisite for having high structural rigidity for the printed elements. However, the influence of printing process on an interlayer bond is still not well understood. This study investigates the influence of curing methods (i.e., air curing, plastic film covering, wet towel...
Article
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Concrete structures perform poorly when withstanding thermal shock events, usually requiring repair or replacement after one single instance. In certain industries (such as petrol, metallurgic and ceramics), these events are not only likely but frequent, which represents a considerable financial burden. One option to solve this issue would be to de...
Article
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This paper presents a study on cracking characterization of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) under flexural cyclic load using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. Five stress levels, namely 0.65, 0.75, 0.8, 0.85 and 0.9 of the flexural strength, were applied. Strain map at the side surface was obtained by DIC and used to drive evoluti...
Article
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Strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC) is a special class of ultra-ductile material which has autogenous self-healing capability due to its intrinsic tight crack widths. To further improve its healing ability, healing agent (HA) can be incorporated in SHCC, enabling it also the autonomous self-healing mechanism. In this study, the effects o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The growing demand towards life cycle sustainability has created a tremendous interest in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) to minimize manufacturing defects and waste, and to improve maintenance and extend service life. Applications of Magnetic Sensors (MSs) in NDE of civil engineering structures have become of great interest in recent years due to...
Research
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Preprint article, immediate access but has not been peer reviewed Link: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4046855
Article
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Since the advent of three-dimensional concrete printing (3DCP), several studies have shown the potential of strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) as a self-reinforcing printable mortar. However, only a few papers focus on achieving sufficient buildability when developing printable SHCC. This study investigates the role of the particle siz...
Article
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Stress evolution of restrained concrete is a significant direct index in early-age cracking (EAC) analysis of concrete. This study presents experiments and numerical modelling of the early-age stress evolution of Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) concrete, considering the development of autogenous deformation and creep. Temperature Stres...
Article
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This study aims to provide an efficient alternative for predicting creep modulus of cement paste based on Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN). First, a microscale lattice model for short-term creep is adopted to build a database that contains 18,920 samples. Then, 3 DCNNs with different consecutive convolutional layers are built to learn from...
Article
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The effect of slag of different origins (synthetic slag produced in the laboratory and commercial slag collected from different steel factories) with comparable chemical composition, amorphous content and particle size distribution, on the hydration characteristics of slag cement was investigated. In order to study the effect of sulfur in slag, a m...
Article
Hybrid application of conventional concrete and Strain Hardening Cementitious Composite (SHCC) is recently shown to be promising for crack width control. In this paper, a combined experimental and numerical study is performed to validate the concept and to study the effect of interface treatment on crack width control. The interface is varied betwe...
Article
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This paper aims to provide a systematical review of the available printing strategies, sustainable cementitious materials and characterization methods for extrusion-based 3D concrete printing (3DCP). The printing strategies, consisting of printing setup, process, and material requirements, were summarized initially. In the material aspect, the high...
Article
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The focus of this work is to present test results on the bond of steel-mortar interface undergoing stray current. The bond strength, derived by pull-out tests, is correlated to the electrochemical response of the steel rebar and the properties of the mortar bulk matrix. The effects of curing regimes (in terms of duration of curing) and starting poi...
Article
The high cost of UHPFRC is a limitation on the practical application in real construction projects. However, a very competitive UHPFRC approach is the hybrid structural elements, where thin layers of UHPFRC are employed to rehabilitate/strengthen damage cover concrete. New layers subjected to harsh conditions (loads and/or environmental) can eventu...
Article
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This paper aims to investigate the influences of high Portland cement substitutions (>60 wt%) by low-grade calcined clay (CC) and limestone (LF) on 3D concrete printability, stiffness evolution and early-age hydration. Results show that, with the same dosage of admixtures (superplasticizer and viscosity modifier), increasing LF and CC content reduc...
Article
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Fine recycled concrete aggregates (fRCA, 0–4 mm) are produced from demolished concrete structures and consist of natural aggregates and old cement mortar. The presence of old cement mortar has detrimental effect on the fresh properties and strength of new concrete. This study aims to investigate the working mechanism and effectiveness of different...
Article
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This study aims to provide an efficient and accurate machine learning (ML) approach for predicting the creep behavior of concrete. Three EML models are selected in this study: Random Forest (RF), Extreme Gradient Boosting Machine (XGBoost) and Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LGBM). Firstly, the creep data in Northwestern University (NU) database i...
Conference Paper
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Sodium chloride (NaCl) is one of the ubiquitous soluble salts in the environment and is responsible for weathering of building materials. The salt weathering is attributed to the stress developed from crystallisation of these salts in pores of the building materials, with supersaturation as the driving force. In the last years, researchers have suc...
Article
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This paper explores the sustainability aspects of binders used in concrete 3D concrete printing. Firstly, a prospective approach to conduct sustainability assessment based on the life cycle of 3D printed structures is presented, which also highlights the importance of considering the functional requirements of the mixes used for 3D printing. The po...
Article
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Clay brick is one of the major components of demolition waste, which is generally landfilled. Effective and new uses of recycled clay brick may provide sustainability benefits in terms of landfill reduction. Therefore, this research aims at applying Recycled fine clay brick aggregates (RFCBA) with sizes from 0.075 mm–4.75 mm to prepare Self-compact...
Article
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This paper presents an experimental investigation on the short-term creep recovery of cement paste at micro-metre length scale. Micro-cantilever beams were fabricated and tested with 8 different loading series using the nanoindenter. It is found that cement pastes show high recovery ratios (>80%) even subjected to very high stress levels. Relativel...
Article
Non-uniform stresses, strains and microcracking of the concretes with three coarse aggregate sizes (5–10 mm, 10–16 mm, 16–20 mm) dried under 40% relative humidity (RH) for 60 days were quantified using digital image correlation and lattice fracture modelling. The influencing mechanism of coarse aggregate size on the drying-induced microcracking of...
Chapter
The subject of this paper is the extent to which, during wetting–drying cycles, chloride ions can penetrate Ultra-high-Performance Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composites (UHPFRC) specimens subjected to combined mechanical and environmental load. Pre-cracking was obtained by subjecting prismatic specimens (40 × 40 × 60mm3) to four-point bending un...
Article
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Self-healing asphalt, which is designed to achieve autonomic damage repair in asphalt pavement, offers a great life-extension prospect and therefore not only reduces pavement maintenance costs but also saves energy and reduces CO2 emissions. The combined asphalt self-healing system, incorporating both encapsulated rejuvenator and induction heating,...
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This study presents an experimental investigation of fatigue properties of cement paste at the microscale. A strong size dependence is found for the flexural fatigue life of the cement paste specimen. Microscopic observations on the fractured surfaces suggest that there is a higher density of nano-scale cracks generated during the fatigue loading c...
Article
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In this study, a numerical model using a 2D lattice network is developed to investigate the fatigue behaviour of cement paste at the microscale. Images of 2D microstructures of cement pastes obtained from XCT tests are used as inputs and mapped to the lattice model. Different local mechanical and fatigue properties are assigned to different phases...
Article
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A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Strain rate sensitivity Micro-cantilever bending Cement paste Creep A B S T R A C T This study presents an experimental investigation of the rate-dependent mechanical properties of cement paste at the microscale. With the use of a nanoindenter, micro-cantilever beams with the size of 300 μm × 300 μm × 1650 μm were lo...
Article
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In this work, the lattice model is applied to study the printing process and quantify the buildability (i.e., the maximum height that can be printed) for 3D concrete printing (3DCP). The model simulates structural failure by incorporating an element birth technique, time‐dependent stiffness and strength, printing velocity, non‐uniform gravitational...
Article
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This paper presents a method to numerically investigate the microstructural effect on the creep behavior of cement paste at the microscale. The lattice fracture model is extended to consider local time‐dependent deformations of calcium‐silicate‐hydrate phases in the cement paste by imposing local forces. The term “experimentally informed model” is...
Article
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Microwave heating has been shown to be an effective method of heating asphalt concrete and in turn healing the damage. As such, microwave heating holds great potential in rapid (1–3 min) and effective damage healing, resulting in improvement in the service life, safety, and sustainability of asphalt pavement. This study focused on the microwave hea...
Article
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X-ray computer scanning tomography (CT scan) is an increasingly more available technique, which has been applied to material sciences for years. Although most of its use is qualitative for gaining insights on material behavior, quantitative analysis for estimations of deterioration rates is possible. This paper describes an unbiased, straightforwar...
Article
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For many 3D printed cementitious materials, air voids may play a dominant role in the interlayer bond strength. However, to date, far too little attention has been paid to reveal the air void characteristics in 3D printed cementitious materials. Therefore, to fill this gap, this study attempts to provide an example of systematically characterizing...
Article
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Rejuvenator encapsulation technique showed great potential for extrinsic asphalt pavement damage healing. Once the capsules are embedded within asphalt pavement, the healing is activated on-demand via progressing microcrack. When the microcrack encounters the capsule, the fracture energy at the tip opens the capsule and releases the rejuvenator. Th...
Article
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This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of the fine recycled concrete aggregates (fRCA), focusing on their physical and chemical properties, engineering properties and durability of concretes with fRCA. Based on the systematic review of the published literature, it is impossible to deduce without any further research the guidelines and tools to i...
Article
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A combination of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations at multiple length scales can provide in-depth understanding of fracture behaviour of hydrated cement paste (HCP). To that end, the current work presents a numerical study on compressive failure of hydrated cement paste (HCP) at the micro-scale. Virtual specimens consisting of variou...
Article
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In this study, the interface between different types of bacteria-embedded self-healing polylactic acid capsules (PLA) and cement paste is investigated. Particularly, the changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of the interface with respect to bulk cement paste were studied. First, nanoindentation was performed to obtain maps of hardness...
Article
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In circular concrete design, beside cement replacement with more environmentally friendly cement types, there is also an urgent need for sand replacement with fine recycled concrete aggregates (fRCA). The variations in physical and chemical properties of fRCA and lack of standards for their quality evaluation are the main reasons for not yet using...
Article
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This research presents an investigation of the compressive behavior of auxetic cementitious cellular composites (CCCs) using a combination of experiments and finite element (FE) simulations. Typical auxetic centrosymmetric geometry was used as unit cells for the cellular structure and fiber reinforced cementitious mortar were used as constituent ma...
Article
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For a single batch material, time intervals and nozzle standoff distances between two subsequent layers are two critical printing parameters that influence the mechanical performance of the printed concrete. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study to investigate the impacts of these printing parameters on the interlayer bond strengt...
Article
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To assess the effect of relative humidity (RH) on drying-induced damage in concrete, the non-uniform strains and microcracks in concrete under different RH conditions were obtained using the digital image correlation (DIC) technique and lattice fracture model. The simulated non-uniform displacements were consistent with those captured using DIC. A...
Article
We propose an upscaled methodology for evaluating the compressive parameters of the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) for a multiscale analysis of concrete structures. This methodology is based on mechanical and chemical models on a wide range of concrete scales. We show that the compressive mechanical parameters are related mainly to material...
Article
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Application of micromechanical modelling of hydrated cement paste (HCP) gains more and more interests in the field of cementitious materials. One of the most promising approaches is the use of so-called microstructure informed micromechanical models, which provides a direct link between microstructure and mechanical properties. In order to properly...
Article
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This study proposes an experimental method for studying the short-term creep behaviour of cement paste at micro-scale. The micro-bending tests on miniaturized cantilever beams were used to characterize the viscoelastic properties of cement paste. The effects of w/b ratio, the type of binder and the stress level on the microscopic creep behaviour we...
Article
Concrete generally deforms and cracks in a non-uniform manner under drying-induced stress. This study used the lattice fracture model to simulate the drying-induced non-uniform deformations, stresses, and micro-crack propagation in concrete. Experiments were designed to validate the lattice fracture model, wherein the drying-induced non-uniform def...
Article
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The lattice fracture model is a discrete model that can simulate the fracture process of cementitious materials. In this work, the Delft lattice fracture model is reviewed and utilized for fracture analysis. First, a systematic calibration procedure that relies on the combination of two uniaxial tensile tests is proposed to determine the input para...
Chapter
This paper reports an extended lattice model for printing process simulation of 3D printed cementitious materials. In this model, several influencing factors such as material and geometric nonlinearity are considered. Using this model, green strength of cementitious material is investigated, deformation and crack pattern can be derived, which is cl...