Erica Gold

Erica Gold
California State University, San Marcos | CSUSM · Linguistics

BA, MSc, PhD, FHEA

About

36
Publications
8,673
Reads
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250
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2018 - present
University of Huddersfield
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2014 - present
University of Huddersfield
Position
  • Senior Lecturer in Forensic Speech Science
September 2014 - present
University of Huddersfield
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Modules that I teach on include: Intro to Descriptive Ling, Phonetics and Phonology, & Forensic Phonetics and Forensic Linguistics. I also supervise 3rd year undergrad dissertations.
Education
July 2010 - January 2014
The University of York
Field of study
  • Linguistics - Forensic Speech Science
October 2008 - September 2009
The University of York
Field of study
  • Forensic Speech Science
September 2004 - June 2008
University of California, San Diego
Field of study
  • Linguistics

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
A survey relating to current practices in forensic speaker comparison testing was recently undertaken of 39 laboratories and individual practitioners across 23 coun­ tries. Questions were organised around a number of themes, including the prelimi­ nary assessment and preparation of case materials, the checking of analysts’ work, frameworks used for...
Book
What's the word that describes the process of making supportive noises when you're listening to someone? What is syntax and how does it differ from grammar? Do you know what a morpheme is? And did you know that it's not only an atom that has a nucleus? The Babel Lexicon of Language is an entertaining and accessible introduction to the key terminolo...
Article
Studies that quantify speech tempo on acoustic grounds typically use one of various rate measures. The availability of multiple measurement techniques yields ‘researcher degrees of freedom’ which call the robustness of generalisations across studies into question. However, explicit assessments of the possible impact of researchers’ choices among th...
Article
This study considers regional variation of voice quality in two varieties of British English – Southern Standard British English and West Yorkshire English. A comparison of voice quality profiles for three closely related but not identical northern varieties within West Yorkshire is also considered. Our findings do not contradict the small subset o...
Raw Data
The West Yorkshire Regional English Database (WYRED) consists of approximately 200 hours of high-quality audio recordings of 180 West Yorkshire (British English) speakers. All participants are male between the ages of 18-30, and are divided evenly (60 per region) across three boroughs within West Yorkshire (Northern England): Bradford, Kirklees, an...
Article
Full-text available
No PDF available ABSTRACT This study investigates the vowel spaces of eight native San Diego speakers (four males and four females) that are: born and raised in San Diego County, only lived outside San Diego for a maximum of four years, English dominant speakers, Caucasian, and aged between 23 and 32 (mean = 28.6 years old). All participants were r...
Poster
Full-text available
This paper investigates within and between session variability using a subset of 60 British English male speakers from the WYRED project. Three separate speaking tasks were compared using extracted i-vector PLDA scores within iVOCALISE. Different speaker pairs from contemporaneous (within-session) recordings and non-contemporaneous (between-session...
Poster
Full-text available
This paper explores how intervocalic /t/ is realised across West Yorkshire and aims to establish the extent to which this phonetic variable patterns with other varieties of British English. Although sociolinguists have extensively studied T-glottaling, and variation in /t/ production more generally, in numerous areas of the UK; there are no up-to-d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Studies that quantify speech tempo on acoustic grounds typically use one of various rate measures. Explicit comparisons of the distributions generated by these measures are rare, although they help assess the robustness of generalisations across studies; moreover, for forensic purposes it is valuable to compare measures in terms of their discrimina...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates within and between session variability using a subset of 60 British English male speakers from the WYRED project. Three separate speaking tasks were compared using extracted i-vector PLDA scores within iVOCALISE. Different speaker pairs from contemporaneous (within-session) recordings and non-contemporaneous (between-session...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores how intervocalic /t/ is realised across West Yorkshire and aims to establish the extent to which this phonetic variable patterns with other varieties of British English. Although sociolinguists have extensively studied T-glottaling, and variation in /t/ production more generally, in numerous areas of the UK; there are no up-to-d...
Article
Full-text available
The West Yorkshire Regional English Database (WYRED) consists of approximately 196 hours of high-quality audio recordings of 180 West Yorkshire (British English) speakers. All participants are male between the ages of 18-30, and are divided evenly (60 per region) across three boroughs within West Yorkshire (Northern England): Bradford, Kirklees, an...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying speech parameters that have both a low level of intra-speaker variability and a high level of inter-speaker variability is key when discriminating between individuals in forensic speaker comparison cases. A substantial amount of research in the field of forensic phonetics has been devoted to identifying highly discriminant speaker param...
Article
In the current linguistic literature, West Yorkshire (a county in Northern England) has received relatively little commentary, as it is often overshadowed by other bigger regions and cities like Manchester or Newcastle-upon-Tyne. However, in forensic phonetics, literature on regional variation is often vital to forensic casework. Sociophonetic stud...
Poster
Full-text available
Tasks Collection procedures for the first two tasks closely replicate those used in the Dynamic Variability in Speech (DyViS) project [5] by using maps as visual stimuli to encourage the elicitation of specific phonetic variables. Task 3 is a paired conversation between participants, using topic cards as prompts. Task 4 is an experimental short rec...
Article
Full-text available
Forensically-relevant research on laughter is extremely limited in the literature, however, experts have reported analysing laughter in forensic speaker comparison casework (Gold and French 2011). This paper describes a preliminary investigation into the potential speaker-specificity of laughter. A close social network of 7 undergraduate university...
Poster
Full-text available
An iIntroduction to the WYRED Database and an analysis of 57 speakers’ filled pauses.
Article
Full-text available
The award-winning television drama, The Wire, contains a famous scene in which Detectives Moreland and McNulty discuss the crime scene they are investigating using only variations of a single expletive—fuck. Despite limited vocabulary, viewers are able to extract meaning and interpret the scene. This study considers all of the expletives produced i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In likelihood ratio (LR)-based forensic speaker comparison it is essential to consider correlations between parameters to accurately estimate the overall strength of the evidence. Current approaches attempt to deal with correlations after the computation of LRs (back-end processing). This paper explores alternative, front-end techniques, which cons...
Article
Full-text available
The research presented in this paper builds upon a previous pilot study (Gold and Hughes 2012). This paper explores the correlation structure of speech parameters from a sociolinguistically homogeneous set of male speakers of Southern Standard British English using a series of segmental, suprasegmental and linguistic parameters. Data was extracted...
Article
Across forensic speech science, the likelihood ratio (LR) is increasingly becoming accepted as the logically and legally correct framework for the expression of expert conclusions. However, there remain a number of theoretical and practical shortcomings in the procedures applied for computing LRs based on speech evidence. In this paper we review ho...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the potential of frequency of clicking (the production of velaric ingressive stops) as a possible basis for discriminating among speakers of English by forensic phoneticians. From analyses of clicking behavior among 100 young male speakers of Standard Southern British English (SSBE) recorded in two interactional tasks, it conclu...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the use of long-term formant distributions (LTFD) as a discriminant in forensic speaker comparisons. LTFD are the distributions calculated for all values of each formant for a speaker in a single recording. Spontaneous speech recordings from 100 male speakers of Southern Standard British English, aged 18-25 were analyzed fro...
Article
Methods for the evaluation of evidence in the form of measurements by means of the likelihood ratio are becoming more widespread. There is a paucity of methods for the evaluation of evidence in the form of counts by means of the likelihood ratio. Two suggestions for such methods are described. Examples of their performance are illustrated in the co...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the effects of variability in the amount of reference data used in quantifying the strength of speech evidence using numerical likelihood ratios (LRs). Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) are performed to generate synthetic data from a sample of existing raw local articulation rate (AR) data. LRs are computed as the number of referenc...
Article
Full-text available
The results of the first international survey on forensic speaker comparison practices are presented in this article. Thirty-six experts from thirteen countries and five continents responded to a series of questions concerning their practices in casework. Despite the responses revealing a range of differences, there is, nevertheless, a reasonably s...
Article
This research gathers population statistics on clicks for use in likelihood ratios (LRs). As reported in Gold and French (2011), clicks have been analyzed by 57% of experts in forensic speaker comparison cases and 18% of experts find them to be useful speaker discriminants. Eight minutes of speech from 100 male speakers of Southern Standard British...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The results of the first international survey on forensic speaker comparison practices are presented in this paper. Thirty-four experts from 13 countries and 5 continents responded to a series of questions concerning their practices in casework and which features they found to be useful speaker discriminants. Despite the responses revealing some pr...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
The West Yorkshire Regional English Database (WYRED) will contain recordings of 180 West Yorkshire male speakers from three metropolitan boroughs in the county (Kirklees, Bradford, and Wakefield). The project is hosted at the University of Huddersfield and is funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ES/N003268/1). The primary research aim of the project is to investigate how accents can be generalized for forensic evidence purposes. It will also aim to serve as a unique resource that will shed light on characteristics present in West Yorkshire accents.