Erik Frøkjær

Erik Frøkjær
University of Copenhagen · Department of Computer Science

About

44
Publications
29,271
Reads
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2,035
Citations
Citations since 2016
3 Research Items
625 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100

Publications

Publications (44)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A usability evaluation technique, Cooperative Usability Testing with Questions of Understanding (CUT with QU) intended to illuminate users’ ability to understand the content information of an application is proposed. In complex application domains as for instance the eHealth domain, this issue of users’ content understanding is sometimes crucial, a...
Article
Background Patients suffering from depression have a high risk of relapse and readmission in the weeks following discharge from inpatient wards. Electronic self-monitoring systems that offer patient-communication features are now available to offer daily support to patients, but the usability, acceptability, and adherence to these systems has only...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Preliminary results from a clinical study concerning the feasibility of using a self-monitoring system in psychiatric care are presented. At the end of hospital treatment for depression 32 patients were enrolled in the study. The patients used the self-monitoring system at home during a 4-week period. Data from the case report forms show that a cle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Daybuilder is an experimental smartphone app intended to support people with depression. It was designed in collaboration with six participants who had all received antidepressant medication within the last two years. The Daybuilder prototype was field tested with the same six participants for three to four weeks. All participants were interested i...
Article
Full-text available
To better support usability practice, most usability research focuses on evaluation methods. New ideas in usability research are mostly proposed as new evaluation methods. Many papers describe experiments that compare methods. Comparisons may indicate that some methods have important deficiencies, and thus often advise usability practitioners to pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present DUE (Distributed Usability Evaluation), a technique for collecting and evaluating usability data. The DUE infrastructure involves a client-server network. A client-based tool resides on the workstation of each user, providing a screen video recording, microphone input of voice commentary, and a window for a severity rating. The idea is f...
Article
Matching of usability problem descriptions consists of determining which problem descriptions are similar and which are not. In most comparisons of evaluation methods matching helps determine the overlap among methods and among evaluators. However, matching has received scant attention in usability research and may be fundamentally unreliable. We c...
Article
Full-text available
The evaluator effect names the observation that usability evaluators in similar conditions identify substantially different sets of usability problems. Yet little is known about the factors involved in the evaluator effect. We present a study of 50 novice evaluators' usability tests and subsequent comparisons, in teams and individually, of the resu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The utility and impact of a usability evaluation depend on how well its results align with the business goals of the system under evaluation. However, how to achieve such alignment is not well understood. We propose a simple technique that requires active consideration of a system's business goals in planning and reporting evaluations. The techniqu...
Article
Full-text available
Usability inspection techniques are widely used, but few focus on users' thinking and many are appropriate only for particular devices and use contexts. We present a new technique (MOT) that guides inspection by metaphors of human thinking. The metaphors concern habit, the stream of thought, awareness and associations, the relation between utteranc...
Article
Analyzing usability improvement processes as they take place in real-life organizations is necessary to understand the practice of usability work. This paper describes a case study where the usability of an information system is improved and a relationship between the improvements and the evaluation efforts is established. Results show that evaluat...
Conference Paper
The user interfaces of the most popular search engines are largely the same. Typically, users are presented with an ordered list of documents, which provide limited help if users are having trouble finding the information they need. This article presents an interface called the Venn Diagram Interface (VDI) that offers users improved search transpar...
Conference Paper
Usability is a key issue when developing software, but how to integrate usability work and software development continues to be a problem, which the stakeholders must face. This study aims at developing a more coherent and realistic understanding of the problem based on 14 interviews in three case studies. The results indicate that usability during...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A key challenge when producing usable and useful software is the lack of impact of usability work on software development. We aim at developing a more coherent and realistic understanding of this challenge and the possibilities of how to increase the impact from usability work when developing high quality software products. We present a workshop ga...
Article
Full-text available
Descriptions of problems found in usability evaluations aim to help developers improve an interactive system. However, little is know about what makes a problem description useful to developers. The present paper describes how four developers assessed the utility of 619 usability problems and relates their assessments to characteristics of how prob...
Chapter
This case summarizes the organizational transformations in the Danish mapping, charting and geodata sector from the mid-eighties to the mid- nineties. New products and possibilities raised by information technology were the driving motive behind the ambition to develop an integrated national geographical information system (GIS).
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent criticism of think-aloud testing (TA) discusses discrepancies between theory and practice, the artificiality of the test situation, and inconsistencies in the evaluators' interpretation of the process. Rather than enforcing a more strict TA procedure, we describe Cooperative Usability Testing (CUT), where test users and evaluators join exper...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Usability problems predicted by evaluation techniques are useful input to systems development; it is uncertain whether redesign proposals aimed at alleviating those problems are likewise useful. We present a study of how developers of a large web application assess usability problems and redesign proposals as input to their systems development...
Article
Usability problems predicted by evaluation techniques are useful input to systems development; it is uncertain whether redesign proposals aimed at alleviating those problems are likewise useful. We present a study of how developers of a large web application assess usability problems and redesign proposals as input to their systems development. Pro...
Article
A new usability inspection technique based on metaphors of human thinking has been experimentally compared to heuristic evaluation (HE). The aim of metaphors of thinking (MOT) is to focus inspection on users' mental activity and to make inspection easily applicable to different devices and use contexts. Building on classical introspective psycholog...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Inspection techniques are widely used during systems design as a supplement to empirical evaluations of usability. Psychology-based inspection techniques could give important insights into how thinking shapes interaction, yet most inspection techniques do not explicitly consider users' thinking. We present an experiment comparing two psychology-bas...
Article
Full-text available
Ever feel that you were spinning your wheels improving an interface? You made change after change, enhancement after enhancement, all based on design guidelines and usability testing---but nothing seemed to move the product very far toward helping your ...
Article
Full-text available
Current research on usability evaluation has several limitations, including focusing on the evaluation outcome and on counting usability problems; a realistic understanding of how usability evaluation is used in practice has been largely ignored. We describe some of our recent work on addressing these limitations, including a diary study of evaluat...
Article
Full-text available
Usability problems predicted by evaluation techniques are useful input to systems development; it is uncertain whether redesign proposals aimed at alleviating those problems are likewise useful. We compare problems and redesign proposals as input from usability evaluation into industrial software development, as discussed in the literature. We do s...
Article
Full-text available
We present an exploration of reading patterns and usability in visualizations of electronic documents. Twenty subjects wrote essays and answered questions about scientific documents using an overview+detail, a fisheye, and a linear interface. We study reading patterns by progression maps that visualize the progression of subjects' reading activity,...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract A new usability inspection technique based on metaphors of human thinking (MOT) has been experimentally compared,to heuristic evaluation (HE). The aim of MOT is to focus inspection on users’ mental activity and to make inspection easily applicable to different devices and use contexts. Building upon classical introspective psychology, MOT...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding human thinking is crucial in the design and evaluation of human-computer interaction. Inspired by introspective psychology, we present five metaphors of human thinking. The aim of the metaphors is to help designers consider important traits of human thinking. We illustrate how to use the metaphors for usability evaluation and how good...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Inspection techniques are a useful tool for identifying potential us- ability problems and for integrating at an early stage evaluation with design processes. Most inspection techniques, however, do not consider users' thinking and may only be used for a limited range of devices and use contexts. We pres- ent an inspection technique based on five m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reading of electronic documents is becoming increasingly important as more information is disseminated electronically. We present an experiment that compares the usability of a linear, a fisheye, and an overview+detail interface for electronic documents. Using these interfaces, 20 subjects wrote essays and answered questions about scientific docume...
Article
Full-text available
Effective use of information retrieval systems requires that users know when to - temporarily - cease searching to do some reading and where to start reading. In hierarchically structured documents, users can to some extent interchange searching and reading by entering the text at different levels in the structure. Based on an experiment where 83 s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Usability comprises the aspects effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. The correlations between these aspects are not well understood for complex tasks. We present data from an experiment where 87 subjects solved 20 information retrieval tasks concerning programming problems. The correlation between efficiency, as indicated by task completion...
Article
Full-text available
Usability comprises the aspects effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. The correlations between these aspects are not well understood for complex tasks. We present data from an experiment where 87 subjects solved 20 information retrieval tasks concerning programming problems. The correlation between efficiency, as indicated by task completion...
Article
Full-text available
Thematic maps in the context of information retrieval are tools that graphically present documents and characterising terms. We investigated the usefulness of thematic maps in a laboratory experiment comparing a thematic map with a command language interface. Six subjects solved eight search tasks producing ten hours of logged and tape-recorded dat...
Article
Full-text available
A user interface study concerning the usage effectiveness of selected retrieval modes was conducted using an experimental text retrieval system, TeSS, giving access to online documentation of certain programming tools. Four modes of TeSS were compared: (1) browsing, (2) conventional boolean retrieval, (3) boolean retrieval based on Venn diagrams, a...
Article
Full-text available
Two design ideas concerning information retrieval systems (IRS) for professionals are evaluated. First, we aim to support a professional's document handling. Second, we aim to ease the evolution of the IRS, i.e. allowing it to be modified in a straightforward and flexible way as new requirements arise. The viability of these design ideas are illust...
Article
Full-text available
Since the middle of the 1960s, computer science has been practised in Denmark under Peter Naur's term datalogy, the science of data and data processes. Starting at Regnecentralen and the University of Copenhagen, the Copenhagen Tradition of computer science has developed its own special characteristics by means of a close connection with applicatio...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding human thinking is crucial in the design and evaluation of human-computer interaction. Inspired by introspective psychology, we present five metaphors of human thinking. The aim of the metaphors is to help designers to consider important traits of human thinking when designing. The metaphors capture aspects of human thinking virtually...
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of three methods for uncovering and assessing usability problems has been derived from usage reports from 17 groups of evaluators with 3 evaluators per group. The evaluators were third year computer science students. The methods investigated were Cognitive Walkthrough, Heuristic Evaluation, and Thinking Aloud. The effect of combin...
Article
Full-text available
The World Wide Web has the potential for making scientific information widely available even to people without access to scientific libraries, but using the World Wide Web for this is hard in practice. Possible causes for this are that there is no central repository for scientific papers, that the pa-pers are often not indexed by the World Wide Web...

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