Eric F. Wood

Eric F. Wood
Princeton University | PU · Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

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606
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61,141
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Publications

Publications (606)
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Soil moisture (SM) widely varies in space and time. This variability critically influences freshwater availability, agriculture, ecosystem dynamics, climate and land‐atmosphere interactions, and it can also trigger hazards such as droughts, floods, landslides, and aggravate wildfires. Limited SM observational data constrained...
Article
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Previous estimates of tropical forest carbon loss in the twenty-first century using satellite data typically focus on its magnitude, whereas regional loss trajectories and associated drivers are rarely reported. Here we used different high-resolution satellite datasets to show a doubling of gross tropical forest carbon loss worldwide from 0.97 ± 0....
Preprint
In the coming decades, a changing climate, growing global population, and rising food prices will have significant yet uncertain impacts on both water and food security. The loss of high-quality land, the slowing in annual yield of major cereals, and increasing fertilizer use, all indicate that strategies are needed for monitoring and predicting on...
Article
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More than half of the solar energy absorbed by land surfaces is currently used to evaporate water 1. Climate change is expected to intensify the hydrological cycle 2 and to alter evapotranspiration, with implications for ecosystem services and feedback to regional and global climate. Evapotranspiration changes may already be under way, but direct o...
Article
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Soil moisture plays a key role in controlling land-atmosphere interactions, with implications for water resources, agriculture, climate, and ecosystem dynamics. Although soil moisture varies strongly across the landscape, current monitoring capabilities are limited to coarse-scale satellite retrievals and a few regional in-situ networks. Here, we i...
Article
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has great potential for timely monitoring of flood information as it penetrates the clouds during flood events. Moreover, the proliferation of SAR satellites with high spatial and temporal resolution provides a tremendous opportunity to understand the flood risk and its quick response. However, traditional algorithms...
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Better understanding and quantification of river floods for very local and flashy events calls for modeling capability at fine spatial and temporal scales. However, long-term discharge records with a global coverage suitable for extreme events analysis are still lacking. Here, grounded on recent breakthroughs in global runoff hydrology, river model...
Article
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Soil moisture is highly variable in space and time, and deficits (i.e., droughts) play an important role in modulating crop yields. Limited hydroclimate and yield data, however, hamper drought impact monitoring and assessment at the farm field scale. This study demonstrates the potential of using field-scale soil moisture simulations to support hig...
Article
Skillful seasonal climate forecasts can support decision making in water resources management and agricultural planning. In arid and semi‐arid regions, tailoring reliable forecasts has the potential to improve water management by using key hydroclimate variables months in advance. This paper analyzes and compares the performance of two common appro...
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Spatial variability of river network drainage density ( D d ) is a key feature of river systems, yet few existing global hydrography datasets have properly accounted for it. Here, we present a new vector-based global hydrography that reasonably estimates the spatial variability of D d worldwide. It is built by delineating channels from the latest 9...
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Downward shortwave radiation ( R sd ) determines the surface energy balance, alters evapotranspiration and hydrological conditions, and feeds back to the regional and global climate. Large-scale R sd estimates are usually retrieved from satellite based on the top-of-atmosphere radiation and cloud parameters. These estimates are subject to biases an...
Article
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Information about the spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture is critical for many purposes, including monitoring of hydrologic extremes, irrigation scheduling, and prediction of agricultural yields. We evaluated the temporal dynamics of 18 state-of-the-art (quasi-)global near-surface soil moisture products, including six based on satellite ret...
Article
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Agriculture is expanding in tropical mountainous areas, yet its climatic effect is poorly understood. Here, we investigate how elevation regulates the biophysical climate impacts of deforestation over tropical mountainous areas by integrating satellite-observed forest cover changes into a high-resolution land–atmosphere coupled model. We show that...
Article
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All hydrological models need to be calibrated to obtain satisfactory streamflow simulations. Here we present a novel parameter regionalization approach that involves the optimization of transfer equations linking model parameters to climate and landscape characteristics. The optimization was performed in a fully spatially distributed fashion at hig...
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We introduce the Precipitation Probability DISTribution (PPDIST) dataset, a collection of global high-resolution (0.1°) observation-based climatologies (1979-2018) of the occurrence and peak intensity of precipitation (P) at daily and 3-hourly time-scales. The climatologies were produced using neural networks trained with daily P observations from...
Article
Soil Moisture (SM) is a direct measure of agricultural drought. While there are several global SM indices, none of them directly use SM observations in a near-real-time capacity and as an operational tool. This paper presents a near-real-time global SM index monitor based on integrated SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) and SMOS (Soil Moisture and...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
We present a comprehensive global evaluation of monthly precipitation and temperature forecasts from sixteen seasonal forecasting models within the NMME Phase-1 system, using MSWEP-V2 (precipitation) and CRU TS4.01 (temperature) data as reference. We first assessed the forecast skill for lead times of one to eight months using Kling-Gupta Efficienc...
Article
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Abstract Sea level rise (SLR) and subsidence are expected to increase the risk of flooding and reliance on flood defenses for cities built on deltas. Here, we combine reliability analysis with hydrodynamic modeling to quantify the effect of projected relative SLR on dike failures and flood hazards for Shanghai, one of the most exposed delta cities....
Preprint
Full-text available
Soil moisture is highly variable in space, and its deficits (i.e. droughts) plays an important role in modulating crop yields and its variability across landscapes. Limited hydroclimate and yield data, however, hampers drought impact monitoring and assessment at the farmer field-scale. This study demonstrates the potential of field-scale soil moist...
Article
Full-text available
As a key component of terrestrial water cycle, evapotranspiration (ET), specifically over the Amazon River basin, is of high scientific significance. However, due to the sparse observation network and relatively short observational period of eddy covariance data, large uncertainties remain in the spatial-temporal characteristics of ET over the Amaz...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Information about the spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture is critical for many purposes, including monitoring of hydrologic extremes, irrigation scheduling, and prediction of agricultural yields. We evaluated the temporal dynamics of 18 state-of-the-art (quasi-)global near-surface soil moisture products, including six based on sat...
Article
Full-text available
Recent progress in remote sensing has snapshotted unprecedented numbers of river planform geometry, providing opportunity to revisit the oversimplified channel shape parameterizations in global hydrologic models. This study leveraged two recent Landsat-derived global river width databases and created a reach-level width dataset to measure the valid...
Chapter
We undertook a comprehensive evaluation of 22 gridded (quasi-)global (sub-)daily precipitation (P) datasets for the period 2000–2016. Thirteen non-gauge-corrected P datasets were evaluated using daily P gauge observations from 76,086 gauges worldwide. Another nine gauge-corrected datasets were evaluated using hydrological modeling, by calibrating t...
Article
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Passive microwave sensors use a radiative transfer model (RTM) to retrieve soil moisture (SM ) using brightness temperatures (TB) at low microwave frequencies. Vegetation optical depth (VOD) is a key input to the RTM. Retrieval algorithms can analytically invert the RTM using dual-polarized TB measurements to retrieve the VOD and SM concurrently. A...
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Over the past decades, significant changes in temperature and precipitation have been observed, including changes in the mean and extremes. It is critical to understand the trends in hydro-climatic extremes and how they may change in the future as they pose substantial threats to society through impacts on agricultural production, economic losses a...
Article
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Poorly monitored river flows in many regions of the world have been hindering our ability to accurately estimate global water budgets as well as the variability of the global water cycle. In situ gauging sites, as well as a number of satellite-based systems, make observations of river discharge throughout the globe; however, these observations are...
Article
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Hydrological extremes, in the form of droughts and floods, have impacts on a wide range of sectors including water availability, food security, and energy production. Given continuing large impacts of droughts and floods and the expectation for significant regional changes projected in the future, there is an urgent need to provide estimates of pas...
Article
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Wind power, a rapidly growing alternative energy source, has been threatened by reductions in global average surface wind speed, which have been occurring over land since the 1980s, a phenomenon known as global terrestrial stilling. Here, we use wind data from in situ stations worldwide to show that the stilling reversed around 2010 and that global...
Article
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Water scarcity brings tremendous challenges to achieving sustainable development of water resources, food, and energy security, as these sectors are often in competition, especially during drought. Overcoming these challenges requires balancing trade-offs between sectors and improving resilience to drought impacts. An under-appreciated factor in ma...
Article
We introduce a set of global high-resolution (0.05◦) precipitation (P) climatologies corrected for bias using streamflow (Q) observations from 9372 stations worldwide. For each station, we inferred the “true” long-term P using a Budyko curve, an empirical equation relating long-term P, Q, and potential evaporation. We subsequently calculated long-t...
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The highly intermittent and sparse nature of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) river observations in both space and time poses a major challenge to users for most applications. While interpolation/as-similation efforts exist to assemble discrete SWOT river observations into a spatially complete and temporally continuous record, the effi...
Article
The radiative transfer scheme implemented for the retrieval of soil moisture from passive microwaves is a function of scattering, polarization mixing and attenuation effects of soil and vegetation. Theses factors are usually represented by Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD), vegetation scattering albedo, and surface roughness parameter, along with soil...
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Conventional basin‐by‐basin approaches to calibrate hydrologic models are limited to gauged basins and typically result in spatially discontinuous parameter fields. Moreover, the consequent low calibration density in space falls seriously behind the need from present‐day applications like high resolution river hydrodynamic modeling. In this study w...
Article
Simulations of water fluxes at high spatial resolution that consistently cover historical observations, seasonal forecasts, and future climate projections are key to providing climate services aimed at supporting operational and strategic planning, and developing mitigation and adaptation policies. The End-to-end Demonstrator for improved decision-...
Article
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Spatio‐temporally continuous global river discharge estimates across the full spectrum of stream orders are vital to a range of hydrologic applications, yet they remain poorly constrained. Here we present a carefully‐designed modeling effort (VIC land surface model and RAPID river routing model) to estimate global river discharge at very high resol...
Article
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Plain Language Summary Droughts reduce the availability of water, which affects communities and ecosystems worldwide. Recent studies have shown that droughts may travel up to thousands of kilometers across continents, but it is still unclear what are the reasons behind these observed drought displacements. While there may be several reasons, we stu...
Article
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Soils play a critical role in the cycling of water, energy, and carbon in the Earth system. Until recently, due primarily to a lack of soil property maps of a sufficiently high-quality and spatial detail, a minor emphasis has been placed on providing high-resolution measured soil parameter estimates for land surface models and hydrologic models. Th...
Article
A widely‐used approach for estimating actual evapotranspiration (AET) in hydrological and earth system models is to constrain potential evapotranspiration (PET) with a single empirical stress factor (Ω=AET/PET). Ω represents water availability and is fundamentally linked to canopy‐atmosphere coupling. However, the mean and seasonal variability of Ω...
Article
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New precipitation (P) datasets are released regularly, following innovations in weather forecasting models, satellite retrieval methods, and multi-source merging techniques. Using the conterminous US as a case study, we evaluated the performance of 26 gridded (sub-)daily P datasets to obtain insight into the merit of these innovations. The evaluati...
Article
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Since April 2015, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission has monitored near-surface soil moisture, mapping the globe (between 85.044∘N/S) using an L-band (1.4GHz) microwave radiometer in 2–3 days depending on location. Of particular interest to SMAP-based agricultural applications is a monitoring product that assesses the SMAP near-surf...
Article
We investigate the role of moisture transport and recycling in characterizing two recent drought events in Texas (2011) and the Upper Midwest (2012) by analyzing the precipitation, evapotranspiration, precipitable water, and soil moisture data from the Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) analysis. Next, we evaluate the CFSv2 forecasts in term...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have documented that surface wind speed (u) has been increasing over the ocean but decreasing over land for the past several decades. The decreasing u at the surface over land has been referred to as terrestrial stilling. A plausible hypothesis for terrestrial stilling is an increase in surface roughness associated with changes in...
Article
Hydrological forecasts with a high temporal and spatial resolution are required to provide the level of information needed by end users. So far high-resolution multimodel seasonal hydrological forecasts have been unavailable due to 1) lack of availability of high-resolution meteorological seasonal forecasts, requiring temporal and spatial downscali...
Article
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We present new global maps of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification at an unprecedented 1-km resolution for the present-day (1980–2016) and for projected future conditions (2071–2100) under climate change. The present-day map is derived from an ensemble of four high-resolution, topographically-corrected climatic maps. The future map is derived f...
Preprint
Full-text available
New precipitation (P) datasets are released regularly, following innovations in weather forecasting models, satellite retrieval methods, and multi-source merging techniques. Using the conterminous US as a case study, we evaluated the performance of 26 gridded (sub-)daily P datasets to obtain insight in the merit of these innovations. The evaluation...
Article
Full-text available
We present Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation, version 2 (MSWEP V2), a gridded precipitation P dataset spanning 1979–2017. MSWEP V2 is unique in several aspects: i) full global coverage (all land and oceans); ii) high spatial (0.1°) and temporal (3 hourly) resolution; iii) optimal merging of P estimates based on gauges [WorldClim, Global...
Article
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Southeast Asia is a hotspot of tropical deforestation for agriculture. Most of the deforestation is thought to occur in lowland forests, whereas the region’s mountainous highlands undergo very limited deforestation. However, regional reports of cropland expansion in some highland areas suggest that this assumption is inaccurate. Here we investigate...
Article
Farmers are carving a new agricultural frontier from the forests in the Southeast Asian Massif (SAM) in the 21st century, triggering significant environment degradation at the local scale; however, this frontier has been missed by existing global land use and forest loss analyses. In this paper we chose Thailand's Nan Province, which is located in...
Article
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Land surface water and energy fluxes from the ensemble mean of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations of a Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) high-resolution climate model (AM2.5) were evaluated using offline simulations of a calibrated land surface model [Princeton Global Forcing (PGF)/VIC] and intercompared wit...
Article
Sensible heat flux directly influences local and regional climate and can be estimated using remotely sensed satellite observations. Although significant efforts have been made to estimate sensitivity and uncertainty in energy flux estimates at the local and regional scales using both models and algorithms compatible with remotely sensed satellite...
Article
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Anthropogenic warming is anticipated to increase soil moisture drought in the future. However, projections are accompanied by large uncertainty due to varying estimates of future warming. Here, using an ensemble of hydrological and land-surface models, forced with bias-corrected downscaled general circulation model output, we estimate the impacts o...