Eric Sax

Eric Sax
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | KIT · Institute for Information Processing Technologies (ITIV)

Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Systems Engineering for Big Data Analytics + EE-Architectures is key for managing the challenges of embedded systems.

About

246
Publications
39,158
Reads
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1,087
Citations
Citations since 2017
198 Research Items
985 Citations
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Publications

Publications (246)
Chapter
The transition to autonomous driving is one of the major trends for the transformation of the automotive industry. Highly automated features are required to always operate and ensure robust functionality and safety. This raises the challenge for exhaustive training and test data during development, but recording real-world data is not sufficient en...
Preprint
Full-text available
A major challenge in the safety assessment of automated vehicles is to ensure that risk for all traffic participants is as low as possible. A concept that is becoming increasingly popular for testing in automated driving is scenario-based testing. It is founded on the assumption that most time on the road can be seen as uncritical and in mainly cri...
Article
Since interoperability in the operating room (OR) is considered a main factor to increase safety and improve the quality of surgeries, new challenges arise for the medical device industry in this increasingly connected environment. Therefore, new architectural approaches are needed, some of which may be inspired by other domains. In the meantime, n...
Preprint
Modern software development in vehicles is focus-ing on a service-oriented approach. Structuring software systems into self-sufficient software components that provide specific capabilities to the overall system allow software engineers to make changes to vehicle functions more granularly. The decentralized SOA approach offers advantages, as it ena...
Conference Paper
Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are supposed to be continuously updated, besides that they combine many diverse applications by various developers. Accordingly, they require flexible and dynamic software (SW) architectures. With communication paradigms changing from signal-based to service-oriented architectures (SOAs), long-established standards seem no...
Conference Paper
Due to fast progress in information technologies and long lifecycles of vehicles, there are ever-increasing expectations in modern automotive software development regarding the flexibility to integrate updates and new functions quickly into already existing systems. This paper proposes a process, that is especially suitable for the development of n...
Article
Full-text available
To implement new software functions and more flexible updates in the future as well as to provide cloud-based functionality, the service-oriented architecture (SOA) paradigm is increasingly being integrated into automotive electrical and electronic architecture (E/E architectures). In addition to the automotive industry, the medical industry is als...
Chapter
With the introduction of the first available autonomous vehicles, the safety and reliability of these systems becomes even more relevant than it was in regard to driver assistance systems, as the driver is not necessarily available to immediately take over in controlling the vehicle. Especially the environmental perception of the individual vehicle...
Chapter
Vehicle regulations provide uniform provisions to improve road safety and environmental protection. The World Forum for the harmonization of vehicle regulations works continuously on keeping the regulations up to date considering current technological innovations and scientific progress. With the advances in automotive connectivity, cybersecurity e...
Article
Full-text available
Compared to traditional vehicles, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have a limited driving range. Therefore, accurately estimating the range of BEVs is an important requirement to eliminate range anxiety, which describes the driver’s fear of getting stranded. However, range estimators used in currently available BEVs are not accurate enough. To over...
Chapter
Full-text available
Automated driving is widely seen as one of the areas, where key innovations are driven by the application of deep learning. The development of safe and robust deep neural network (DNN) functions requires new validation methods. A core insufficiency of DNNs is the lack of generalization for out-of-distribution datasets. One path to overcome this ins...
Article
Full-text available
With the increasing importance of Over The Air (OTA) updates in the automotive field, maintaining safety standards becomes more challenging as frequent incremental changes of embedded software are regularly integrated into a wide range of vehicle variants. This necessitates new processes and methodologies with a holistic view on the backend , whe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Verification and validation are major challenges for developing automated driving systems. A concept that gets more and more recognized for testing in automated driving is scenario-based testing. However, it introduces the problem of what scenarios are relevant for testing and which are not. This work aims to find relevant, interesting, or critical...
Conference Paper
Even though scenario-based X-in-the-Loop testing has been evaluated in multiple research projects, there are still few application examples in series development projects. Based on current challenges in ADAS/AD testing, five requirements for scenario-based XiL testing are derived. Subsequently, we define and discuss the following three use cases al...
Conference Paper
Mastering a specified operational design domain (ODD) and the continuous increase in automation both require comprehensive perception, prediction, and planning algorithms, thus sophisticated automated vehicle (AV) system architectures. Scenario-based testing is emerging as a promising technique attempting to efficiently run tests on all critical si...
Conference Paper
The medical device industry faces new challenges in an increasingly connected environment. In addition, with interoperable medical devices, flexibility and adaptability are gaining more importance. Meanwhile, to support a higher degree of flexibility for adaptations during and after the development process, new communication paradigms are gaining p...
Chapter
The driverless and electrically powered vehicle concept U-Shift enables a new type of flexibility and efficiency for the mobility of tomorrow by separating the drive unit (driveboard) and transport capsule. In combination with various capsule types, the driveboard is used to transport both people and goods. In a first step, a rollable Mock-up was b...
Conference Paper
With numerous new comfort functions such as infotainment or navigation systems being added to modern car cockpits, touchscreens gradually grew to be the primary input system for automotive UI. However, screen-based UI navigation requires extended visual attention and can thus be a dangerous distraction while driving.In this paper, we describe an in...
Conference Paper
A growing number of attacks and the introduction of new security standards, e.g. ISO 21434, are increasingly shifting the focus of industry and research to the cybersecurity of vehicles. Being cyber-physical systems, compromised vehicles can pose a safety risk to occupants and the environment. Updates over the air and monitoring of the vehicle flee...
Chapter
Driven by the automotive megatrends of connectivity, automation, and shared mobility, the electric and electronic architecture (E/E architecture) of future cars is undergoing a paradigm shift from hardware towards software-based approaches, leading to a service-oriented architecture (SOA). Therefore, the increasing use of software will play a cruci...
Article
Full-text available
Ensuring the quality of automated driving systems is a major challenge the automotive industry faces. In this context, quality defines the degree to which an object meets expectations and requirements. Especially, highly automated and automated vehicles at SAE levels 4 and 5 will be expected to operate safely in various contexts and complex situati...
Conference Paper
Since automated driving functions are safety-critical systems, extensive validation and verification is necessary. Scenario-based testing is a promising approach for this challenge. For selection of relevant scenarios, collected data and knowledge models are potential sources. In this paper we introduce a concept to use recorded trajectory and map...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Automotive software architectures describe distributed functionality by an interaction of software components. One drawback of today’s architectures is their strong integration into the onboard communication network based on predefined dependencies at design time. The idea is to reduce this rigid integration and technological dependencies....
Conference Paper
For city buses one of the key characteristics is their operating range, which among other things can be heavily influenced by the power consumption of the on board heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Especially in the case of battery electric buses (BEBs) the energy consumption of the HVAC system can add up to a similar energy...
Chapter
In Machine Learning, feature selection is paramount to achieve accurate and correct results as well as to reduce the computational effort. As a first step, it can be used to identify erroneous features or features introducing spurious correlation. This also applies to machine learning in an engineering environment. Here, data is often given as mult...
Conference Paper
The validation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Automated Driving Systems (ADS) is a major challenge for the automotive industry. Scenario based testing is a promising validation approach, but relies on a scenario database with a high coverage of possible scenarios. Especially in urban areas, the presence of different traffic object...
Conference Paper
X-in-the-Loop (XiL) tests are a key enabler to scale up testing width and depth as a supplement of Proving Ground (PG) tests for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Since simulation models are major building blocks in XiL, the question of simulation validity is gaining importance. In this contribution, a validity argumentation for a concrete...
Conference Paper
Due to the increasing electronic and software portions in Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs), such as highly automated cars, and their safety-criticality, thorough verification and validation activities are an essential part of their development process. Meanwhile, software life cycles are getting shorter, and Over The Air updates are becoming state of...
Conference Paper
Automotive trends, such as autonomous and connected driving, are increasing the number of sensors to percept the environment precisely. To support automated driving functions, vehicles share information via wireless interfaces (e.g., cellular) with Other Road Users (ORUs). This growing degree of connectivity also increases the risk of cyberattacks....
Conference Paper
The lifecycles of software updates for Cyber Physical Systems are significantly decreasing. Especially for safety-critical functions, these must be carefully tested for compatibility to target configurations. In order to formalize the requirements of the system and to validate software changes in a modular way, contract-based design can be used for...
Preprint
In recent years, the development of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) has progressed rapidly. In order to make use of the advantages of self-driving busses, it is necessary to prepare the bus depots for automated vehicles. The aim of this paper is to investigate the associated optimization potential, to use it to raise the attention to the...
Chapter
Battery electric buses (BEB) will increasingly replace buses with internal combustion engines in the fleets of transport companies. However, range prevents the application of BEB on all bus routes. Auxiliary consumers highly affect the range and the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system plays a major role within all. The high ener...
Chapter
This paper presents the results of an experiment which examines the user acceptance on highly and fully automated smart vehicle comfort functionalities in frequent and routine situations. Participants of the study (n = 75) were randomly assigned to read a short vignette that described routine scenarios involving either a fully or a highly automated...
Chapter
This paper presents the general concept and the prototypical implementation for generating data for testing self-learning functions. The concept offers the possibility to create a data set consisting of several different data providers. For this purpose, a mediation pattern adapted to the data generation was developed. The concept was applied to te...
Chapter
The expense of treating cardiovascular diseases is significant. For example, sediments on the coronary arteries’ inner walls are among the most common risks of a heart attack. One possible treatment includes cardiovascular implants or stents. Stents are manufactured by a braiding process and afterward inspected for defects by human visual inspectio...
Conference Paper
In addition to the megatrends electrification, automation and connectivity, the whole mobility business model is experiencing substantial transformation through increasing car sharing services, less individual traffic and introducing new environmental protection measures. This leads to new modular vehicle concepts. These new modular and reconfigura...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ensuring the safety and performance requirements of automated driving systems is a major challenge for the automotive industry. One way to tackle this problem is a simulation-based approach. However, to be able to rely on results generated by this method, the simulation process needs to fulfill certain quality criteria depending on the intended usa...
Preprint
Ensuring the functional correctness and safety of autonomous vehicles is a major challenge for the automotive industry. However, exhaustive physical test drives are not feasible, as billions of driven kilometers would be required to obtain reliable results. Scenariobased testing is an approach to tackle this problem and reduce necessary test drives...
Chapter
As the importance of electronics and software in automobiles grows, software maturity becomes an increasing challenge. To avoid the delays of production starts as well as recalls, new development processes are needed. To increase the testing abilities the compatibility between different development releases of electronic control units must be impro...
Chapter
Forward Collision Warning (FCW) is an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) designed to prevent or reduce the severity of a collision by providing early warnings to the driver. The core algorithm of a FCW-system is based on the distance between the vehicle and the obstacle as a warning threshold. Since the system assumes a particular reaction ti...
Chapter
Infrastructure supported autonomous driving is getting in the focus of current research. In this work, we investigated the usage of a traffic monitoring infrastructure combined with the environmental model of an autonomous driving vehicle for localization. The forwarded environmental model of the infrastructure contains tracked road users, but the...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicles are becoming increasingly intelligent and connected. Interfaces for communication with the vehicle, such as WiFi and 5G, enable seamless integration into the user’s life, but also cyber attacks on the vehicle. Therefore, research is working on in-vehicle countermeasures such as authentication, access controls, or intrusion detection. Recen...
Chapter
Contents Ways to achieve Zero Emission ZF E-Mobility products and software for commercial vehicles ..... 1 Thermoelectric generators for heavy-duty vehicles as an economical waste heat recovery system ..... 17 Hybridization of heavy duty trucks – Market analysis and technology for high voltage as well as low voltage solutions ..... 33 Development p...
Article
Full-text available
New requirements from the customers' and manufacturers' point of view such as adding new software functions during the product life cycle require a transformed architecture design for future vehicles. The paradigm of signal-oriented communication established for many years will increasingly be replaced by service-oriented approaches in order to inc...
Conference Paper
Software updates are indispensable for the con- tinuous development of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS): They allow for low-cost bug-fixing, fast adaptation to new or changing environments, or adding new functionality throughout the CPS’s life-cycle. Due to the urgent need for some safety-critical updates, their verification and validation may need to...
Conference Paper
The increasing level of connectivity within vehicles and their environment such as backend or infrastructure increases the risk of potential vulnerabilities regarding information security. In order to minimize these risks, vehicle manufacturers are forced to implement appropriate countermeasures, which are increasingly embedded in approval regulati...