Erik Giltay

Erik Giltay
Leiden University Medical Centre | LUMC · Department of Psychiatry

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417
Publications
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16,677
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Publications

Publications (417)
Article
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Introduction Aggression and violent incidents are a major concern in psychiatric inpatient care. Nutritional supplementation was found to reduce aggressive incidents and rule violations in forensic populations and in children with behavioral problems. Objectives To assess whether multivitamin, mineral, and n-3 PUFA supplementation would reduce the...
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Introduction Childhood trauma is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depressive disorders, but its association with anger, irritability, and related constructs has received less attention. Objectives We aimed to investigate (1) the relationship between childhood trauma and anger constructs in adulthood, and (2) which types of childhoo...
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Introduction Patients with remitted Cushing’s Disease (CD) often present persisting impairments in executive and cognitive functioning domains. Little research has been conducted regarding the functional neural correlates of an important executive functioning skill, namely the ability to plan, in these patients. Objectives To examine visuospatial...
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Introduction First responders to disasters are at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptom severity differ among individuals, even if they are exposed to similar events. These trajectories have not yet been reported in non-Western first responders. Objectives We aimed to explore po...
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Background Mental health was only modestly affected in adults during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic on the group level, but interpersonal variation was large. Aims We aim to investigate potential predictors of the differences in changes in mental health. Method Data were aggregated from three Dutch ongoing prospective cohorts with simi...
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Background Ketamine is an anesthetic that appears to be an effective and rapidly acting pharmacological treatment in patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD). However, the definition of TRD varies greatly between published studies, and studies often did not include patients resistant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Methods We perform...
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Background Childhood trauma (CT) is robustly associated with psychiatric disorders including major depressive and anxiety disorders across the life span. The innate immune system may play a role in the relation between CT and stress-related psychopathology. However, whether CT influences the innate production capacity of cytokine levels following e...
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Objectives: Late-life major depressive disorder (MDD) can be conceptualized as a complex dynamic system. However, it is not straightforward how to analyze the covarying depressive symptoms over time in case of sparse panel data. Dynamic time warping (DTW) analysis may yield symptom networks and dimensions both at the patient and group level. Meth...
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Kunnen hormonale anticonceptiva depressieve klachten veroorzaken? De Wit onderzocht deze vragen in haar proefschriftCan hormones get you down?In dit artikel behandelen we deze vragen voor de artsen die het vaakst anticonceptie voorschrijven: huisartsen. We lichten alvast een tip van de sluier op: het anekdotische bewijs voor een effect van pilgebru...
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Background: Childhood trauma (CT) is a risk factor for depressive and anxiety disorders. However, whether CT is more strongly linked to specific clinical features of these disorders remains inconclusive. The current study comprehensively examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between CT and depressive/anxiety symptomatology in a la...
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Background The microbiota of the gut contributes to human mental health through the gut-brain axis. Treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) offers the opportunity to explore the effects of modification of the microbiota on mental health in patients with a perturbed gut microbiota after multiple recurrent Clostridioides difficile infec...
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Previous studies have failed to take baseline severity into account when assessing the effects of pathological personality traits (PPT) on treatment outcome. This study assessed the prognostic value of PPT (Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form) on treatment outcome (Brief Symptom Inventory [BSI-posttreatment]) among patients w...
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Background First responders to disasters are at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptom severity differ among individuals, even if they are exposed to similar events. These trajectories have not yet been reported in non-Western first responders. Aims We aimed to explore post-traum...
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Full-text available
Background: Aggression and violent incidents are a major concern in psychiatric in-patient care. Nutritional supplementation has been found to reduce aggressive incidents and rule violations in forensic populations and children with behavioural problems. Aims: To assess whether multivitamin, mineral and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementa...
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Background Little is known about the longer-term impact of the Covid-19 pandemic beyond the first months of 2020, particularly for people with pre-existing mental health disorders. Studies including pre-pandemic data from large psychiatric cohorts are scarce. Methods Between April 2020 and February 2021, twelve successive online questionnaires wer...
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Background Setting up and conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) has many challenges—particularly trials that include vulnerable individuals with behavioural problems or who reside in facilities that focus on care as opposed to research. These populations are underrepresented in RCTs. Approach In our paper, we describe the challenges and p...
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Introduction: Chronic low-grade inflammation is suggested to play a pathophysiological role in bipolar disorder (BD) and its related cognitive dysfunctions. Although kynurenine (KYN) pathway metabolites are key inflammatory mediators, studies investigating the association between KYN metabolism and cognition in BD are scarce. We aimed to explore t...
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Background: We sought to assess diet quality among people with intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning, living in residential facilities or receiving day care. Methods: We measured diet quality using the Dutch Healthy Diet Food Frequency Questionnaire (DHD) and compared this between participants with (n = 151) and controls...
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Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic interfered in the daily lives of people and is assumed to adversely affect mental health. However, the effects on mood (in)stability of bipolar disorder (BD) patients and the comparison to pre‐COVID‐19 symptom severity levels are unknown. Method Between April and September, 2020, symptoms...
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Background In longitudinal research, switching between diagnoses should be considered when examining patients with depression and anxiety. We investigated course trajectories of affective disorders over a nine-year period, comparing a categorical approach using diagnoses to a dimensional approach using symptom severity. Method Patients with a curr...
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A cross-sectional relationship between low-grade inflammation –characterized by increased blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines– and anxiety has been reported, but the potential longitudinal relationship has been less well studied. We aimed to examine whether basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-)induced levels of inf...
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Background Worldwide, oral contraceptive (OC) use is a very common form of birth control, although it has been associated with symptoms of depression and insomnia. Insomnia is a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD) but may also be a symptom of the disorder. Despite the large number of women who use OC, it is yet unknown whether women wit...
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Background Notwithstanding the firmly established cross-sectional association of happiness with psychiatric disorders and their symptom severity, little is known about their temporal relationships. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether happiness is predictive of subsequent psychiatric disorders and symptom severity (and vice vers...
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Background Observational studies suggest that hormonal contraceptive use may increase depressive symptoms in women, but it is unclear whether the effect is causal. Aims To quantitatively examine the evidence from randomised clinical trials for the link between hormonal contraceptive use and depressive symptoms. Method We performed a systematic re...
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Background Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) effectively improves severity scores of depression, its effects on its individual symptoms has scarcely been studied. We aimed to study which depressive symptom trajectories dynamically cluster together in individuals as well as groups of patients during ECT using Dynamic Time Warp (DTW) analysis....
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Objective: Combined oral contraceptives are often considered a treatment option for women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) also seeking contraception, but evidence for this treatment is scarce. We aimed to determine 1) the level of evidence for the efficacy of combined oral contraceptives in managing preme...
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Background Tryptophan catabolites (“TRYCATs”) produced by the kynurenine pathway (KP) may play a role in depression pathophysiology. Studies comparing TRYCATs levels in depressed subjects and controls provided mixed findings. We examined the association of TRYCATs levels with 1) the presence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), 2) depressive symptom...
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Background: Because of the widespread use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and the devastating effects of depression both on an individual and a societal level, it is crucial to understand the nature of the previously reported relationship between OC use and depression risk. Insight into the impact of analytical choices on the association is important...
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Introduction Feelings of anger and irritability are prominent symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD) that may occur during hypomanic, depressive and, especially, during mixed mood states. We aimed to determine whether such constructs are associated with the conversion to BD in subjects with a history of unipolar depression. Methods Data were derived fr...
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Introduction Cushing’s Disease (CD) is a rare and severe endocrine disease characterized by hypercortisolemia. Previous studies have found structural brain alterations in remitted CD patients compared to healthy controls, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, potential mechanisms through which these persistent alterations ma...
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Background: Given the strong relationship between depression and anxiety, there is an urge to investigate their shared and specific long-term course determinants. The current study aimed to identify and compare the main determinants of the 9-year trajectories of combined and pure depression and anxiety symptom severity. Methods: Respondents with...
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Objective Tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) are implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders by mediating immune-inflammation and neurodegenerative processes. We performed a meta-analysis of TRYCAT levels in bipolar disorder (BD) patients compared to healthy controls. Methods A systematic literature search in seven electronic databases (PubM...
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Background Hypoandrogenic men showed a higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), which could be ascribed to overlapping symptoms such as sexual dysfunction, or additionally to core emotional symptoms such as sadness and anhedonia. We examined whether androgen levels 1) differ between men with and without MDD cross-sectionally, 2) are as...
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Objective Depression has been associated with metabolomic alterations. Depressive and anxiety disorders are often comorbid diagnoses and are suggested to share etiology. We investigated whether differential metabolomic alterations are present between anxiety and depressive disorders, and which clinical characteristics of these disorders are related...
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Objectives Depression both affects physical activity (PA) and cognition in older persons, yet its impact on the association between PA and cognitive decline is to be determined. We aimed to investigate the association between baseline PA and cognitive functioning over time, stratified for depression. Methods We used data of the Netherlands Study o...
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Background Mental well-being, characterized by low depressive symptoms and high dispositional optimism, is a protective factor against (cardiovascular) mortality in the general population. We aimed to assess whether such a relationship is also present in patients who have a history of MI, and whether it is independent of classic CVD risk factors....
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Introduction Aggression and violent incidents are a major concern in psychiatric inpatient care, potentially leading to physical and psychological consequences for both patients and staff. Nutritional supplementation was found to reduce aggressive incidents and rule violations in forensic populations and children with behavioural problems. Objecti...
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Introduction The COVID-19 outbreak poses a challenge for health care professionals due to a surge in care demands, overwork, fear of contagion and concerns on the availability of protective equipment, and coping with distress of patients and their families. Although there is emerging evidence on prevalence of stress and its predictors, less is know...
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Introduction Remitted Cushing’s disease (RCD)-patients commonly continue to present persistent psychological and cognitive deficits, and alterations in brain function and structure. Assessing cortical thickness and surface area of RCD-patients may offer further insight into the neuroanatomical substrates of Cushing’s disease. Objectives To assess...
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Introduction Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular parasite that is estimated to be carried by one-third of the world population. While evidence has been found for a relationship between T. gondii infection and schizophrenia, its relationship with other psychiatric disorders like depressive and anxiety disorders shows inconsist...
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Introduction Social withdrawal is an early and common feature of psychiatric disorders. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activation through increased salivary cortisol (sC) and sympathetic activation through increased salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) may play a role. Objectives We aimed to study whether the link between increased sC and sAA o...
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Introduction The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA, www.nesda.nl) is a longitudinal, multi-site, naturalistic, case-control cohort study set up to examine the etiology, course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders. This paper presents a cohort profile of NESDA. Methods and Results The NESDA sample recruited initiall...
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) has a higher prevalence in women with supraphysiologic androgen levels. Whether there is also an association between depression and androgen levels in the physiological range, is unknown. This study examined if women with current MDD have higher androgen levels compared to women who have never had MDD, and if androge...
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Background : Predicting the onset and course of mood and anxiety disorders is of clinical importance but remains difficult. We compared the predictive performances of traditional logistic regression, basic probabilistic machine learning (ML) methods, and automated ML (Auto-sklearn). Methods : Data were derived from the Netherlands Study of Depress...
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Background : Affective disorders involve dysregulation of major biological stress systems (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, immune system, autonomic nervous system (ANS)). Such dysregulations have rarely been simultaneously examined across different stress systems. Methods : In the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (n=2789), we...
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We investigated whether vitamin-mineral supplementation could reduce serious rule violations. In this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, young adult male inmates were included. For 15 weeks, they received a daily dose with vitamin-mineral supplements of approximately 100% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) ( n = 149), or a higher-dose for...
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Background Considering the heterogeneity of depression, distinct depressive symptom dimensions may be differentially associated with more objective actigraphy-based estimates of physical activity (PA), sleep and circadian rhythm (CR). We examined the association between PA, sleep, and CR assessed with actigraphy and symptom dimensions (i.e. mood/co...
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Objective Irritability is a highly burdensome complaint, commonly, but not universally, linked with depressive symptoms. While increased variability in estradiol has been associated with depressive symptoms during perimenopause, more insight is needed into reproductive hormone dynamics and other factors that predispose perimenopausal women to irrit...
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Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) shows large heterogeneity of symptoms between patients, but within patients, particular symptom clusters may show similar trajectories. While symptom clusters and networks have mostly been studied using cross-sectional designs, temporal dynamics of symptoms within patients may yield information that facili...
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Background The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in people with pre-existing mental health disorders is unclear. In three psychiatry case-control cohorts, we compared the perceived mental health impact and coping and changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, worry, and loneliness before and during the COVID-19 pandemic between people...
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Full-text available
Introduction Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular parasite that is estimated to be carried by one-third of the world population. Latent T. gondii infection has been linked to several neuropsychiatric mood disorders and behaviors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether T. gondii seropositivity is associated with af...
Article
Full-text available
Social withdrawal is an early and common feature of psychiatric disorders. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activation through increased salivary cortisol (sC) and sympathetic activation through increased salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) may play a role. We aimed to study whether the link between increased sC and sAA on the one hand and depres...
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Background Comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders is common. A hypothesis of the network perspective on psychopathology is that comorbidity arises due to the interplay of symptoms shared by both disorders, with overlapping symptoms acting as so-called bridges, funneling symptom activation between symptom clusters of each disorder. Thi...
Article
Background: Nutritional interventions are scarcely used in the prevention and treatment of mental disorders. AIM: To summarize scientific evidence on the relation between nutrition and mental health, across the life span. METHOD: An overview of the literature based on recent knowledge syntheses, meta-analyses and original studies. RESULTS: Healthy...
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Objective: Aggressive behaviour is highly prevalent in long-term psychiatric inpatient care. We aimed to estimate the overall incidence of aggression, the time staff took to handle aggression incidents, and the weighted average financial costs thereof. Methods: A random sampling procedure was conducted at long-term psychiatric inpatient care fac...
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Objective: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a sensitive and clinically practical test but its usefulness in measuring long-term cognitive effects of ECT is unclear. Using the MoCA, we investigated short- and long-term global cognitive change in ECT-treated patients with a Major Depressive Episode (MDE). Methods: We included 65 consecu...
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Importance: First responders are at risk for developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about the risk factors for developing PTSD during a years-long period after complex mass disasters. Objective: To explore the long-term course of PTSD symptoms and to identify risk factors and their relative association with...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term remitted Cushing’s disease (LTRCD) patients commonly continue to present persistent psychological and cognitive deficits, and alterations in brain function and structure. Although previous studies have conducted gray matter volume analyses, assessing cortical thickness and surface area of LTRCD patients may offer further insight into the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Childhood trauma (CT) is a risk factor for depressive and anxiety disorders. Although dysregulated biological stress systems may underlie the enduring effect of CT, the relation between CT and separate and cumulative activity of the major stress systems, namely, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, the immune-inflammatory syst...